Outsourcing has become increasingly attractive for many organizations. In such relationship, a company contracts with a vendor that rents its skills, knowledge, technology, service and manpower for an agreed-upon price….
Business Process Outsourcing in the Philippines
CHAPTER 1 THE PROBLEM AND ITS SCOPE INTRODUCTION Rationale of the Study Paternalistic management approach is a father-like treatment but gives a certain amount of freedom. It is a type of leadership style that focuses more on the welfare of patients but gives a firm decision for everyone. It is a modification of an autocratic management yet it provides patients feedback. A typical paternalistic management approach gives exact details as to why there are certain actions to be taken in managing patients in a certain way.
It has been practiced for so many years by many medical professions. Although, this approach still finds an opposition, it continued to thrive as an effective approach in dealing with some difficult patients. Most Filipino workers find a Business Process Outsourcing (BPO) company as a source of income in today’s century. The Business Process Outsourcing (BPO) company hires call center agents in the local area. The nature of their work is taking calls from the clients and providing information to the consumers. It is a high paying job with health insurance and benefits.
Some people chose this kind of work even though it has some disadvantages. Call center agents encountered health problems while working in their designated area. A clinic break is a privilege in some Business Process Outsourcing (BPO) companies. Some call center agents use this clinic break when they are not feeling well. But some of them abuse this privilege just to avoid taking calls or even to avoid going to work. These patients usually complained of being sick or any other illnesses just to be excused from their own work. Company nurses find it quite difficult in handling this kind of condition in the clinic.
As a nurse working in a company, one has to do something in making decision for the best interest of the patient and for the productivity of the company. A company nurse must be able to understand the line of work especially in dealing with difficult patients. For instance, in a company, some call center agents are just malingering. Malingering is trying to escape from their work and has to use some means for their own personal benefit. A company nurse must be able to distinguish and find an effective solution to deal with this kind of situation.
At times, it is difficult to comprehend the nature of such illness every time a patient complained of being sick. The company nurse has an authority to send home call center agents when they are actually ill. The problem arises when some call center agents pretended they are sick. Thus, a company nurse must assess the patient before the call center agent will be sent home. The researcher chose to conduct a study about paternalistic management approach of company nurses in a Business Process Outsourcing (BPO) Company. This to determine on how it will help the company nurses in dealing with these patients.
The researcher has personal experiences in dealing with malingering patients. The researcher is inquisitive and is willing to learn for the betterment of the welfare of others. Also, the researcher is competent to gather the needed data since she has been working for two consecutive years in a Business Process Outsourcing (BPO) company. Furthermore, the researcher believed that it is a good thing to cater the needs of everyone regardless if it’s true or not. A good company nurse is willing to serve for whatever purpose it will lead. Malingering is just a tactical method of a patient that is needed to be understood.
The need of the patient should be provided since service is the key in nursing. Theoretical Background This study is anchored on the paternalistic management approach of company nurses in Business Process Outsourcing (BPO) Company. Paternalistic management style In a nutshell this management style tells the people what is best for them. This may sound the same as the autocratic style, but with the Paternalistic style of management, the business leaders are looking for the input of their employees. The business leader will make the final decision but not without careful consideration of the feedback.
This gives the employees the opportunity to voice their opinions and ideas. This also allows for more awareness of the employees needs, as people rather than just plain business (Montana, 2008). Paternalistic management style has the same authoritarian dynamic. It is a bit more warm and fuzzy in its approach. It is like being at home with parents that are involved in every aspect of your life. Higher likelihood that employees will be motivated or feel some loyalty based on the concern shown towards them by management (www. universitydissertations. com).
Paternalism is the interference of a state or an individual with another person, against their will, and defended or motivated by a claim that the person interfered with will be better off or protected from harm. The issue of paternalism arises with respect to restrictions by the law such as anti-drug legislation, the compulsory wearing of seatbelts, and in medical contexts by the withholding of relevant information concerning a patient’s condition by physicians. At the theoretical level it raises questions of how persons should be treated when they are less than fully rational (Husak, 2003).
If one believes that sometimes paternalism is justifiable one may do so for various kinds of theoretical reasons. The broadest is simply consequentialist, i. e. more good than harm is produced. A narrower justification is that sometimes the individuals (long-run) autonomy is advanced by restricting his autonomy (short-run). So one might prevent people from taking mind-destroying drugs on the grounds that allowing them to do so destroys their autonomy and preventing them from doing so preserves it. This is essentially Mill’s argument against allowing people to contract into slavery.
Note that if the theory of the good associated with a particular consequentialism is broad enough, i. e. , includes autonomy as one of the goods, it can be equivalent to the autonomy theory (assuming that the structure of the autonomy view is a maximizing one). A different theoretical basis is (moral) contractualism. On this view if there are cases of justified paternalism they are justified on the basis that we (all of us) would agree to such interference, given suitable knowledge and suitable motivation.
So, for instance, it might be argued that since we know we are subject to depression we all would agree, at least, to short-term anti-suicide interventions, to determine whether we are suffering from such a condition, and to attempt to cure it. More generally, we might accept what Feinberg called “soft paternalism. ” This is the view that when we are not acting fully voluntarily it is permissible to intervene to provide information, or to point out defects in our rationality, but that if we then do make a voluntary choice it must be respected.
Or we might agree to being forced to wear seat-belts knowing our disposition to discount future benefits for present ones. The justification here is neither consequentialist nor based simply on the preservation of autonomy. Rather either kind of consideration may be taken into account, as well as others, in determining what we would reasonably agree to (Sunstein, 2003). When managers try to act as father figures to their employees, they are practicing paternalistic management approach. These managers often give attention to their employees’ social needs to maintain engagement and productivity.
Paternalistic management training style also involves decision making without employee consultation. The only difference it has with authoritarian style is that decisions are made considering the employee’s best interests. Although employees did not have decision making participation, their welfare was considered, thus increasing employee motivation. Most of the time, surveys and investigations are conducted to know how employees will take a certain decision especially when changes are implemented (www. ehow. com). Paternalistic managers give more attention to the social needs and views of their workers.
Managers are interested in how happy workers feel and in many ways they act as a father figure (pater means father in Latin). They consult employees over issues and listen to their feedback or opinions. The manager will however make the actual decisions (in the best interests of the workers) as they believe the staff still need direction and in this way it is still somewhat of an autocratic approach. The style is closely linked with Mayo’s Human Relation view of motivation and also the social needs of Maslow (www. tutor2u. net). However, there’s more to influencing than just passing along orders.
The example you set is just as important as the words you utter. And you set an example – either good or bad – with every action you take and word you speak, on or off duty. By using your words and example, you must communicate purpose, direction, and motivation to them. Whilst “paternalism” is defined as a kind of system under which an authority undertakes to supply necessities or regulate conduct of those under its control in matters of affecting them as individuals as well as in their relationships to authority and to each other.
Thus paternalism is to supply needs for those under its protection or command, while leadership is to get things done. Paternalism is directed inwards, while leadership is directed outwards (www. ed-leadership. com). In its paternal aspect, it harkens in the line of a father being firm though has good intentions in the life of one’s children and in the business limelight, the employees. The typical paternalistic manager most of the time explains the specific reason as to why he has taken certain actions in management and for his employees (Sullivan, 2005).
Two-factor theory distinguishes between: Motivators (e. g. , challenging work, recognition, responsibility) that give positive satisfaction, arising from intrinsic conditions of the job itself, such as recognition, achievement, or personal growth, and Hygiene factors (e. g. status, job security, salary, fringe benefits, work conditions) that do not give positive satisfaction, though dissatisfaction results from their absence. These are extrinsic to the work itself, and include aspects such as company policies, supervisory practices, or wages/salary.
Essentially, hygiene factors are needed to ensure an employee is not dissatisfied. Motivation factors are needed to motivate an employee to higher performance. Herzberg also further classified our actions and how and why we do them, for example, if you perform a work related action because you have to then that is classed as movement, but if you perform a work related action because you want to then that is classed as motivation (www. netmba. com).
Health promotion is defined as behavior motivated by the desire to increase well-being and actualize human health potential. It is an approach to wellness. On the other hand, health protection or illness prevention is described as behavior motivated desire to actively avoid illness, detect it early, or maintain functioning within the constraints of illness (Kozier, 2004). Health promotion services are essential for improving the health of populations everywhere.
It is noted that people of all ages can benefit from the health promotion care, which should be delivered at sites where people spend much of their time (eg schools and workplaces). Nurses can develop and execute health promoting interventions to individuals, groups, and families in schools, nursing centers, occupational health settings and the community at large. Nurses should work toward empowerment for self care and enhancing the client’s capacity for self care through education and development (Wills,2007).
Business process outsourcing or BPO is one of the fastest growing industries worldwide and this is especially true in the Philippines where offshore call center outsourcing services have led the business process outsourcing industry into tremendous growth. The Philippines is has proven to be an excellent venue for offshore call center outsourcing services for three important reasons: the country’s low labor costs, presence of reliable technology and availability of college graduates who posses high level of English and IT skills.
Call centers in the Philippines operate 24 hours a day, 7 days a week. They handle inbound and outbound calls and are able to offer multilingual offshore call center outsourcing services in different fields of business to include customer care, marketing, sales, technical support, among others. Offshore call center outsourcing services in the Philippines cater to various industries such as retail, financial services, technology, travel and hospitality and telecommunications, among others (www. piton-global. com).
The Filipino call center industry has helped the country move up the ladders of technological advancement and living standards, leaving its fellow developing countries behind. In the rat race of development, the arrival of the Filipino call center has made such an impact to the once laid-back, culturally torn, and politically chaotic nation. It is therefore right to say that the Filipino call center and BPO industry is a breakthrough for Philippine society and a blessing to its people. What basically makes the industry a breakthrough is its ability to address unemployment in significant percentages.
Although it is true that several turnovers occur, the number of hired Filipino call center workers, along with the growing number of call centers that are launching mass recruitment campaigns, are big enough to overshadow turnover incidences. The Filipino call center and BPO industry has been the undisputed number 1 employer for years now and, in view of its current position as the leading BPO hub in the world, it will continue to do so for many years to come. That in itself will make Filipino call center agents proud to be part of this breakthrough undertaking.
As for being blessed, anyone who has worked in the Filipino call center industry and stayed there longer would attest to that. Many in the Filipino call center labor force are very grateful that their work is able to pay their monthly bills, send their children to school, or support their families living somewhere in the provinces. Work in Filipino call centers is also a favorable set up for the young and dynamic, who can keep up with the latest gigs as well as maintain their upbeat lifestyle.
One of the problems faced by the Filipino call center industry is the fast turnover of its agents. At a distance, this seems like an uncontrollable problem. The real deal is that attrition in the industry can be prevented, if not solved. What management has to do is to assess the important fact surrounding the Filipino call center workforce: majority of them are young. The youth has a set of common traits that make them prone to employment dilemmas. Being young is always accompanied by a sense of dynamism and adventure.
Working in a Filipino call center company may frustrate them in the long run. For one thing, Filipino call center agents just stay in one place for the whole of eight hours. The routinary tasks of reading scripts daily, updating call leads, and filling information in the call log, and other repetitive speech and duties make young people working for Filipino call centers feel as if their life is being compromised. Thus, they would once more search for jobs that will afford them utmost freedom or at least provide them with enough motivation to work.
Furthermore, there is a growing trend of materialism among them because the industry they belong to pays higher than the rest – even the government for that matter. Most Filipino call center firms are also situated at highly commercialized areas or economic zones, through which famous restaurants and coffee shops, top brands, and dusk-‘til-dawn bars plough their trade. One of the challenges of employers is to divert the attention of these young workers from such a worldly culture and bring back their purpose-driven and career-oriented idealism (www. filipinocallcenter. om). The above theories and literature served as the backbone of this study and this will serve as a basis for conducting a study to determine the paternalistic management approach of company nurses in a Business Process Outsourcing (BPO) company. THE PROBLEM Statement of the Problem This study will determine paternalistic management approach of company nurses in a Business Process Outsourcing (BPO) company. Specifically, this study will seek answers to the following inquiries: 1. What is the background characteristics of the respondents in terms of: 2. age; 2. 2 gender; 2. 3 civil status; 2. 4 years of formal education? 2. What is the level of knowledge of the respondents on Paternalistic Approach of Management? 3. What is the level of Paternalistic Approach Practices of the respondents? 4. Is there a significant relationship between the following: 5. 5 Profile and Level of Knowledge 5. 6 Profile and Level of Practice 5. 7 Level of Knowledge and Level of Practice? 5. How has the Paternalistic approach influenced the working relationship between the respondents and the call center agents? 6.
How has the call-center agents responded to the Paternalistic Approach of the respondents? Statement of the Null Hypothesis Ho1. There is no significant relationship between the following: 1. 1 Profile and Level of Knowledge; 1. 2 Profile and Level of Practice; 1. 3 Level of Knowledge and Level of Practice. Significance of the Study Paternalistic management approach can be a great help in terms of dealing in a difficult situation. Thus, a nurse must be able to comprehend the needs of every patient visiting the clinic. The result of the study would benefit the following:
The Company Nurses. They will find some methods or approaches in treating and caring for their patients. They will also be able to facilitate on improving some of the clinic policies regarding health issues of their patients. The Call Center Agents/Workers. This study will be able for them to appreciate the importance of health and its benefits when given proper treatment and proper evaluation. The Team Leaders of each Operation. They will give awareness in dealing with their agents who frequently visited the clinic The Administrators of Business Process Outsourcing (BPO) Company.
They will find ways and means to cater the needs of their employees regarding health issues and health problems. The Researcher. Through this study the researcher will be able to give some insights about health management and approaches. Future Researchers. This study will serve as future reference for further research study in the future. RESEARCH METHODOLOGY Research Design This study will utilize the descriptive-correlational survey method using qualitative and quantitative approaches to determine the paternalistic management approach of company nurses in a Business Process Outsourcing company.
Research Environment This study will be conducted at Wipro BPO Phils. , located at Cebu Business Park in Cebu City and headed by its country head Mr. Gupta Romit (an Indian citizen). Mr. Rex Bispo is the senior manager of Wipro BPO Phils. Branch of Cebu. Since there are Wipro companies situated all over the world. The company started its operation in January 2008 with 400-500 employees at that time. The company occupied the ground floor, 9th floor, 10th floor, 11th floor and 12th floor in the building. The clinic is located at the 11th floor and is manned by a registered nurse.
The clinic schedule is 24/7, from Monday to Sunday and it is even open during holidays. The employees ask some over the counter medicines in the clinic to aid their condition. Since they are allowed to have an hour rest for the day, they will have to ask permission from their team leaders or supervisors to do so. Now, there are 700-1000 employees working at Wipro BPO Phils. And even have another branch in Manila which started their operation on 2010. Research Respondents This study included 3 company nurses as key informants.
They will answer the Part I-IV of the questionnaire. There will be 8 selective call-center agents as the respondents for the Part V of the research tool. This study used a universal sampling in gathering data. Research Instrument The study will use a researcher-made questionnaire to be used as an interview guide. The questionnaire will be divided into 5 different sets. The Part I is the profile of the key informants. The Part II is for the Level of Knowledge with its parameter limit. The Part III is the Level of Practice with its parameter limit.
The Part IV is based on the Influenced of paternalistic management approach using qualitative questions. The Part V is the response of the Call Center agents regarding the paternalistic management approach using qualitative questions. Research Procedures Data Gathering The researcher will make transmittal letters in allowing a research study. These letters of requests are for asking permission to conduct a survey. Pre-testing will be done. After the pre-testing, the questionnaire will be then revised to fit for the actual study.
The questionnaire included important queries to relate to the study of Paternalistic Management Approach of Company Nurses in Business Process Outsourcing Company. The questionnaire will be then distributed to company nurses and selective call center agents. Each respondent will be given 20-25 minutes to answer the researcher-made questionnaire. The researcher will be visiting everyday for data gathering. After the retrieval of the questionnaire, it will be tallied, tabulated, analyzed and then interpreted as based on the gathered data. Data Analysis
To get the result of demographic profile of the company nurses, Simple Percentage will be used. To determine the responses rating of company nurses in the Level of Knowledge and the Level of Practice, Weighted Mean will be used. It will be then categorized and given weight using a “Likert’s Four Point Rating Scale” The assigned equivalent weights of the responses will be: Level of KnowledgeLevel of Practice 4= Very Important4= Often 3= Important3= Sometimes 2= Unimportant2= Seldom 1=Very Unimportant1= Never The parameter of every response category will be defined through these limits: Level of Knowledge
Lower Limit| Upper Limit| Response Category| Interpretation| 3. 26| 4. 00| Very Important| Very Good| 2. 51| 3. 25| Important| Good| 1. 76| 2. 50| Unimportant| Fair| 1. 00| 1. 75| Very Unimportant| Poor| level of Practice Lower Limit| Upper Limit| Response Category| Interpretation| 3. 26| 4. 00| Often| Very Good| 2. 51| 3. 25| Sometimes| Good| 1. 76| 2. 50| Seldom| Fair| 1. 00| 1. 75| Never| Poor| The Chi-Square will be utilized to determine the relationship between the Profile and Level of Knowledge, and Profile and Level of Practice.
To determine the relationship between the Level of Knowledge and Level of Practice of company nurses, the Pearson-r will be used. The Thematic Content Analysis will be utilized to get the result of the responses of Part IV and Part V of the research tool. DEFINITON OF TERMS For a clear understanding of the thesis, the following terms are defined operationally. Background Characteristics-is the description of the key informants who are being studied. It is use to identify age, gender, civil status and years of formal education.
Call Center Agents – means people that are hired in a Business Process Outsourcing (BPO) company. Their opinions and views are being studied regarding the Paternalistic Management Approach. Company Nurses-emphasizes the key informants of this study. They are registered nurses working in a Business Process Outsourcing (BPO) company. Influence –refers to the outcome of Paternalistic Management Approach between the working relationship of Company Nurses and the Call Center Agents. Knowledge on Paternalistic Approach- implies on the understanding of Paternalistic Management Approach.
Level of Knowledge- means the degree of understanding about Paternalistic Management Approach of Company Nurses working in a Business Process Outsourcing (BPO). Having variables of very important, important, unimportant, and very unimportant. Level of Paternalistic Approach Practice- refers to the degree of a repeated action of Paternalistic Management Approach of Company Nurses working in a Business Process Outsourcing (BPO) company. Paternalistic Approach- means a father-figure kind of a method which has a softer side when company nurses are dealing with patients who are working in a Business Process Outsourcing (BPO) company.
Paternalistic Approach Practice- implies on the repeated action of the Company Nurses using Paternalistic Management Approach in a Business Process Outsourcing (BPO) company. Respondents- are the key informants of this study. The Company nurses are the one who are being studied. Response-refers to the reaction of the Call Center Agents regarding the Paternalistic Management Approach as practiced by Company Nurses in a Business Process Outsourcing (BPO) company.