P&G Case Study

P&G Case Study

P&G Case Study

Procter and Gamble Company simply known as P&G is among the leading companies in consumer products across the globe. The company which was founded by William Procter and James Gamble in Ohio in the United States in 1837 has been in existence for close to two decades now (Zangenehpour, 2013). It operates worldwide, and its trusted brands reach consumers of all over the world. There is no company that can manage to remain on its feet for 181 years without proper management and the right strategies in place especially with the ever-rising competition in the international market. A case study on the manner in which P&G is structured in two of its biggest markets; US and Europe and an analysis of its international strategies global strategy, multi-domestic strategy and transnational strategy will offer a clearer picture of how P&G has managed to overcome international market challenges and remain in force for such a long time.

Research indicates that the organizational structure in P&G in the US was initially a simple structure. To a large extent, the structure was informal as production and distribution were personally managed. Later on, the company introduced Brand managers as part of organizational structure a move that prompted a shift to a product grouping organizational structure (Mezgobo, 2011). With time, P&G changed its organizational structure yet again to a matrix. Unlike in the US, in Europe, the structure was that of geographical grouping. According to Mezgobo (2011), this structure entailed three dimensions namely; brand, function, and country whereby each dimension had managers with varying responsibilities. Unfortunately, as indicated by further research, the structure turned out to be slow, and the company moved to category management as the basis of its organizational structure.


P&G strategic management

P&G Case Study

The US remains the number one market for P&G since its establishment, a factor that can be attributed to the fact it is in the US that the company was created. Nonetheless, the company went global in the 20th-century targeting markets such as Europe, Asia, and Africa and now enjoys a huge customer base from these nations as well (Coolidge, 2014). This has been made possible by the change the strategies that P&G uses. Previously, P&G had been using a global strategy. Boykin (2019) notes that this is a type of strategy in which products and services offered across different countries are the same with minor adjustments if any to fit the local requirements of each country. For a long time, P&G used this strategy ignorant of the fact that the US products innovations were not necessarily fit for every market. As a result, the US market performance was spectacular, but the same was patchy and falling in other continents such as Europe.

Global (international) strategy entails top-down management control and centralized decision-making power. The strategy is usually profit-oriented since products are standardized. With this kind of strategy, power stems from a centralized management department and decisions made by the management are to be implemented across all the countries in which a company operates (Boykin, 2019). This approach was initially working for P&G, but with increased local and international competitors, the strategy started failing.  In Europe for instance, Ball and Ellison (2003) propound that the strategy was seen as an attempt to sell US products to the Europeans. Consumers felt that their love for local products was being ignored hence were not fully appreciative of the products that P&G had to offer.

This market failure may have been what prompted P&G to change into a multi-domestic strategy. In this strategy, decisions are decentralized to business units in each country such that products are tailored in a manner that best suits the local market (Boykin, 2019). Unlike the global strategy, a multi-domestic strategy enhances consumer responsiveness. This is because the company can adapt products to the existing local market environment. To date, P&G uses the transnational strategy which is essentially the combination of the global and the multi-domestic strategies (Mezgobo, 2011). The biggest advantage of the transnational strategy according to what we have learned is that it incorporates both local responsiveness and global efficiency. Nevertheless, the strategy is quite complicated and can at times be hard to implement, but with the successful nature of P&G as a company, it is without a doubt that the company is in a position to successfully implement this strategy for its overall benefit now and in the future.

In summary, a closer examination of the operations of P&G in both Europe and the US depicts a difference in structure. This is obvious considering the fact the target markets are different, and so are the consumers. Coolidge (2014) asserts that in both the UK and Brazil, beauty and personal products are the highest selling P&G products. Even though P&G launched its brands in some European countries such as the UK earlier than it did in Asian countries such as China and other developing countries like Brazil, research shows that China and Brazil are now some of the biggest markets for P&G products. As it undertakes operations to build new factories overseas, there is speculation that the P&G has intentions to consolidate European and US operations (Coolidge, 2014). How this consolidation will affect P&G standing in the global market is a concept that calls for critical analysis.




P&G Case Study



Ball, D., & Ellison, S. (2003). In Europe, P&G learns one size doesn’t fit all: Each country may require unique marketing strategy that caters to local tastes. The Wall Street Journal. Retrieved from

Boykin, G. (2019). Multidomestic Vs. Global strategic plans. Retrieved from

Coolidge, A. (2014). Guess which countries are on the rise for P&G. The Enquirer. Retrieved from

Coolidge, A. (2014). Procter & Gamble’s global reach changing. The Enquirer. Retrieved from–gambles-global-reach-changing/15205713/.

Mezgobo, T. (2011). Case analysis of P&G. Retrieved from

Zangenehpour, H. (2013). Procter and Gamble alternative strategies. Retrieved from


Understanding and Managing Change

Understanding and Managing Change

Understanding and Managing Change

Individual Assessment 


Completion of this assessment will meet learning outcomes 1, 2 and 3.


Please answer the essay questions listed below and write an essay of approximately 2000 words (-/+ 10%).


The essay needs to draw on the relevant course materials, such as the textbook, lecture content, tutorial exercises, or additional readings provided on Aberdeen. It also needs to include relevant illustrative examples. Those might include the examples of different studies discussed in the textbook or in the course lectures. Finally, the essays will need to be referenced according to normal academic procedures using Harvard referencing conventions. Please note that the list of references does not count towards the overall word limit.


The essay needs to be included in a single file with the chosen question clearly identified. The file should be in MS Word or RTF format (no PDF please) and should use the following formatting requirements: font 12, one-inch margin, using double space.


key capabilities required by a change consultant/change agent in contemporary organizations?


Understanding and Managing Change



Change agents play an important role in organizational change management. They can be internal as well as external to an organization. With reference to change agent and their role in change management, answer the following questions:


Part A (50%)


What are the key capabilities required by a change consultant/change agent in contemporary organizations?  Illustrate your answer with examples drawn from the literature and assess how these capabilities would help in maintaining ethical relationships with your clients.


Part B (50%)


At an individual level, imagine you are considering a career as a change agent.


  • Find out what skills/experiences are needed to become an external change agent/change consultant.


(Note: You may refer to job adverts published online to get an idea of the skills/experiences required. Two useful links are provided in ‘Lecture 5- A career as a change agent?’ slide which will help you get started).


  • Evaluate your current skills/experiences against these and identify any gaps (e.g. your personality, team working, communication, and leadership style etc.).


  • Explain how you intend to address the gaps identified.


Mohammed bin Salman Vision 2030

Mohammed bin Salman Vision 2030

Mohammed bin Salman Vision 2030 and Saudi Arabia. How both they influence or impact Saudi Arabia, the Middle East, and the World.


The research there is new two variables happen recently in Saudi Arabia the new generation of royal Family Moahmmde bin Salman knowing as MBS, and the vision 2030. The research examines the two factors in Saudi and how they impact or influence  Saudi Arabia in the region middle east and the world. The researcher foresees examining the effect of Mohamed Bin Salman and Vision 2030 on Saudi Arabia.



How both they influence or impact Saudi Arabia, the Middle East, and the World.


Mohammed bin Salman Vision 2030 and Saudi Arabia



  • Introduction and statement of research problem/question, the significance of the project


  • Relevant In-Depth Literature Review (with the Gap)


  • Expected Results they have the inflicted in the region and that will return


  • Suggested Plan of Research (where, when how will collect data or research topic)


  • Suggested Chapter Layout.





Topic Title




Literature Review

Significance of study

Research Question

  • What has begun the social, economic, and political impact of the Saudi vision 2030 since 2016 (SINCE MBS and vision 2030 start)
  • What is the impact of vision 2030 and the leadership of Mohammed Bin Salman in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia Locally and Internationally?

Research Gap: throughout the reading, the researcher was able to


Research Method (Qualitative method, case study).




Scope of the Study

Theoretical Framework. For the theories you explain the theory and how the theories apply to the Subject. Mohammed bin Salman and vision 2030.

(Soft Power, Nye Joseph

Nye, J. S., Jr. (2004). Soft power: The means to success in world politics. New York: Public Affairs.


Neorealism (Kenneth Waltz 1979) in his book Theory of International Politics

Neoliberalism (Idealism) or  classic Liberalism ( Choose the founder  the theory )



What is the purpose of Saudi Arabia Vision 2030?


Mohammed bin Salman Vision 2030 and Saudi Arabia





Chapter 1: Introduction (intro, statement of Problem, Purpose, Research Question, Significance of the Topic

Chapter 2: Literature Review and Theoretical (Neorealism, Liberalism or Neoliberalism, Soft Power)

Chapter 3: Background of the Study (History of Saudi Arabia in Matter relate to the topic, Social, Economic, Royal Family,

Chapter 4:   Analysis of the Study

MBS and Vision 2030 (Impact of MBS in the region and the world foreign Policy and International Relation of Saudi Arabia) AND Impact of Vision 2030 Economy and Social in Saudi Arabia)

Chapter 5: Discussion, Implication of the Study Conclusion Result, findings



Recreation Center Cost Analysis Assignment

Recreation Center Cost Analysis Assignment


Recreation Center Cost Analysis Assignment

The city of Cavaliere is a medium-size city. In FY 2014, Cavaliere employed 835 full-time employees and had total expenses of $61.4 million. The Recreation Department’s sole responsibility is operating two recreation centers in the city. The Cassis Recreation Center employs nine people to operate a field house with a gymnasium and two activity rooms. The Cassis Recreation Center also includes a fitness center with equipment acquired and maintained under a lease contract costing $30,000 per year. The Lavandou Recreation Center employs seven people to operate a field house with a gymnasium and two activity rooms. The Lavandou Recreation Center does not contain a fitness center. The Department of Recreation also includes an Administration Division comprising the Director of Recreation and her office staff. The green tabs of the Excel Workbook (“Dept Rec Pers Expenses” and “Dept Rec Tot Expenses”) contain personnel details and expense details for the department. The red tab of the Excel Workbook (“Usage Survey Results”) also contains the results of a survey that was conducted at various times during FY 2012, which resulted in estimates of the visitation or usage at each of the recreation centers.

The blue tabs of the Excel Workbook (“Services Agency Info,” “Services Agency Expenses,” and “Services Provided to Rec Dept”) contain information about the internal service agencies of the city providing services to other agencies of the city. The information provided includes the tasks these agencies perform, FY 2014 employee counts, FY 2014 expenses of these agencies, performance measures of these agencies, and the services provided by these agencies to the Department of Recreation during FY 2014.
You must complete the following 8 tasks:
1. Estimate the full cost of operating each of the recreation centers.
2. Describe your plan for answering this cost analysis question, including your plan for allocating overhead costs to the recreation centers.
3. What are the direct and indirect costs of the recreation centers?
4. Define and estimate the cost pools, cost bases, and overhead rates for the indirect costs allocated to the recreation centers. Be sure to explain your reasoning for selecting one cost base over another that might be available.
5. What is the average cost of operating each of the recreation centers?
6. On January 1, 2015, Cavaliere annexed two sizeable and moderately populated unincorporated areas. It is expected that the annexed areas could result in additional users at both recreation centers. The national benchmark for daily staffing at certified recreation centers is a 30-to-1 ratio of users to recreation specialists. Estimates suggest that user counts at the Cassis Recreation Center could increase by 65% due to the annexation and that the user counts at the Lavandou Recreation Center could increase by as much as 100% due to the annexation. Estimate the incremental cost of the additional staffing due to these increases in users.
7. Several city council members would like to construct an outdoor pool at the Lavandou Recreation Center. The pool would operate from June 1 to through Labor Day each summer. Develop a plan for estimating the additional cost to the Recreation Department if a pool were to be built and operated at this recreation center. What information would you need to answer this cost analysis question?
8. Currently, no fee is charged to utilize the fitness center at the Cassis Recreation Center. What information would you need in order to estimate an appropriate monthly fee for using the fitness center?

How do you write an annotated bibliography?

How do you write an annotated bibliography?

How do you write an annotated bibliography?

annotated Bibliography Instructions
An important part of the concept analysis is a review of articles related to the concept you will focus on. An annotated bibliography is a method you can use to summarize and assess the articles that you plan to use for your concept analysis paper.

Grief is the concept of focus in week 2. You are required to write an annotated bibliography of two articles related to grief. One article must have an empirical referent of grief. For example, your required reading, Martincekova, L. & Klatt, J. (2017). Mothers’ grief, forgiveness, and posttraumatic growth after the loss of a child (PDF). OMEGA-Journal of Death and Dying,75(3), 248–265. contains three empirical referents—the Texas Revised Inventory of Grief, the Enright Forgiveness Inventory, and the Posttraumatic Growth Inventory.


How do you write an annotated bibliography?


You will write an annotated bibliography (summary and assessment) of two articles related to the concept of grief. The annotated bibliography of each article should be two to three paragraphs long. The Purdue OWL Annotated Bibliographies website contains a useful guide to writing annotated bibliographies. The Purdue OWL Annotated Bibliographies Samples provides annotated bibliography examples. You should follow these suggestions related to summarizing and assessing articles:
Summarize: Some annotations merely summarize the source. What are the main arguments? What is the point of this book or article? What topics are covered? If someone asked what this article/book is about, what would you say? The length of your annotations will determine how the degree of detail of your summary.
Assess: Is it a useful source? (Source: Purdue OWL: Annotated Bibliographies, retrieved from
You need to write your annotated bibliography in your own words. Do not use the abstract of an article as your annotated bibliography.
The articles you select must be at a graduate level. They must be from academic/professional level journals. You cannot use articles from introductory nursing journals (e.g., Registered Nurse Journal or American Journal of Nursing).
You are required to write your asummary according to APA Manual 7th edition guidelines. The Owl Purdue Annotated Bibliographies Samples website includes an example of an annotated bibliography for a book, Ehrenreich, B. (2001). Nickel and dimed: On (not) getting by in America. New York: Henry Holt.

Managerial economics questions and answers

Managerial economics questions and answers

Managerial economics questions and answers

Wheat and oats are used to make different types of breakfast cereal and both are grown
on the prairies. Using appropriate diagrams, what would happen to the supply and
demand of oats if the price of wheat were to rise? What happens to the equilibrium
price and quantity?
2. Consider the market for ice cream in Paris. Using appropriate diagrams, explain how
each of the following events will impact the equilibrium price and quantity of ice cream.
a. The population of Paris increases.
b. The cost of milk (an input in production) decreases.
c. Both the population of Paris increases and the cost of milk decreases at the same
3. For lunch, Wendy eats only salads or fruit & yogurt smoothies. Her weekly food budget
is $48. Each salad costs $6 and each smoothie costs $3.
a. Draw Wendy’s budget constraint.
b. What is the opportunity cost of purchasing one more smoothie? What is the
opportunity cost of purchasing one more salad?
c. If the price of smoothies doubles to $6, what happens to Wendy’s opportunity
d. Describe intuitively how Wendy should make the optimal consumption
4. Kate’s 24-Hour Breakfast Diner menu offers one item, a $5.00 breakfast special. Kate’s
costs for servers, cooks, electricity, food, etc. average out to $3.95 per meal. Her costs
for rent, insurance and business license average out to $1.25 per meal. This is a highly
competitive market. Should Kate stay in business in the short run? In the long run?
5. The table below sets out cost information for the production of volleyballs. Some values
are missing. Fill in these missing values.


What is managerial economics with examples?

Managerial economics questions and answers


– 2021 4
Q P Total Cost Total
0 $5 $9
1 $5 $10
2 $5 $12
3 $5 $15
4 $5 $19
5 $5 $24
6 $5 $30
7 $5 $45
6. The following figure shows the average cost curve, demand curve, and marginal
revenue curve for a monopolist. After maximizing profits, what does the firm’s revenue
equal? Indicate the area of the rectangle (e.g., ABGH, BDEG, etc.…)
7. Explain intuitively why the demand curve facing a perfectly competitive firm is
horizontal whereas the demand curve facing a monopolist or a monopolistically
competitive firm is downward sloping.
8. Briefly state the basic characteristics of perfect competition, monopoly, monopolistic
competition, and oligopoly. Into which of these market classifications does each of the
following most accurately fit? (a) a supermarket in your hometown; (b) the steel
industry; (c) a Kansas wheat farm; (d) the commercial bank in which you have an
account; (e) the automobile industry. In each case, justify your classification.
Created in Master PDF Editor
– 2021 5
Part B- Each question carries 6 marks.
These following questions are fairly open-ended. We have discussed various market structures
in this module, and we are looking for you to apply what you have learned to real-world data.
9. Select one market to focus on. Clearly indicate the market and describe the market
structure. For example, is it perfectly competitive? Is an oligopoly market? And so
• You are free to select any market of your choosing. For example, the global market for
copper, the market for housing in London, the market for cheese in the United States,
etc… You will have more to talk about for some markets than for others, and you must
ensure you can find the appropriate price data.
10. Present data which shows the evolution of prices in that market over time. Try to
describe any interesting movements or trends using the concepts covered in the course.
• For example, can you describe a sudden price jump by a cartel breaking apart, or by a
demand shock? Or can you describe a gradual decline in prices by a gradual change in
consumer tastes?
• A good source of price data is the St Louis Fed: Link. There are many other sources
11. Describe how much government regulation is present in the market. What are these
regulations in place? If there are not many regulations, should there be?
Created in Ma

Social media as a tool for activism

Social media as a tool for activism

Social media as a tool for activism

Emily Parker’s “Now I Know Who My Comrades Are: Voices from the Internet Underground,” is an articulate observer of the plight of activists on the internet. The author focuses on nations that seem to apply autocratic rule with her main consideration being Russia, Cuba, and China. Parker expressly shows that it is true that the governments in consideration have allowed activists to express themselves on social media. The expression on social media has focused on issues of pertinence to them and the way that the government is handling them. A realistic view, however, shows that the government has allowed activists rights to express themselves on social media, but they are still in control of the activists directly or indirectly. The first observation as to why the government is in control is that the activists have done some of their activism successfully but the problem was not solved at all. The other observation is that just having supporters on social media is not gratifying for an activist as it is not enough to win the government. Lastly, social media lets people to know the truth but they cannot change the result. Based on these observations, there is a consensus that the government still controls social media activists and this inhibits the ability to achieve the intended outcomes of the activism.



How social media is changing the face of human rights activism?

Social media as a tool for activism


The fact that the government allows modern activism on social media does not mean that activism becomes successful. The activists realize some measurable milestones but reaching the heights of activism that they desire is quite hard.  Governments will, for instance, allow the activists to post some activism content on their blogs or other types of social media. There are, however, some topics that governments do not allow activists to post on social media. Often the things that the activists are refuted from posting are the most pertinent issues. From this view, it is necessary to see that the problems are not solved due to the government’s limitation of the kind of content that can be posted on social media. The fact that activists seek to bring social and political change means that this is inhibited when they cannot fully communicate their concerns and ideals. The government’s role in this dynamic is the extension of relative power to activists, yet without fully appreciating what they intend to achieve. The implication is that there are only mixed outcomes rather than the revolution that the activists seek to bring in society.

There are gratifying examples that show that the activists on social media have limitations on the kind of issues to bring to the fore, most of which are pertinent. In China, for instance, a great firewall was elected that blocked the airing of content regarding the Tiananmen massacre where so many citizens were killed. The details surrounding the event were such that the People’s Liberation Army had opened fire on protesters calling for democracy in China. With the state media being the only source of information on the issue, this means that there was a negative portrayal of the protesters for the government’s image. The great firewall was a blow to many activists because they could not access information or post regarding the massacre. Such came about from the fact that most of the domestic content regarding the massacre was not allowed online (Parker 36). Even for activists in China, they got their information from the state media and this means that there was a veiled understanding of what was taking place. For some, they thought that the involvement of the army in killing innocent student protesters was just a foreign media rumor. Only later has the reality of the events become clearer. Essentially, this means that the government has control of the kind of information that activists can access and how this is likely to impact social media activism.

Similar to China, Cuba and Russia are other examples of government imposed control on social media activism. Despite the fact that the world is highly interconnected, the internet penetration level in Cuba is quite low. As of 2012, most internet users could only access the web through an intranet controlled by the government and where political content was limited. In 2013, the use of the internet was allowed but it was only allowed in public centers where the government could monitor the users (Parker 129). Activists due to fear of the high level of monitoring could therefore not post any major political related content. Through such control, this means that the social media activism cannot achieve their full potential in influencing the masses towards a revolution. In Russia, also activists on social media were able to pull out protests against election malpractices but what they protested against actually happened and most of them were arrested (Parker, 281). Due to such outcomes, other protesters opted to stay at home rather than waste their time and energy. It is, therefore, true that even if social media activism is sometimes successful, it often does not solve the problems that the activists intend to solve.


How social media affects social movements?

Social media as a tool for activism

Being an activist on social media, one tends to think that it is about having the numbers but this is just the first step in influencing individuals. One cannot be an activist on social media without having the numbers because activism is about influencing the masses. It is about ensuring that the message of activism reaches as many people so that they also pass the information to others who may or may not be on social media.  Even when an activist may have the supporters, the government could undertake measures that prevent the activists from reaching their supporters and hence the activism is not enough. Supporters of an activist may not have shared ideals or may come from different countries and hence they would not be engaged in actual activism. In his article titled ‘Small Change’ Gladwell advances the idea that the use of social media for activism is ineffective since it is based on weak ties (Gladwell n.p). Although Gladwell does not explore the influence of the government in his article, the weak ties he mentions means that they can easily be exploited by the government. The weak ties largely come around from the fact that the activism is virtual, and that there lacks any real shared ideals. The government may also be powerful enough and may at times make the supporters fearful of joining in the activism. In other instances, the government has responded with force with an example being the Tiananmen protests and the Russian protests during the 2010 elections. Just having supporters is therefore not a measure of success since it does not denote change by itself.

The very idea of having many supporters as an activist is something that necessarily means that one is at increased risk of surveillance and sanctioning by the government. Anti’s blog in China was a typical example of the risks that one faces when one has many followers. Anti’s blog was closed down by Microsoft after instructions from the Chinese government (Parker 58). The closure of the blog marked the end of his heated debates. Even when Anti had many supporters, they would not help him. In Cuba, due to the government ban on the internet, the Cuban bloggers do not have many supporters internally, and most are exiles of foreigners, and hence they are not that helpful in activism beyond social media (Parker 131). In Russia, supporters of activists are not even helpful because the government has such power that the nation is called a police state (Parker 186). It is the reason that even if supporters appear on social media, most of them are not willing to appear in actual demonstrations because they fear the power of the police. Anti himself notes that he had no intention of getting arrested and this also means that there is a level of trepidation even among activists as regards the kind of power that the government has over them. Supporters in social media activism are therefore not just enough since the government still imposes some form of control and fear. Contrasting this to some of the activisms that have taken place in the past and away from social media, this means that there lacks enough motivation due to the weak ties among social media activists/protestors.

The most important point is the fact that almost every piece of truth regarding government mistreatment of the people is known and is proof enough that social media spreads the truth to the people, but they do not have the ability to change the situation. Activism should be something that bears positive results or one that realizes the reason for which it was established. It does, however, happen that way for most activists who operate on social media. This is based on the fact that even when people know the reality concerning how the government misuses power, they can do nothing about it. In Cuba, bloggers and activists are aware of what the government is doing but social media has failed to be an effective tool due to government control and censorship that limits the kind of social media activities (Parker 131). Activism on social media is, therefore, something that looks like just the spread of necessary information but one which action cannot be taken over. Much of this comes from the relative power that social media has as compared to the government imposed control.

The ineffectiveness of social media in achieving outcomes comes from the idea that social media activism is defined by the ‘tool’ which is social media, rather than being defined by the cause. Malcom Galdwell evidences this with his comparison of the Greensboro activism that began with four students in 1960. Over a period of a few days, the protests by the students through sit-ins had spread to other states and brought together thousands. The outcomes are part of the success of the civil rights movements of the 60s. In contrast to the success of the protests in the 60s, activism that focuses on the use of social media is one defined by the availability of the tools rather than being defined by the cause. An example is the Tehran protests of 2009 where the State Department requested that Twitter not undertake its scheduled maintenance since this would negatively affect the demonstrations (Gladwell n.p.). In line with this, there is a view that social media acts as a platform for sharing and spreading information without achieving any realistic outcomes. The weak ties that inform social media membership and activism limit the ability to carry out any meaningful activism.

Parker’s work shows that social media activism is not bearing the fruits that it should bear because the activists have no other power beyond getting the truth to the people. In China, for instance, the people, in the long run, were informed of the Tiananmen issue. It was an issue that ought to have been amicably addressed but due to the fear of the government no action was taken other than the mere demonstrations that were undertaken by the people (Parker 22). In Cuba, there has been widespread knowledge of the truth to the point that the people themselves fear each other because they do not know whether the other person may be the betrayer. The society looks like one where the distrust takes the lead as everyone fears the risk of jail (Parker 137, 138). In Russia, the people know the truth about the hidden dictatorship, but they are fearful of their government (Parker 279). It is, therefore, true to consider that the people in are well-informed of the truth but they can do nothing even when they have the truth.

It can be seen that the idea of online activism was a grand idea from the very beginning. It can, however, be seen not to be very successful, and governments seem to control it to a large extent (Mirani n.p.).  The very purpose of social media activism has been successful in the spreading of information but is not as equally productive in terms of results (Gladwell n.p.). There is, therefore, need to ensure that online activism seeks to expel the feelings of fear among the supporters. Such fears can be dispelled when social media activists sacrifice themselves to be in the frontline in actual activism and protests. Mirani reviewed the arguments of Malcolm Gladwell, a critic of social media, who dismisses the claims that Twitter and Facebook have had considerable influence on activism. According to the scholar, the role played by SNSs in reported revolutions and protests has been exaggerated. Real activism involves vigorous actions and strong bonding among civilians. From Gladwell’s view, SNSs builds weak ties in any arrangements leading to revolutions because they only escalate to the point of “liking” the cause of action rather than active involvement into the course. The early 1960s civil war that occurred in the U.S in the absence of social media is an example that shows the irrelevance of Twitter, Facebook, and texting in activism (Mirani, par. 4). The shortcoming of the social media platforms is seen as the inability to get people to stand up and take to the streets to demand change.

Based on the shortcomings of social media as a result of the influence by the government as a main actor, social media activism cannot be relied upon to bring social or political change where necessary. With the main aim of activism being social and political change, this has been impeded by the social media dynamics that have transformed activism into virtual protests that have no significant impacts. Essentially, the applause directed towards social media as an activism tool is misguided. Evidencing this is the fact that most of those who participate in the social media protests are not actually in the respective countries. An example is the Iranian case where almost all individuals tweeting about the protests were in the West (Gladwell n.p). In line with this, social media remains an ineffective tool that cannot achieve results by itself.


In conclusion, the idea of online activism was a grand idea. It has however not yet been as successful as it should because the government is still in control of a major part of online activism.  To some extent, activism has been well-performing but it has not yielded the results that it should have. It is also necessary to see that having supporters on social media alone is not necessary because most of them are not directly engaged in the struggle on the ground. Also, inasmuch as the people know the truth, they may not have the ability to act on the truths that they receive because most of them fear the government. It is, therefore, necessary to conclude that inasmuch as social media activism has been a significant issue in the modern world, it is not yet successful because the government still controls a significant part of the activism.
















Works Cited

Gladwell, Malcolm. “Small Change.” The New Yorker. N.p., 2010. Web. 4 Mar. 2019.

Mirani, Leo. “Sorry, Malcolm Gladwell, The Revolution May Well Be Tweeted.” the Guardian. N.p., 2010. Web. 4 Mar. 2019.

Parker, Emily. Now I know who my comrades are: Voices from the internet underground. Sarah Crichton Books, 2014.









Transitioning out of the Military: Issues and Solutions

Transitioning out of the Military: Issues and Solutions


Transitioning out of the Military: Issues and Solutions. One of the issues facing retired veterans is the transition to civilian life. The veterans in the United States are a multifaceted population that has a distinct culture related to values, beliefs, ethos, customs, codes of conduct, selfless duty, obedience to command, and implicit communication patterns. For these veterans, they have completed their military commitments and returned to civilian life that has a different cultural complexity from military life. During their time in service, the military personnel gave up their educational pursuits and were distanced from their family and friends. On completion of their military commitments, the veterans have to deal with the challenges of re-establishing the relationships with their friends and family and even taking up tasks that they left behind. In essence, this creates a complex challenge for veterans especially because they have to deal with other issues such as homelessness, post-service unemployment, and limited access to benefits and services. The compounding of the different problems may also lead to mental health problems thus creating an array of complex needs. While there are programs that help veterans adjust to civilian life, some of the veterans are not aware of the existence of the services or have limited access to the services and programs.

The Transition Problem

The adjustment to civilian life following the completion of military service is a stressor to veterans, and this is because it takes away the comfort of the structured life in military installations. During military service, the soldiers undergo acculturation and training that are directed towards raising the mental and physical readiness for combat deployment. The military culture involves the separation of the individual from civilian life, and this often interrupts the level of contact with friends, family, as well as the popular culture (Hermes, Hoff, and Rosenheck, 2014). The life of the soldiers is usually in combat zones or within military installations. Soldiers have access to health care, housing, youth, child, soldier and family programs, as well as school services. The different services are provided to ensure that the soldiers are protected from civilian life stresses and hence can focus on the mission. The environment around them is also highly regimented since they are expected to follow orders and adhere to discipline and structure that is uncommon in civilian life. The return to civilian life following the completion of military service means that the veterans have to forego the comfort of the structured and stress-free environment to one of the uncertainties.

The transition to civilian life becomes a challenge since veterans have to deal with the stressors that emanate from their new environment. The movement from a highly structured environment to a civilian lifestyle with less structure often leads to frustration and is very stressful as the veterans adjust to the new normal. The new environment requires that the veterans reconnect with their family and friends that they have not seen in years or decades, seek new employment, and connect to the services they need for their civilian support (Smith et al., 2017). The acclimation to the civilian lifestyle is also part of the challenge since the transition is viewed as a movement from one culture to the next. As some veterans have pointed out, the psychological impacts of the transition period emanate from the lack of a decompression period. While veterans from the World War II had a decompression period of about six weeks, veterans in the modern context move from the battlefield to the civilian life in three days (Tanielian et al., 2016). In light of such an abrupt movement, the psychological effects on the veterans are negative, and this impacts their mental wellbeing. Employment is one of the biggest stressors for this population group, and this is because most of the individuals do not have jobs before exiting from service and only search for employment after the transition.

The veteran population is growing, and this means that there is an increased strain in resources directed towards helping veterans transition into civilian life. Coupled with the increasing stressors in their environment, the veterans often face mental health issues that make the transition challenge complex and profound. Veteran medical records indicate that one in three patients has a mental health disorder which implies that 41 percent of veterans have behavioral adjustment issues or mental health problems (Olenick, Flowers, and Diaz, 2015). The veterans’ exposure to mental health issues is an outcome of the different stressors during their transition into civilian life. Not only do the stressors lead to mental health issues, but they also subject the affected individuals to substance use disorders as well as suicidal behavior. Substance use disorders, as well as mental health issues, are also influenced by the stressors of the military service. Veterans that have experienced traumatic events during their military careers develop combat fatigue that is linked to post-traumatic stress disorder (Hoffmire, Kemp, and Bossarte, 2015). The compounding of different factors during the transition to civilian life exacerbates the mental health issues that the veterans face within their new environment. In light of this, the transition from military to civilian life is a stressing period in the life of a veteran and one in need of the right interventions to ensure an effective and successful transition.


Policy and Programs Dealing With veterans mental issues 

Transitioning out of the Military: Issues and Solutions

One of the policy approaches employed in dealing with mental issues facing veterans during the transition phase is the Re-Engage policy. The Re-Engage policy program introduced in 2012 requires that all Veteran Affairs sites implement a care management program directed towards veteran with mental illnesses. The focus of the program has been on areas with gaps in continuity of care since patients are likely to experience early mortality rates. The policy has effectively been applied in helping veterans deal with mental health issues especially as regards schizophrenia and bipolar disorder (Kilbourne et al., 2014). Effectively, the increase in the number of veterans seeking out the program indicates a positive inclination towards services that seek to improve the transition process. As of 2013, 8.9 million veterans were utilizing the health care system by the Veteran Affairs, and this reflects less than half of the total veteran population (Olenick, Flowers, and Diaz, 2015). This indicates that a substantial part of the population still does not have access to these services. The implication is that while the policy may have helped some veterans deal with mental issues in the transition phase, it is still yet to impact a large number of the population.

Another form of intervention directed towards the veterans in the transition phase relates to financial benefits and services offered at the state and federal level. The financial benefits are expected to help veterans transition effectively by extending some level of stability through funds that can help them in daily sustenance. Even with the existence of such interventions, some of the veterans are not aware of the existence of these services. As an example, Tanielian et al. (2016) note that veterans in Detroit did not have awareness or access to the financial and medical benefit services that are vital in the transition process. The indication is that whereas the services are available, the visibility is limited and this affects the effectiveness of the programs directed towards assisting the veterans in the transition process. Some veterans have access to these services but also cite other limitations. As an example, the average amount of money received by veterans in Michigan in 2014 from the federal government is $5700 which is below the average of $7364 per veteran in the US (Burke, 2015). The implication is that some veterans receive a lower amount of funding compared to others and hence may be incapable of managing their pertinent needs during the transition phase.

In helping the veterans seek employment as civilians, the Transition Assistance Program has been established with a focus on preparing the individuals with the skills for success as civilians. The Transition Assistance Program seeks to ensure that the veterans have the right skills around interviewing for a job, writing a resume, and even writing cover letters. While the program has been a success for some of the individuals, it has not been as much help to others. One veteran, Mathew Suber, who served in the U.S. Air Force for over five years notes that one of the problems with this program is that it does not address how to translate what they have learnt and achieved in the military into something of value (USC, 2017). The problem lies in the lack of a program that helps them translate their skills into something valuable for the civilian employer (Cooper et al., 2016). The implication is that the presence of these programs does not always guarantee a successful transition since the programs and services may fail to address the inherent needs of the veterans.


In alleviating the problem, one approach lies in increasing the visibility of the services available to veterans during the transition period. The United States has created financial and medical benefit programs for veterans, and while some are aware of these services, other lack the knowledge and access to the services (Pina et al., 2015). Considering that the veterans are in dire need of support services to help them in the transition phase, the Veteran Affairs department should increase the visibility of these services to veterans. The approach will ensure that the affected individuals have access to the medical and financial benefits that support veterans in the transition process.

Within the health-care sector, the ability to address the unique healthcare needs of the veteran population is dependent on the incorporation of veteran-specific content in the curriculum. The physical condition of veterans is affected by various factors that emanate from the military as well as civilian life. Ensuring the incorporation of veteran-specific content will help ensure that health providers can address the complex health needs of the population influenced by the wartime periods, behavioral and mental disorders, and obstacles in the reintegration phase (Olenick, Flowers, and Diaz, 2015). The integration of veteran-specific content to the healthcare discipline is essential based on the fact that veterans seek medical intervention from veteran as well as private medical facilities. An integrative curriculum will ensure the provision of excellent care to veterans thus addressing their mental and physical needs and facilitating their successful transition to civilian life.

Another effective approach to addressing transition is linking up the veterans to the transition programs before their exposure to civilian life. One of the challenges highlighted by veterans is that access to the existing benefit programs is cumbersome due to the need to navigate the national and local rules governing the benefits. As noted by one veteran, it took him one year to access benefits after being shot in the chest, and this is due to the documentation needed and the complex system in the VA (Tanielian et al., 2016). In light of this, beginning the transition phase before retirement from service can help alleviate some of these challenges due to the availability of the veterans’ documentation at the Veterans Affairs even before retirement. In effect, the outcome will be an efficient process that will help veterans access their benefits easily and hence have a smooth transition process.


The transition from military service to civilian life comes with complex challenges as the veteran tries to re-establish with his/her life before service. Some of the challenges that the veterans face revolve around reconnecting with family and friends, finding employment, and accessing their financial and medical benefits. The complexity of these challenges leads to mental health issues that make the transition phase highly tasking. While services and programs have been established to deal with various challenges faced by veterans, some of the services do not effectively address the underlying problem. Some of the solution approaches lie in increasing the visibility of the services, beginning the transition before retirement, and having a health curriculum that is specific to the mental and physical needs of the veterans. The application of such recommendations will deliver a smooth transition process for veterans into civilian life.




Burke, M. N. (2015). Thousands of Michigan veterans miss out on benefits.  Detroit News.           Retrieved from         michigan-veterans-miss-benefits/70752468/.

Cooper, L., Caddick, N., Godier, L, Cooper, A., & Fossey, M. (2016). Transition from the military into civilian life: An exploration of cultural competence. Armed Forces & Society, 1(1), 1-22.

Hermes, E. D., Hoff, R., & Rosenheck, A. (2014). Sources of increasing number of Vietnam-Era veterans with a diagnosis of PTSD using VHA services. Psychiatric Services, 65(6), 830–            832.

Hoffmire, C. Kemp, A., & Bossarte, R. (2015). Changes in suicide mortality for veterans and       non-veterans by gender and history of VHA service use, 2000–2010. Psychiatric             Services, 66(9), 959–965.

Kilbourne, M., Goodrich, D., Lai, Z., Almirall, D., et al. (2015). Re-engaging veterans with serious mental illness into care: preliminary results from a national randomized trial. Psychiatr Serv., 66(1), 90-3.

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Piña, I., Cohen, P., Larson, D., Marion, L., et al. (2015). A framework for describing health care delivery organizations and systems. American Journal of Public Health, 105, 670–679.

Smith, S., Lai, Z., Almirall, D., Goodricjh, D., et al. (2017). Implementing effective policy in a national mental health re-engagement program for veterans. Journal of Nervous Mental Disorder, 205(2), 161-170.

Tanielian, T., Hansen, M., Martin, L., Grimm, G., & Ogletree, C. (2016). Supporting the mental health needs of veterans in the metro Detroit area. Santa Monica: RAND.

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Utopia: Plato’s Republic: Philosophy is the Answer

Utopia: Plato’s Republic: Philosophy is the Answer

Utopia: Plato’s Republic: Philosophy is the Answer

A perfect political system, commonly referred to as utopia, envisions a harmonious society without conflicts. I have chosen to explain “Plato’s Republic: Philosophy is the Answer” as one of the perfect political systems. Plato’s political system has been explained through a series of dialogue between characters, and they contain many teachings of Socrates who was his teacher. While it would be desirable to live in and co-exist with members of such a society as described by Plato, it is important to acknowledge that the ideals represented in this political system are not easily achievable and may even appear unrealistic


Is Plato’s Republic a utopia or dystopia?

Utopia: Plato’s Republic: Philosophy is the Answer

. In this system, Plato proposes that there need to be three key classes to run a perfect republic. The first class would consist of individuals whose main role is to cater to the basic human needs such as food, water, and shelter and thus ensure the running of the republic’s economy. The individuals in this class may comprise of the farmers and builders. The second class would be comprised of people, whom he called warriors, whose major task would be to protect the polis (ideal city) from attacks and consequently defend the possessions of the polis (Magstadt, 2017). Plato’s third class would be made up of the philosopher-guardians who would be the knowledgeable individuals in the society and who have spent a considerable duration of time studying According to Plato, these are the only individuals who could be considered for ruling the polis. In his view, an individual who holds the highest position in the society, a statesman, should be from the learned lot and not those who desire to indulge in politics for their selfish gains (Lane, n.d). This means that in Plato’s regime, sophists, politicians who pretend to know but otherwise lack genuine knowledge, could not be leaders of his proposed regime.

As a way of ensuring that the proposed political system thrives and receives acceptance from the members of the society, Plato goes on to advocate for the need to tell a “noble lie.” A noble lie is an official lie which the philosopher guardians must tell the individuals in the lower class to convince them that their positions match their proper status in that society (Magstadt, 2017). As a result, everyone would relate to each other as members of one large family and, thus, avoid conflicts.











What is the main point of Plato’s Republic?






Lane, M. (n.d.). Plato’s political philosophy: The Republic, the statesman, and the laws. Retrieved from .

Magstadt, T. M. (2017). Understanding Politics: Ideas, Institutions, and Issues. Australia: Cengage Learning.

Conservatism and Socialism

Conservatism and Socialism

Conservatism and Socialism

Conservatism and socialism are political ideologies that differ in views about the protection of the citizens’ rights by the government. Conservatism is a type of political ideology that is characteristic of free enterprise in the economy, the need to protect American traditions, and the rejection of communism while socialism is a type of political ideology whose ideals emphasizes peace, the collective ownership of means and instruments of production and reducing the gap in wealth and social class.


Conservatism and Socialism in the US Politics

Conservatism and Socialism

Conservatism is incorporated in the US political system through policies and principles that are thought to be traditional. For example, it is common for politicians to appeal to voters whose traditional family and religious values are considered supreme (Magstadt, 2017). Additionally, there are some conservative parties already in existence in the country, though not as powerful as the Democratic and Republican parties. In modern politics, conservatives argue that their ideology helps in promoting the economic development of the nation through their pursuit for personal gains and further assert that from a political perspective, it would be in the best interest of the government to ensure there favorable conditions for them to prosper (Magstadt, 2017). There are also a vast number of private companies in the country that provide various social services to the US population.


Is communism the same as socialism?

Conservatism and Socialism

Socialism, on the other hand, is incorporated in the US political system through some programs that cater to the well-being of the country’s population. For example, it is the government’s responsibility to fund the Social Security, Medicare, and Medicaid programs which offer security and health insurance services to the people of the United States (Hornberger, 2018). These socialism-associated programs have been accepted as paramount by all, regardless of an individual’s political affiliation.


Hornberger, J. G. (2018). Few dare call it socialism: Social security and Medicare. Retrieved from

Magstadt, T. M. (2017). Understanding Politics: Ideas, Institutions, and Issues. Australia: Cengage Learning.