can you finish it within one week time. or less please.

Responses to climate change.

Essay due date: This essay is due at your Week #6 laboratory session.  Prepare and submit a hard copy to your instructor, but before the time of your scheduled lab session, submit your essay file into the “SafeAssignment” folder designated for your lab section on Blackboard.

General introduction and background: Increased emissions of greenhouse gases since the industrial revolution have led as predicted to increased global average temperatures, with complex local dynamics (the climate effects are not uniform). There are countless examples of animals and plants changing their migration, timing of life cycle events, and distributional ranges as climate has warmed, especially over the last 50 years. For this essay you will explore how one species, genus, family, order or class of organism has been, or is predicted to be, affected, ecologically or evolutionarily, by climate change. Ecological changes include changes in population size, geographic range, exposure to predators, herbivores, competitors or parasites, life history traits (reproduction or longevity) and role in ecological communities. Evolutionary changes include genetic changes in behavior, form or physiology in response to climate shifts. Living organisms’ ability to adapt will affect their persistence and ecosystem function (as agricultural pests, keystone species, etc.). There are several ways these questions have been addressed; observational studies (such as correlations between population or individual performance in warmer and cooler years), indirect inferences of historical abundance, laboratory or field experiments of the effects of temperature or CO2 levels, simulation models that include different effects of climate variables. For this essay you will investigate either ecological or evolutionary change/s in the face of climate change.

Your objective in developing this essay: Write a full two-page essay (three page maximum, of a concise, information-filled essay) focusing on the question of how a single species or higher taxonomic group of organisms has been affected by recent warming. 
 
Topics can include:
Changes in breeding date in birds vs timing of food availability (focus on one species or species pair, this is sometimes called the ‘mismatch hypothesis)
Changes in reptile (turtles) nesting behavior under changing temperatures
Changes in species migratory patterns
Changes in response to invasive species
Changes in species range (historical record for trees is often good)
Biotic (interactions) vs abiotic (temperature, seasonality) effects on species
Be sure that the information you provide is fully documented with references cited in proper format (see below).  

Developing your topic: The 2006 science commentary by Bradley and Holzapfel is a good introduction that everyone should read to understand the topic. I include some other recent reviews of the subject that you can use if they are helpful. Select only one of the above topics to explore, or choose another with the help (and go-ahead) of your instructor, and focus on one or two examples (species). If you are fortunate, you may find some “primary” literature, which is an article appearing in an edited journal, where the article has been “peer reviewed.”  Google Scholar is a good place to start, but be careful because it is loaded with “old” material, much of which may not be relevant. Web of Science (qc library\databases) is the search engine used by most organismal biologists to search the primary literature. 

Be careful in your use of websites and the information they contain, as many are not reliable and even-handed, particularly with sensitive issues. 
Questions to address when reading primary literature: 
Is this an experimental or theoretical (modeling) study
If it’s a model, how reasonable or well founded are the assumptions?
How might adding an experiment help?
Is this documenting a change that has happened or predicting a change?
What might be an alternative explanation for any change?

Developing the story for your essay: Look over the “rubric” that is posted to Blackboard and use it as a guide as to how the essay will be graded.

The essay is to be written in grammatically correct English, with complete sentences, proper punctuation and correct spelling.  Be sure to use your word processor’s spell and grammar checker. In the first paragraph, briefly introduce and describe the issue of primary concern, in this case, the potential climate effect. This should be followed by a brief description of your species; its biology and ecological role, perhaps its notoriety as a pest or beneficial organism.

Develop your thoughts logically and lead to a clear statement of your conclusions. The essay, being of limited length, should develop and tell a story while being concise. Have the article’s authors presented ideas or hypotheses relevant to the particular situation you are exploring?  Are there conflicts of opinion expressed by different authors?  Do not be repetitive!  Remember to cite references within the text (See below).  Be careful not to plagiarize.

Technical details in preparing the essay: Write a minimum of two full-pages (maximum of three pages) excluding references. 
 
References are cited, using proper formatting, within the text as appropriate and that same reference must be fully cited on a separate page titled “References Cited.”  (See below).  

The essay is to be printed in 12 point Times or New Times Roman font, double-spaced, on standard 8.5” X 11” paper.  Margins are to be 1” (top, bottom and sides).

Place your name, the title (write only “Essay #1”), lab section code and due date on a single, uppermost line of the first page, then skip one line and begin your essay.  Number your pages and place one staple in the upper left corner. Do not prepare a separate cover page or use a folder or plastic cover.  

Citing references in the text and in the “References Cited” final page:  Be consistent and use “The Chicago Manual of Style” format (Refer to one or more of the following for details)
HYPERLINK “http://library.williams.edu/citing/styles/chicago2.php” http://library.williams.edu/citing/styles/chicago2.php
HYPERLINK “http://library.osu.edu/sites/guides/chicagogd.php” http://library.osu.edu/sites/guides/chicagogd.php
HYPERLINK “http://www.chicagomanualofstyle.org/tools_citationguide.html” http://www.chicagomanualofstyle.org/tools_citationguide.html

In your text, any direct quotation or statement taken from another’s work must be set within quotation marks and the citation placed at the end of the sentence.  Be most judicious in your use of quotations, and if used, they should be short.

For example, should you utilize a sentence from your textbook, you would place it in “…..” followed by ….(Sadava et al., 2011, page #).  If your sentence is not a direct quote but the source of an idea, omit the page number reference in the citation.  Paraphrased ideas are to be referenced, but not in quotations. 

On the “References Cited” page, you would place the citation in an appropriate format as described above in “The Chicago Manual of Style.”
 
All electronic resources must be cited, giving the author, article title, web site address and date on which it was accessed.   Simply citing a URL is not acceptable.  Refer to the above links for instructions.

How to earn a failing grade for this assignment/and perhaps the entire course:  

Plagiarize:  Be sure that you know the definition of plagiarism.

Do not submit on time.  You will lose one letter grade (10 points) per day of lateness.

How to get an A, or at least gain something from the assignment. 

The challenge for this assignment is to read at least one primary literature paper critically. This means you can explain at least part of it in your own words (not quotes, not even a tight paraphrase, but clearly in your own words), understand the question, explain why it’s important, and, do either or both of the following
Find weaknesses in the study, or the interpretation of the data
Think of an interesting question, or follow-up study, based on the results of what you have read.
Good luck!

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