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The Danger of Artificial Intelligence in the Modern Human World

The Danger of Artificial Intelligence in the Modern Human World

The Danger of Artificial Intelligence in the Modern Human World

In Westworld, folks travel to a theme park that has robots referred to as hosts. The humanoids think, act, and socialize like real human beings. However, people are aware that they are not human beings, so they are poorly treated. The world changes and the robots have an advantage, and they remember each person who managed them with reckless abandon. The movie employs Artificial Intelligence (AI) because it creates systems that can receive commands, and operate like human beings (Crichton). Such a system is dangerous because AI can be programmed to perform hazardous tasks, or the tasks might be useful, but the systems might develop harmful ways of achieving the tasks. AI is also dangerous because it will be a reserve for the rich, and poor people will be at a disadvantage.

 

How would Artificial Intelligence affect people’s lives today?

The Danger of Artificial Intelligence in the Modern Human World

Artificial intelligence can be made to perform destructive acts. It is possible for artificial intelligence to produce weapons that are programmed to kill or lead to mass casualties (Tegmark Para.7). In this sense, people, groups, or nations will compete to produce the best weapons, and this can lead to an all-out AI war, which will have mass casualties. If such weapons get into the hands of the wrong person, or the wrong government, then the rest of the world is in a mess because it can be misused. To prevent the off chance that the enemy might overtake one, AI weapons can be made to cause the most harm and be hard to switch off (Tegmark Para.7). Therefore, the casualties that can arise from such will be massive. It is effortless for human beings to lose control of such a scenario, and it can quickly spiral out of control.  In the movie, the hosts are not connected to the net, which means that they cannot be controlled remotely (Crichton). This is to assure them of their privacy. However, on occasion a host turns dangerous to the people and environment around it, then it becomes dangerous, especially if such a host is programmed to kill. The DNA of the hosts is a grown CPU, which only follows commands it is given. Thus, if the wrong commands are given, or if the controls are to cause mass causalities, then it can lead to the death of many people. Artificial intelligence can easily create weapons, and these weapons can lead to mass destruction, because of the possibility that they might be hard to control or switch off remotely.

 

What are the pros and cons of artificial intelligence?

The Danger of Artificial Intelligence in the Modern Human World

Secondly, the AI can be programmed to be of help, but then it goes rogue and develops a damaging method to reach its goal. Artificial intelligence means that information is entered into a robot, and then the robot is required to perform the task, regardless of the situation. Therefore, the intentions might be good, but the robot might adopt dangerous methods of achieving the said goal. This can happen when the developers do not have the same goals as the AI. Thus, they have a said goal but do not provide a clear pathway for the task to be performed.  For instance, a smart car might be instructed to get someone to the station using the fastest way possible. It will complete the task, but it might leave casualties in its wake because it will cause accidents, disobey traffic laws and lead to destruction (Tegmark Para.8-9). It will have performed the task it was given diligently, but the route it used was dangerous. This means that AI has the potential to develop harmful ways to achieve the tasks given and any attempt to stop it will be viewed as a threat by the system. In the movie, the hosts could not connect to the cloud, which means that they could not process information, some of which could have been helpful to make important decisions. Therefore, such hosts could not think about the consequences of their actions; once they were given a task, they had to perform it, without caring about the consequences. This means that if they were given a task that had detrimental effects on humans, then the device would perform it because their intelligence was localized to their present moment.

The Danger of Artificial Intelligence in the Modern Human World

Artificial intelligence will be a reserve for the rich, which means that the poor will be at a disadvantage because they will not afford machines to help them. AI is a perfect tool in the modern world, where people value efficiency and effectiveness. People are willing to pay an extra dime to get more efficient services. Therefore, AI promises to deliver a more efficient way of doing tasks at a lower cost. Considering the huge amount of resources and time that is put into developing AI, it is no secret that it will be used most by those who are fortunate in society (Daw Para. 12). Presently, smart devices are used by those who can afford them, because of their price. Therefore, if AI becomes commonplace in society, a group of people will be left behind, which is not a good thing, because it is beyond their control. It will also lead to the loss of jobs, which will widen the rich-poor gap further. Tasks that were performed by humans will be left to AI, and a huge number of people will lose their source of income (McClelland Calum Para. 2. The trickledown effect is that a section of the society will have a poor quality education, healthcare, and lifestyle, while another chunk will enjoy a better quality of life, better healthcare, and education. Apart from increased levels of poverty, there is the risk of war breaking out because people will fight for resources and the system that brought about the poor living conditions. Alternatively, AI could be made affordable to all, but it will lead to new health, social and economic situations, which will cost nations a lot of money to handle.

In conclusion, AI can easily be programmed to perfume harmful tasks or equipment can be programmed to perfume decent tasks, but it can adopt methods that are harmful to perfume the said tasks. Moreover, AI can widen the rich-poor gap further, because the machines will be affordable to the rich, which leave the poor at a disadvantage. The technology in Westworld is far too developed for the world today, but it gives a glimpse of what it could be like if AI is developed. Presently, AI is developing rapidly, and narrow AI can perfume simple tasks. The future promises a situation where AI can easily outperform human beings in all cognitive tasks. It will be hard to switch off AI, especially if it is used as a weapon, and this can lead to mass destruction. It can also lead to wars where the poor and rich fight for resources, due to the wage gap might bring forth.

 

The Danger of Artificial Intelligence in the Modern Human World

Works Cited

Crichton, Michael, Director. Westworld. Box Office, 1973.

Daws, Ryan. “Report: AI will increase the wealth inequality between the rich and poor.” Artificial Intelligence News, 11 January 2018, www.artificialintelligence-news.com/2018/01/11/ai-wealth-inequality/. Accessed 12 March 2018.

McClelland, Calum. “The Impact of Artificial Intelligence – Widespread Job Losses.” Iotforall.com, www.iotforall.com/impact-of-artificial-intelligence-job-losses/. Accessed 12 March 2018.

Tegmark, Max. “Benefits & Risks of Artificial Intelligence.” Futureoflife.org, futureoflife.org/background/benefits-risks-of-artificial-intelligence/?cn-reloaded=1. Accessed 12 March 2018.

 

 

Sustainability economic environment

Sustainability economic environment

Sustainability economic environment

Module 7 – Sustainability/Complexity in the Economy-Environmental Economics-Model B  REVISED-OCT 22, 2021

Lecture 7 by  (Comparison of Three Economy-Environment Models)

  1. Reading Week 7 BI 1, 2; ST-9

Journal Reading 7:

7a: Lane, P. undated note. Understanding the links between economy and environment. (on Brightspace in Module 7)

7b.  de Groot, R., L. Brander, S. van der Ploeg, et  al. 2012. Global  estimates of the value of ecosystems and their services in monetary units.  Ecosystem Services 1: 50-61 pp.

Note: This paper has an Appendix 1 of Supporting Information with tables of valuation data you can use for Assignment 7. For example, see Tropical Forests, p. 17.

 

  1. Activities Week 7:

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=WkAyUCJ_W84&list=UL9uqpcKWuhrU&index=219

  • Visit the Sherritt Website to learn about the joint venture with Cuba in nickel-cobalt mining

https://www.sherritt.com/English/operations/metals/Moa/default.aspx

  • What do you think about Sherritt’s sustainability plan?

https://sustainability.sherritt.com/2019/our-approach/content#sdg

  • The USA Blockade has affected Canadian company Sherritt in its joint ventures with Cuba.

https://www.bnnbloomberg.ca/sherritt-ceo-undaunted-by-trump-s-tightening-of-embargo-on-cuba-1.1251542

  • Values of Biodiverisity

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=D6luBEJfi3s

  • Introduction to Valuation

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=0CHIs9dLvxA

  • Classes of Values

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=q8AZHtF2f50

  • Valuation of Ecosystem Services

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=q8AZHtF2f50

  • Market Values of Natural Resources

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=M0ZdV5WU5K4

  • Contingent Valuation

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=__xzmIG4L8s

 

Calculating the Value of Cuban Biodiversity

Sustainability economic environment

      Sustainability economic environment                          

In a remote area near Moa, in Eastern Cuba, nickel-cobalt mining is accomplished through open pit mines that involve the destruction of all above-ground biota via the Cuba-Sherritt joint venture.  Value one hectare (10,000 m2) of this land parcel considering at least 5 of the following aspects of the property and the ecosystem (#1-5), and 5 (#6-10) from the de Groot et al. (2012) reference in Table 1.

  1. It is a rare habitat of original forest of which only 150 ha remains in all of Cuba
  2. The project is located within a national park with foreign sponsorship. (Alexander von Humboldt National Park in collaboration with Germany).
  3. 2 endemic animal species are living in the hectare.  They include:
  • 1 small mammal (hutia) whose total range is 50 ha and who is on the endangered list and defends its territory,
  • 1 bird whose total range is 100 ha with the center of its range in the study ha.

(Note-an endemic species is one that occurs in only one location, however, that location can be be defined such as all of Cuba, or a sub-part, such as a particular mountain top etc.)

  1.  6 rare and endangered plant species with restricted but sporadic distributions throughout Eastern Cuba occur in your ha.
  2. Many other species occur in the hectare and use it for feeding and breeding.
  3. Value of the land as property as if a homeowner is buying a house lot.
  4. Loss of the land for other development purposes such as housing, logging, etc.
  5. Loss of ecosystem services: water purification.
  6. Loss of ecosystem services: air purification.

To Do:

Estimate the value of 1 ha of Cuban biodiversity that could be destroyed by a Cuban nickel mine and fill in Table 1 with your calculations and Table 2 with your assumptions.   You may have to make some hypothetical assumptions to proceed with the calculations-just try to be as reasonable and logical as you can.  Table 3 contains a range of methods from ecological economics-you can google for more information. Table 4 has a listing of ecosystem goods and services that you can check against. Answer these questions after you obtain your final value for the 1 ha of Cuban biodiversity using its 10 most important components.  Nos. 1-5 you calculate using the various methods from environmental economics. You may also include up to 5 of the values in the de Groot paper (2012) supplementary appendix for a tropical forest if they are useful or values from other references, but always referencing where you obtained the information (Nos. 6-10).  Be careful not to double-count the same components in groups 1-5 (calculated) and 6-10 (literature).

 

 Difficulties in valuing biodiversity

 

Sustainability economic environment

The purpose of this assignment is to give you a way to experience how difficult it is to value biodiversity.  There is no correct answer, but we are interested in how well you can reason out the problem, try the methods, and make reasonable assumptions.  Answer these questions after you have done the calculations: (4 Questions = 4 pt.)

  1. How accurate to you think your final estimate is and what are the main sources of error?
  2. What were the most difficult components to calculate and why?
  3. What does this exercise suggest about the pros and cons of the environmental economics approach (Model B) that uses these valuation methods routinely?
  4. How does the value of the nickel and cobalt that could be mined in one hectare compare to the total value of biodiversity for your ten components in the hectare? Based on your answer, would you proceed with the mine?  Be sure to give your monetary estimates for nickel and cobalt at the bottom of Table 1.

 

Sustainability economic environment

Some Possible Conversions You Might Use:

1 US dollar = 1.33 Canadian Dollars (2020)

1 int$ in 2007 = 1.25 US dollar (2020) in DeGroot paper

1 Cuban Convertible (CUC) Peso = 1 Canadian dollar

1 hectare = metric unit of area equal to 10,000 m2 (100 x 100m) or 2.471 acres

A Cuban salary = 15-40 CUC for 22 days work/month

A small Cuban house is 20,000 CUC

Travel per km is 1 CUC per 20 km

Land in this part of Cuba is worth 400 CUC for a plot 20 x 20 m

Nickel is selling on the world market at:  $15,000 for a metric ton.

In Moa, the nickel deposit is 10 m deep (after the soil is removed) with 1.32% nickel and 0.115% Cobalt found in the rock by weight.

Cobalt is selling at $30,000 per ton.
One Ton of Rock Covers:  11.15 square meters – 5 cm deep.

Weight per cubic meter or rock is approximately 11.6 tons.

One cubic meter will cover about 100 square feet at 3″ deep.

 

 

 

Table 1.  Values of 10 Ecosystem Components-Note place all assumptions you made in a list in the Assumption Table 2, using the Column number and Row letter to identify where the

assumption was made.  Ex: 2-C. or 6-B. (Calculate 1-5 and then add components 6-10 you selected from the literature.) (4 pts for Table 1 including assumptions in Table 2.)

 

 

A. Component B. Amount in units C. Valuation per unit D. Method including M=market E.  Total $$
1-        
2-        
3-        
4-        
5-        
6-        
7-        
8-        
9-        
10-        
  Price of Nickel

S

Price of Cobolt

$

GRAND TOTAL:

Nos. 1-10

 

 

 

 

Table 2.  Assumptions Used in Table 1 by rows 1-10.

 

 

Component Col/Row Identifier Assumption
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     

 

 

 

 

 

FOR YOUR INFORMATION:

Table 3.  Some Methods from Ecological Economics Economic taken from: Valuation of Wetlands: an Important Component of Wetland Management Strategies at the River Basin Scale by Alain Lambert (2003).  You can also find many methods examples on the Internet.

Method Applicable to… Description and Importance Constraints and limitations
Market Price Method Direct Use values, especially wetland products. The value is estimated from the price in commercial markets (law of supply and demand) Market imperfections (subsidies, lack of transparency) and policy distort the market price.
Damage Cost Avoided, Replacement Cost or Substitute Cost Method

 

Indirect Use Values: coastal protection, avoided erosion, pollution control, water retention… The value of organic pollutant or any other pollutant’s removal can be estimated from the cost of building and running a water treatment plant (substitute cost).

The value of flood control can be estimated from the damage if flooding would occur (damage cost avoided).

It is assumed that the cost of avoided damage or substitutes match the original benefit. But many external circumstances may change the value of the original expected benefit and the method may therefore lead to under- or over-estimates. Insurance companies are very interested in this method.
Travel Cost Method

 

Recreation and Tourism The recreational value of a site is estimated from the amount of money that people spend on reaching the site. This method only gives an estimate. Over-estimates are easily made as the site may not be the only reason for traveling to that area. This method also requires a lot of quantitative data.
Hedonic Pricing Method

 

Some aspects of Indirect Use, Future Use and Non-Use Values This method is used when wetland values influence the price of marketed goods. Clean air, large surface of water or aesthetic views will increase the price of houses or land. This method only captures people’s willingness to pay for perceived benefits. If people are not aware of the link between the environment attribute and the benefits to themselves, the value will not be reflected in the price. This method is very data intensive.
Contingent Valuation Method

 

 

Tourism and Non-Use values This method asks people directly how much they would they be willing to pay for specific environmental services. It is often the only way to estimate the Non-Use values. It is also referred to as a “stated preference method”. There are various sources of possible bias in the interview techniques. There is also controversy over whether people would actually pay the amounts stated in the interviews. It is the most controversial of the non-market valuation methods but is one of the only ways to assign monetary values to non-use values of ecosystems that do not involve market purchases.
Contingent Choice Method

 

For all wetland goods and services Estimate values based on asking people to make tradeoffs among sets of ecosystem or environmental services Does not directly ask for willingness to pay as this is inferred from tradeoffs that include cost attribute. This is a very good method to help decision makers to rank policy options.
Benefit Transfer Method

 

For ecosystem services in general and recreational uses in particular Estimates economic values by transferring existing benefit estimates from studies already completed for another location or context. Often used when it is too expensive to conduct a new full economic valuation for a specific site. Can only be as accurate as the initial study. Extrapolation can only be done for sites with the same gross characteristics.
Productivity Method For specific wetland goods and services: water, soils, humidity in the air… Estimates the economic values for wetland products or services that contribute to the production of commercially marketed goods The methodology is straightforward and data requirements are limited but the method only works for some goods or services.

 

 

 

Table 4.  Some Ecosystem Goods and Services in Forested Ecosystems

See also journal readings

 

Ecosystem Goods and Services. Healthy ecosystems carry out a diverse array of processes that provide both goods and services to humanity. Here, goods often refer to items given monetary value in the marketplace, whereas the services from ecosystems are valued, but are rarely bought or sold.

 

Goods include:(Often direct values and can also be called services in the sense  of producing the good)

  • Species or their products with a market value-food, timber, drugs, leather, building materials, etc.
  • Biota key to functioning of ecosystem/its integrity
  • Genetic diversity and resources/uses for biotechnology
  • Water

                         

Ecosystem services include: (Often indirect values)

  • Maintenance of energy flux, dissipation, climate modulation
  • Gas regulation and air quality
  • Mediation of extreme weather events
  • Waste treatment
  • Erosion control
  • Biological control and refugia, productivity, plant pollination
  • Maintenance of hydrologic flux, hydrologic cycle, water quality, flood control
  • Maintenance of bio-geo-chemical cycling, storage, mineral-gaseous cycles, water-air quality
  • Decomposition, weathering, soil development-stability, soil quality

 

 

 

biopsychosocial report

biopsychosocial report

 

biopsychosocial report

This activity is designed for students to comprehensively understand how to complete an interview, summarize findings, and present the information in a brief report.

Each student will be required to interview a child and/or parent between the ages of 2-18 years of age. After completing interview, the student is required to write up a biopsychosocial summary based on the interview

 

 

 

Biopsychosocial report (BPS) – should consist of the following sections in report: presenting problem, history of problem, developmental/medical history, family history, educational/social history, special considerations, mental status and client’s strengths, clinical findings, diagnostic impressions, and tentative treatment recommendations. This is simply a brief narrative summarizing your clinical interview.

 

How do you perform a biopsychosocial assessment?

 

 

Demographics

Client Name: Date:
Current Address:

Street

City/State       Zip Code

Phone #: (     )       –
Date of Birth: Marital/Relationship Status:
Nation/Tribe/Ethnicity:  
Primary language of client:   Secondary:
Referral Source:   Phone:
Emergency Contact:   Phone:

 

Family Relationships

Does the client have any children?
Name Age

 

Date of Birth Sex Custody? Y/N Lives With? Additional Information
             
             
             
             
 

Who else lives with the client? (Include spouses, partners, siblings, parents, other relatives, friends)

Name Age Sex Relationship Additional Information
         
         
         
         
         
         
         
         
Primary language of household/family: Secondary:

 

 

Family History

Family History of (select all that apply):          
  Mother Father Siblings Aunt Uncle Grandparents
Alcohol/Substance Abuse            
History of Completed Suicide            
History of Mental Illness/Problems  such as:            
    Depression            
    Schizophrenia            
    Bipolar Disorder            
    Alzheimer’s            
    Anxiety            
    Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity            
    Learning Disorders            
    School Behavior Problems            
    Incarceration            
    Other            
Comments:          

Critical Population (choose all that apply)

Funding Source Residential Legal Involvement
     Food Stamp Recipient      Homeless      Protective Services (APS/CPS)
     TANF Recipient      Shelter Resident      Court Ordered Services
     SSI Recipient      Long Term Care Eligibility      On Probation
     SSDI Recipient      Long Term Care Resident      On Parole
     SSA (retirement) Recipient        On Pre-Release
     Other Retirement Income Disability      Mandatory Monitoring
     Medicaid Recipient      Physical Disability  
     Medicare Recipient      Severely Mentally Ill Other
     General Assistance      SED      Currently pregnant
       Developmentally Disabled      Woman w/dependents
       Chronically Mentally Ill  
       Regional Behavioral Health Authority  
 

Contact Information

(Secure consents for agency contacts, when possible)

Name of Caseworker Agency Phone number
     
     
     

 

 

Client’s/Family’s  Presentation of the Problem:

 

Client’s/Family’s Expected Outcome:

 

 

 

Physical functioning

Allergies (Medication & Other):
Current Medical Conditions:
Current Medications (include herbs, vitamins, & over-the-counter):
Past Medications:
Past Medical History including hospitalizations/residential treatment  (list all prior inpatient or outpatient treatment including RTC, group home, therapeutic foster care, aftercare, inpatient psychiatric, outpatient counseling):

 

Dates Inpt/Outpt Location Reason Completed?  Y/N
         
         
         
         
         
         
         
Surgeries:

 

 

 

Pain Questionnaire

 

Pain Management: Is the client in pain now?   Yes       No

If yes, ask client to rate the pain on a scale of 1-10 (with 10 being the severest) and                                  enter score here

 

Is the client receiving care for the pain?    Yes       No

If no, would the client like a referral for pain management?   Yes       No

 

 

Nutrition

Nutritional Status:   Current Weight               Current Height                 BMI
Appetite:    Good    Fair    Poor, please explain below
     Recently gained/lost significant weight      Binges/overeats to excess
     Restricts food/Vomits/over-exercises to avoid weight gain      Special dietary needs
     Hiding/hording food      Food allergies
Comments

 

Child/Adolescent Growth & Development

During pregnancy, did the biological mother have any of the following (select all that apply)?
     Amniocentesis      Anemia      Diabetes Melllitus
     Emotional Problems      Excessive weight gain      German Measles
     High blood pressure      High fever      Kidney problems
     No prenatal care      Placenta Previa      Premature labor
     Vaginal bleeding      Vaginal infection      Other infection
     Unknown      Other:
What should be assessed first in a biopsychosocial assessment?

During pregnancy, did the mother use any of the following (select all that apply)?

      Tobacco       Alcohol       Street Drugs       Unknown
Comments (frequency and intensity of use, participation in treatment, birth defects or malformations due to drug/alcohol use among siblings):
Any problems with labor &/or delivery?             Apgar Scores?
 

Did the baby have any of the following after delivery (select all that apply)?

     Anemia      Apnea      Birth defects      Blood transfusions
     Bradycardia      Cord around neck      Eye problems      Fever/low temperature
     Hernia      Hydrocephalus      Infection      Intensive Care
     Intracranial bleed      Jitteriness      Physical injury      Seizures
     Surfactant      Trouble breathing      Trouble sucking      1 of multiples (twin, etc)
     Use of Oxygen      Ventilator      Yellow Jaundice      Other:
 

Developmental Milestones – please select any that the client did late or is still having trouble with:

     Rolling Over (2-6 months)      Sitting (6-12 months)      Standing (8-16 months)
     Walking (8-16 months)      Engaging peers (24-36 months)      Toileting (24-36 months)
     Dressing self (24-36 months)      Feeding Self      Sleeping alone
     Tolerating separation      Playing cooperatively      Speaking
 
Are immunizations up to date?    Yes    No

 

Has the client had any of the following (select all that apply)?
Blood Disorders:    Anemia    Bleeding    Bruising
Brain Disorders:

 

 

   Confusion

Muscle Weakness

Tics (motor/vocal)

   Headaches

Staring

Head Injuries

   Coordination Problems

Tremors

Seizures

     
     
GI Problems:    Constipation    Diarrhea    Soiling    Vomiting
Heart/Lung Problems:    Asthma    Chest Pain    Murmur    Surgery    Congenital Heart Disease
Hormone Problems:    Obesity    Thyroid    Early Puberty    Late Puberty
Infections:      Chicken Pox      Measles      Sinus infections
     Ear infections      Meningitis      Whooping Cough      Encephalitis
     Mumps      High fevers      Pneumonia      Other:
Injuries:    Broken Bones    Stitches
Kidney Problems:    Bed wetting    Daytime wetting    Infections
Muscle/Bone Problems:    Scoliosis    Spasticity    Other:
Poisoning:    Chemicals    Lead    Other:
Sensory Problems:    Hearing    Tactile    Vision
Sexual Problems:    Birth Control    Masturbation    Promiscuity
Skin Disorders:    Acne    Birth Marks    Eczema    Hair Loss

 

Social

Supportive Social Network?    (Rate the network using a scale of 1 Weak to 5 Strong)
Immediate Family   Extended Family  
Friends   School  
Work   Community  
Religious   Other  
What percentage of this network are substance-abusing?      %
Comment:
Living Situation:
     Housing Adequate      Housing Dangerous      Housing Overcrowded      Homeless
     Dependent Upon Others      Incarcerated      Ward of State/Tribal Court
Additional Information:
Employment: Currently Employed?
     Yes Employer Length of Employment
     Satisfied      Dissatisfied      Supervisor Conflict      Co-worker Conflict
     No Last Employer: Reason for Leaving:
 
     Never Employed      Disabled      Student      Unstable Work History
 

Family Financial Situation:

Presence or absence of financial difficulties: (Fields below are optional)
     No Current Problems      Large Indebtedness      Relationship Conflicts Over Finances
     Impulsive Spending      Poverty or Below      Financial Difficulties
 

Family’s Source of Income (choose all that apply)

Employed:

 

 

   Full-time                Seasonal               Self-Employed    Part-time  Temporary Unemployed:      Public Assistance
     

 

   Actively seeking work  Not looking for work  
     
     Retirement      SSD      SSDI      SSI
     Medical Disability via Employer      Other:
 

Sexual Orientation:

     Heterosexual      Bisexual
     Homosexual      Transgendered
     N/A at this time Comment:

 

Family Social History

Describe family relationships & desire for involvement in the treatment process:

 

Perceived level of support for treatment?   (scale 1-5 with 5 being the most supportive)

 

 

 

Legal Status Screening

Past or current legal problems (select all that apply)?    
     None      Gangs        DUI/DWI
     Arrests      Conviction        Detention
     Jail      Probation        Other
If yes to any of the above, please explain:

 

   
Any court-ordered treatment?    Yes (explain below)    No  
Ordered by Offense     Length of Time
       
       
       

 

Child/Adolescent Educational Assessment

 

Current educational setting:

     Public      Tribal      Boarding (starting at age     )      Charter
     Private      Home      BIA      Vocational
     Alternate      GED      College      Other
 
Current grade level:      Skipped a grade or    been held back?
Any testing for an IEP (Individualized Education Plan)?    Yes    No
History of /or current placement in special education?         How many hours per day?
             For learning problems?    Yes    No          For behavior problems?    Yes    No
History of hyperactivity at school?    Yes    No            Comment:
Ever been expelled or suspended?    Yes    No             Reason:
 
School attendance problems:    Yes    No      Comments:
Other education-related concerns:

 

 

 

 

Leisure & Recreation

Which of the following does the client do? (Select all that apply)
Spend Time with Friends   Sports/Exercise  
Classes   Dancing  
Time with Family   Hobbies  
Work Part-Time   Watch Movies/TV  
Go “Downtown”   Stay at Home  
Listen to Music   Spend Time at Clubs/Bars  
Go to Casinos   Other:  
What limits the client’s leisure/recreational activities?

 

 

 

 

 

 

Functional Assessment

Is client able to care for him/herself?

 

 

 

   Yes    No    If No, please explain:
   
Living Situation:
     Housing Adequate      Housing Dangerous      Housing Overcrowded      Homeless
     Dependent Upon Others      Incarcerated      Ward of State/Tribal Court
Additional Information:

 

 

 

Uses or Needs assistive or adaptive devices (select all that apply):

     None      Glasses      Walker      Braille
     Hearing Aids      Cane      Crutches      Wheelchair
     Translated Written Information      Translator for Speaking      Other:

 

Psychological

History of Depressed Mood:    Yes    No
History of irritability, anger or violence (tantrums, hurts others, cruel to animals, destroys property):

 

 

Sleep Pattern:     Number of hours per day        Time to onset of sleep?
     Normal      Sleeping too much      Sleeping too little
Ability to Concentrate:    Normal    Difficulty concentrating
Energy Level:    Low    Average/Normal    High
 

History of/Current symptoms of PTSD (re-experiencing, avoidance, increased arousal)? Select all that apply

     Intrusive memories, thoughts, perceptions      Nightmares      Flashbacks
     Avoiding thoughts, feelings, conversations      Numbing/detachment      Restricted display of emotions
     Avoiding people, places, activities     Poor sleep      Irritability
     Hypervigilance     Other:
Any additional information:

 

 

 

Bereavement/Loss & Spiritual Awareness

Please list significant losses, deaths, abandonments, traumatic incidents:

 

 

 

Spiritual/Cultural Awareness & Practice

Knowledgeable about traditions, spirituality, or religion?    Yes    No     Comment:
   
Practices traditions, spirituality, or religion?    Yes    No     Comment:
   
How does client describe his/her spirituality?
Does client see a traditional healer?    Yes    No    Comment:
   

 

 

Abuse/Neglect/Exploitation Assessment

History of neglect (emotional, nutritional, medical, educational) or exploitation?           If yes, please explain.

biopsychosocial report

 

 

 

Has client been abused at any time in the past or present by family, significant others, or anyone
else?)    No    Yes, explain:
Type of Abuse By Whom Client’s Age(s) Currently Occurring? Y/N
Verbal Putdowns      
Being threatened      
Made to feel afraid      
Pushed      
Shoved      
Slapped      
Kicked      
Strangled      
Hit      
Forced or coerced into sexual activity      
Other      
   To whom?
Was it reported?    Yes    No
Outcome

 

 

 

 

Has client ever witnessed abuse or family violence?

 

 

 

 

 

 

    No    Yes, explain:
   

 

 

Behavioral Assessment

 

Abuse/Addiction – Chemical & Behavioral

Drug Age First Used Age Heaviest Use Recent Pattern of Use (frequency & Amount, etc) Date Last Used
Alcohol        
Cannabis        
Cocaine        
Stimulants (crystal,

speed, amphetamines,

etc)

       
Methamphetamine        
Inhalants (gas, paint, glue, etc)        
Hallucinogens (LSD, PCP, mushrooms, etc)        
Opioids (heroin, narcotics, methadone,

etc)

       
Sedative/Hypnotics

(Valium, Phenobarb, etc)

       
Designer Drugs/Other (herbal, Steroids, cough syrup, etc)        
Tobacco (smoke, chew)        
Caffeine        
Ever injected Drugs?    Yes    No If Yes, Which ones?
Drug of Choice?
 

Consequences as a Result of Drug/Alcohol Use (select all that apply)

     Hangovers      DTs/Shakes      Blackouts      Binges
     Overdoses      Increased Tolerance      (need more to get high)      GI Bleeding      Liver Disease
       
     Sleep Problems      Seizures      Relationship Problems      Left School
     Lost Job      DUIs      Assaults      Arrests
     Incarcerations      Homicide      Other:
Longest Period of Sobriety? How long ago?
Triggers to use (list all that apply):

 

Has client traded sex for drugs?

 

   No    Yes, explain:
   
Has client been tested for HIV?    Yes     No
If yes, date of last test: Results:
 

Has client had any of the following problem gambling behaviors? Select all that apply:

     Gambled longer than planned      Gambled until last dollar was gone
     Lost sleep thinking of gambling      Used income or savings to gamble while letting bills go unpaid
     Borrowed money to gamble      Made repeated, unsuccessful attempts to stop gambling
     Been remorseful after gambling      Broken the law or considered breaking the law to finance gambling
     Other:      Gambled to get money to meet financial obligations
 

Risk Taking/Impulsive Behavior (current/past) – select all that apply:

     Unprotected sex      Shoplifting      Reckless driving
     Gang Involvement      Drug Dealing      Carrying/using weapon
     Other:

 

biopsychosocial report

 

 

 

 

Mental Status Exam

Category Selections
GENERAL OBSERVATIONS
Appearance      Well groomed      Unkempt      Disheveled      Malodorous
Build      Average      Thin      Overweight      Obese
Demeanor      Cooperative      Hostile      Guarded      Withdrawn
     Preoccupied      Demanding      Seductive
Eye Contact      Average      Decreased      Increased
Activity      Average      Decreased      Increased
Speech      Clear      Slurred      Rapid      Slow
     Pressured      Soft      Loud      Monotone
Describe:
THOUGHT CONTENT
Delusions      None Reported      Grandiose      Persecutory      Somatic
       Bizarre      Nihilist      Religious
Describe:
Other      None Reported      Poverty of Content      Obsessions      Compulsions
     Phobias      Guilt      Anhedonia     Thought Insertion
     Ideas of Reference      Thought Broadcasting
Describe:
Self Abuse      None Reported      Self Mutilization
     Suicidal (assess lethality if present)      Intent      Plan
Aggressive      None Reported      Aggressive (assess lethality of present)
       Intent      Plan
PERCEPTION
Hallucinations      None Reported      Auditory      Visual
     Olfactory      Gustatory      Tactile
Describe:
Other      None Reported      Illusions      Depersonalization      Derealization
THOUGHT PROCESS
     Logical      Goal Oriented      Circumstantial      Tangential
     Loose      Rapid Thoughts      Incoherent      Concrete
     Blocked      Flight of Ideas      Perserverative      Derailment
Describe:
MOOD
     Euthymic      Depressed      Anxious
     Angry      Euphoric      Irritable
AFFECT
     Flat      Inappropriate      Labile      Blunted
     Congruent with Mood      Full      Constricted
BEHAVIOR
     No behavior issues      Assaultive      Resistant
     Aggressive      Agitated      Hyperactive
     Restless      Sleepy      Intrusive
MOVEMENT
     Akasthisia      Dystonia      Tardive Dyskinesia      Tics
Describe:
COGNITION
Impairment of:      None Reported      Orientation      Memory
     Attention/Concentration      Ability to Abstract
Describe:
Intelligence Estimate      Mental Retardation      Borderline      Average      Above Average
       
IMPULSE CONTROL      Good      Poor      Absent
INSIGHT      Good      Poor      Absent
JUDGMENT      Good      Poor      Absent

 

RISK ASSESSMENT
Risk to Self      Low      Medium      High      Chronic
Risk to Others      Low      Medium      High      Chronic
 

Serious current risk of any of the following:   (Immediate response needed)

Abuse or Family Violence    Yes    No Abuse or Family Violence    Yes    No
Psychotic or Severely Psychologically Disabled    Yes     No
Is there a handgun in the home?    Yes    No Any other weapons?    Yes    No
Plan:
Safety Plan Reviewed    Yes     No

 

 

 

 

Preliminary Treatment Plan & Referrals

Preliminary Biopsychosocial Treatment Plan
Biological:

 

Psychological:

 

Social/Environmental:

 

 

 

Referrals
     Psychiatrist      Psychologist      Medical Provider      Spiritual Counselor
     Benefits Coordinator      Nutritionist      Rehabilitation      Vocational Counselor
     Social Worker      Community Agency:      Other:

 

biopsychosocial report

 

Physical Fitness (Optional)

 

Physical Activity (please select one of the following based on activity level for the past month):

Avoids walking or exertion, e.g. always uses elevator, drives whenever possible instead of             walking.

 

Walks for pleasure, routinely uses stairs, occasionally exercises sufficiently to cause heavy        breathing or perspiration.

 

Participates regularly in recreation or work requiring modest physical activity such as golf,        horseback riding, calisthenics, gymnastics, table tennis, bowling, weight lifting, and yard work.    10-60 minutes per week

More than one hour per week

 

Participates regularly in heavy physical exercise, such as running, jogging, swimming, cycling,        rowing, skipping rope, running in place or engaging in vigorous aerobic activity such as tennis,        basketball or handball.

Runs less than a mile a week or engages in other exercise for less than 30 minutes        per week

Runs 1-5 miles per week or engages in other exercise for 30-60 minutes per week

Runs 5-10 miles per week or engages in other exercise for 1-3 hours per week

Runs more than 10 miles per week or engages in other exercise for more than 3 hours        per week

biopsychosocial report

biopsychosocial report

What should be assessed first in a biopsychosocial assessment?

biopsychosocial report

Assignment #6 – Regression

Assignment #6 – Regression

Assignment #6 – Regression

Regression Assignment #7 (Fall 2020)

Instructions: Read the following scenario, and then answer the questions that follow.  (5 points)

How well do you perform under pressure? What if that pressure comes from being surrounded (and possibly judged) by a crowd of people? Imagine a researcher has participants read aloud a speech in front of others. The researcher has between 1 and 10 crowd members observe the speech, and they measure how frequently participants deviate from the script (that is, the number of speech errors the participant makes, such as stuttering over words, mispronouncing words, or adding “ums” or “ers” as they read). Using Number of Observers (X) and Number of Speech Errors (Y), fill in the blank spaces in following chart to assess this relationship: (Hint: Complete this chart offline. Then, answer questions 1 through 5)

 

 

When should regression analysis be used in research?

Assignment #6 – Regression

  Number Observers (X) Number Errors (Y) X2 Y2 XY
  1 0      
  2 4      
  3 6      
  4 8      
  5 9      
  6 8      
  7 12      
  8 13      
  9 14      
  10 16      
Total          
  1. Which of the following is correct?

A). The predictor (independent) variable is number of errors. The criterion (dependent) variable is the number of observers. The researchers are trying to see if the number of errors predicts the number of observers.

B). The predictor (independent) variable is number of errors. The criterion (dependent) variable is the number of observers. The researchers are trying to see if the number of observers predicts the number of errors.

C). The predictor (independent) variable is the number of observers. The criterion (dependent) variable is the number of errors. The researchers are trying to see if the number of errors predicts the number of observers.

D). The predictor (independent) variable is the number of observers. The criterion (dependent) variable is the number of errors. The researchers are trying to see if the number of observers predicts the number of errors.

 

 

Why is regression analysis used in survey research?

Assignment #6 – Regression

 

  1. What is the correct regression weight (b)? (round to three decimal places here). (1 point)

            A). 3.150

B). 0.332

C). -1.576

D). 1.576

E). -0.332

 

  1. What is the correct regression intercept (a)? (round to three decimal places here) (1 point)

A). 3.138

B). 0.332

C). -1.576

D). 1.576

E). -0.332

 

  1. What is the correct regression equation (Y’)? (use three decimal places here) (1 point)

A). Y’ = 0.332X + 1.576

B). Y’ = -1.576X – 0.332

C). Y’ = 3.105X – 1.576

D). Y’ = 1.576X + 0.332

E). X = 1.576Y’ + 0.332

 

  1. Imagine a participant performing in a group of twelve (12) observers. Given your regression equation, how many errors should the participant make? (For your final answer, please round to two decimal places) (1 point)

A). 5.63

B). 12.27

C). 19.24

D). 35.62

E). -19.24

 

 

Socio-legal approach to studying law

Socio-legal approach to studying law

 

Socio-legal approach to studying law

Definitions/Explanations: Be prepared to provide definitions for the following list of terms and
concepts (drawn from lectures and readings) and be able to explain/discuss the elements of
each. You should also be able to discuss these terms and concepts in relation to each other and
in relation to the readings (i.e., by way of providing examples). Ten (10) of these terms will
appear on the midterm and you will be required to answer five (5) of them. The answers should
be a minimum of 150 words and a maximum of 200 words. ***Notice each Definition/Explanation is worth 4 marks. Answers that are simply one or two lines
will not receive full marks; nor will answers that do not engage with readings. Arthurs and Bunting:
Interdisciplinary research in law
Socio-legal approach to studying law
Doctrinal approach to studying law
Ewick and Silbey:
1. Commonplace materiality
2. Institutionally Centred Law-First Perspective
3. Three stories of legality
Brooks:
4. Narrative
5. Legal Narratology
Definitions from Palmater:
6. Indian Act
7. Legislative Elimination
8. Status Indian and Non-status Indian
9. Genocide
10. Assimilation
11. White Paper
12. Residential Schools
13. Bill C-31
14. Sixties Scoop
15. Statutory Banishment
16. Commonplace Legality

 

What is socio-legal research in law?

Socio-legal approach to studying law

II. Long Answer: Be prepared to write longer answers (minimum 1 page double spaced and
maximum 2 pages double spaced) on the following topics. Some of the concepts you should
be prepared to apply in your answers are hegemony, resistance, colonialism, etc. All these
questions will appear on the test, and you will have to answer three (3) of them. Your answers
must reference course readings. 1. Describe and discuss four social forces that provide an impetus for making or altering laws
and provide examples. (Note: make sure you are clearly distinguishing the four social forces
especially in the examples you provide). (10 marks)
2. Discuss the elements and objectives of “law and society” scholarship. What are
different strands of socio-legal research and explain how these varieties might help the
researcher to avoid reproducing doctrinal and hegemonic scholarship? How can
research both reproduce and resist the status quo?
3. Discuss why Palmater finds the term “legislated elimination” a more appropriate description
of Indigenous peoples’ experience with Canadian law than “cultural genocide”  Discuss what Palmater’s article and Hubbard’s documentary teach us about Indigenous law, Canadian law, violence, and justice
4. Based on Palmater’s work and Hubbard’s documentary, discuss why it might be functional
or beneficial for any legal system to have many different principled responses to draw on

 

What is the sociological approach to law?

Socio-legal approach to studying law

https://www.thestar.com/news/investigations/2018/02/16/how-a-broken-jury-list-makes-ontario-justice-whiter-richer-and-less-like-your-community.htmlhttps://edmontonjournal.com/opinion/columnists/opinion-when-is-the-last-time-you-saw-an-indigenous-jurorhttps://edmontonjournal.com/news/crime/how-are-alberta-juries-are-selectedhttps://www.youtube.com/watch?v=qIZUpTxdYZw

Health Information System Case Selection and Proposal

 

Prior to beginning work on this assignment, read Chapters 1 through 3 from the Wager, Lee, & Glaser (2017) text, the article by Hemmat, Ayatollahi, Maleki, & Saghafi (2017), and Quality Improvement Student Project Proposal

 

Download Quality Improvement Student Project Proposal.

For this assignment, you will select one case from Chapter 14 in your textbook which all your weekly assignments will be based upon.

You will propose how the particular health information system used in your selected case would be applicable in a health care organization of your choice. Refer to your chosen organization as “[ABC] Health Care.” You will be expanding on your selection in the assignments for Weeks 2 through 5, and putting all of your assignments together to create a Final Presentation in Week 6. You will use a proposal form

 

Download proposal form provided here to complete this assignment. (Click on QUALITY IMPROVEMENT STUDENT PROJECT PROPOSAL

 

Download QUALITY IMPROVEMENT STUDENT PROJECT PROPOSAL to view a sample TMIT students’ proposal. While this sample doesn’t match the proposal form exactly, it will help give you an idea of what a proposal should look like.)

  • Evaluate the needs that are present within your selected case study as it applies to your “ABC Health Care” organization.
  • Examine the practices from your selected case study that confirm or contradict that data is complete, accurate, consistent, timely, secure, and fit for use.
  • Compare and contrast the different types of data and information generated by the health care organization in your case.

The Health Information System Case Selection and Proposal paper

  • Must be two to three double-spaced pages in length (not including title and references pages) and formatted according to APA style as outlined in the Writing Center (Links to an external site.).
  • Must include a separate title page with the following:
    • Title of Proposal
    • Student’s name
    • Course name and number
    • Instructor’s name
    • Date submitted
  • Must begin with an introductory paragraph that has a succinct thesis statement.
  • Must address the topic of the paper with critical thought.
  • Must end with a conclusion that reaffirms your thesis.
  • Must use at least three scholarly or peer-reviewed sources in addition to the course text.
  • Must document all sources in APA style as outlined in the Writing Center.
  • Must include a separate references page that is formatted according to APA style as outlined in the Writing Center.

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Nurse role in the Systems Development Life Cycle

Nurse role in the Systems Development Life Cycle

Nurse role in the Systems Development Life Cycle (SDLC)

In the media introduction to this module, it was suggested that you as a nurse have an important role in the  (SDLC). With a focus on patient care and outcomes, nurses may not always see themselves as contributors to the development of new systems. However, as you may have observed in your own experience, the exclusion of nurse contributions when implementing systems can have dire consequences.
In this Discussion, you will consider the role you might play in systems development and the ramifications of not being an active participant in systems development.
To Prepare

 

What is Systems Development Life Cycle SDLC and nursing?

Nurse role in the Systems Development Life Cycle (SDLC)
Review the steps of the Systems Development Life Cycle (SDLC) as presented in the Resources.
Reflect on your own healthcare organization and consider any steps your healthcare organization goes through when purchasing and implementing a new health information technology system.
Consider what a nurse might contribute to decisions made at each stage of the SDLC when planning for new health information technology.

 

What is the role of the SDLC?

Nurse role in the Systems Development Life Cycle (SDLC)

Post a description of what you believe to be the consequences of a healthcare organization not involving nurses in each stage of the SDLC when purchasing and implementing a new health information technology system. Provide specific examples of potential issues at each stage of the SDLC and explain how the inclusion of nurses may help address these issues. Then, explain whether you had any input in the selection and planning of new health information technology systems in your nursing practice or healthcare organization and explain the potential impacts of being included or not in the decision-making process. Be specific and provide examples.

Comic Analysis

Comic Analysis

Comic Analysis

Comics often have other visual techniques to help drive the point home. The comic presented is about the dark side of social media, with the message that it aims to defame, taunt and attack people. At any chance, the dark side gets, it shares the information for all to see. The devices used to analyze this comic are logos, symbolism, layout and color, invective, and caricatures. The devices used are essential in helping express the bad things associated with the use of social media.

 

Logos is the first device used to analyze the comic

Comic Analysis

 

Logos is the first device used to analyze the comic

The cartoon depicts the bad side of social media, which continuously exposes someone’s private thoughts. It shows that with social media, there is no privacy because even the dark voices in someone’s head can be revealed.  The logic here is that nothing is private, once it has been exposed to social media, because one day, the ugly side will creep up and expose it for all to see.

The second device used is symbolism. A rat is used as the owner of the dark side of social media. Rats are rodents, and they are very destructive as they feed on anything, and often, one does not know they have rats until it is too late. They are also very embarrassing, because they appear at times when no one is expecting, even when one has guests. Thus, it has been used to indicate that the dark side of social media is destructive, and it takes no prisoners. It will feed on any information given, and feed it out to the world at the moment one expects, and embarrass the owner. Another device used is the color, size, and layout. Dull colors are used to depict the cartoon, but the screen is brightly colored. The coloring is essential because it draws the attention of the viewer to the screen first. One can see clearly that whatever is being shared is brightly colored, to attract the audience. However, the mechanisms behind the message are dark, to indicate that it is not clear where the news comes from, as long as it is depicted in a way that is palatable to the audience.

 

Comic analysis essay

Comic Analysis

Invective is a device that uses negative language to attack or denounce someone. In the cartoon, the rat states that it loves sharing; however, the screen indicates that whatever is being shared is to defame, attack, and taunt. Thus, whatever message is being shared is negative to show that the dark side of social media uses such language to abuse people. It exposes people in a bad light, and attacks or denounces them in the process. The last device used is caricatured, which is done by exaggerating the prominent features of a person or creature. The rat’s nails, nose, and face are embellished, and this aims to indicate how dangerous the animal is. Without even reading the content of the cartoon, one can tell that the rat does not have good intentions, and it serves as a villain. The long unkempt nails are an indication of a creature that does not care for itself, or anyone else. Thus, it emphasizes the idea that the dark side of social media takes no prisoners, and will expose anyone at any time.

In conclusion, the devices used to analyze the comics are logos, caricatures, invective, symbolism and the layout. They all indicate the dangers of the dark side of social media, and how easily it can break down a person.

Survey Methodology: Unit Nonresponse Bias

Survey Methodology: Unit Nonresponse Bias

 

Survey Methodology: Unit Nonresponse and Response Bias

Unit nonresponse is an increasing problem in surveys globally. Many surveys administered in the United States through the mail, telephone, household, and face-to-face channels are experiencing higher refusal rates. Nonresponse bias results when the respondents differ in significant ways from non-respondents. Recent research findings demonstrate cases when the relationship between unit nonresponse rate and nonresponse bias is absent.

Firstly, unit nonresponse has increased at alarming rates in the population surveys field forcing many researchers to question whether or not the low response can result in nonresponse bias. Professional survey standards continue to advocate for high response rates. Historically, high response rates have been used as the sole indicator of a survey’s representativeness of the target population and bias in data. The belief has encouraged a series of approaches such as using incentives that seek to maximize response (Willcox, Giuliano, & Israel, 2010) and the use of alternative sampling techniques such as the respondent-driven sampling approach to increase representativeness (Lee et al., 2011). The study by Groves and Peytcheva (2008) acknowledges that high nonresponse bias occurs in population surveys and proposes that high response rates can reduce the risk of bias. The potential for nonresponse bias poses a risk to the quality of data because lack of bias is an essential trait of quality statistical estimates.

Secondly, recent research findings indicate that unit nonresponse can, but does not necessarily influence nonresponse bias in survey data. Until recently, high response rates have been linked to having high-quality data. However, recent studies have demonstrated that a high response rate is not synonymous with the representation of the target population. Griffin and Patrick (2014) demonstrate that a significantly high response rate can still produce biased estimates if respondents and non-respondents differ considerably on major features. Researchers should understand that low response rates do not necessarily result in biased survey estimates. Therefore, the survey professionals should not presume the absence or presence of nonresponse bias; instead, they should investigate whether the bias exists for specific variables.

 

unit nonresponse influences nonresponse bias

Survey Methodology: Unit Nonresponse and Response Bias

Moreover, several studies have investigated whether or not unit nonresponse influences nonresponse bias. For instance, the study carried out by Groves and Peytcheva (2008) evaluated the impact of nonresponse rates on nonresponse bias. The study utilized a meta-analysis of a large number of studies assessing nonresponse bias to establish the characteristics of estimates related to nonresponse bias. A total of 59 methodological studies using a variety of sampling frames, research designs, data collection modes, and variables were used during the study (Groves & Peytcheva, 2008). The study’s findings indicated that although large nonresponse biases can occur in surveys because of unit nonresponse, the unit nonresponse rate, by itself, is a weak predictor of bias estimates (Groves & Peytcheva, 2008). The study demonstrated that unit nonresponse rates explain only a small percentage of the disparity in different approximations of the nonresponse bias (Groves & Peytcheva, 2008). The research findings indicated that nonresponse results in nonresponse bias when the causes of refusal to participate are highly interrelated with the study variables.

Additionally, the study conducted by Rindfuss, Choe, Tsuya, Bumpass, and Tamaki (2015) evaluated whether low survey response rates bias results. The study utilized three surveys conducted to assess the impacts of nonresponse rates on nonresponse bias. The research used both a longitudinal and a cross-sectional survey, a variety of statistical methods such as analysis of variance, chi-square, and regression to examine how unit nonresponse influences nonresponse bias in surveys. The study findings indicated that although nonresponse bias occurs in distributions of some population behaviors and characteristics while controlling for an assortment of background variables, no evidence was found to support the notion that nonresponse influences nonresponse bias (Rindfuss et al., 2015). The research findings are consistent with results documented in several research literatures. The study concludes that unit nonresponse rates do not necessarily lead to nonresponse bias and suggest that researchers should test for nonresponse bias rather than assuming the presence or absence of bias in low response surveys.

 

relationship between unit nonresponse and nonresponse biases

Survey Methodology: Unit Nonresponse and Response Bias

Recent research findings illustrate occurrences when the relationship between unit nonresponse and nonresponse biases is absent. Until recently, response rates in surveys have been an important measure of data quality. This notion has encouraged researchers to use approaches such as financial incentives and desirable data collection tools to encourage participation. However, nonresponse rates have increased at an alarming rate in many urbanized, high-income populations. Nonresponse bias results when participants differ in significant ways from those who refuse to take part in a survey. The reduced response rates have forced researchers to investigate whether or not low response rate influences nonresponse bias. Despite recent research findings demonstrating that unit nonresponse does not necessarily affect nonresponse bias in survey data, professional survey standards continue to promote high response rates. An analysis of research studies evaluating nonresponse bias indicates that bias often occurs in low response surveys where the respondents and non-respondents differ significantly in the key study variables. However, the majority of studies maintain that unit nonresponse can, but do not necessarily influence nonresponse bias in survey estimates.

 

 

References

Griffin, J., & Patrick, M.E. (2014). Nonresponse bias in a longitudinal measurement design examining substance use across the transition out of high school. Drug and Alcohol Dependence, 143, 232-238. Doi: 10.1016/j.drugalcdep.2014.07.039.

Groves, R.M., Peytcheva, E. (2008).The impact of nonresponse rates on nonresponse bias. A meta-analysis. Public Opinion Quarterly, 72(2), 167–189. Doi:10.1093/poq/nfn011.

Lee, R. et al. (2011). Given the increasing bias in random digit dial sampling, could respondent-driven sampling be a practical alternative? Annals of Epidemiology, 21, 272–279. Doi:10.1016/j.annepidem.2010.11.018.

Rindfuss, R.R., Choe, M.K., Tsuya, N.O., Bumpass, L.L., & Tamaki, E. (2015). Do low survey response rates bias results? Evidence from Japan. Demographic Research, 32(26), 797-828. Doi: 10.4054/DemRes.2015.32.26.

Willcox, A.S., Giuliano, W.M., Israel, G.D. (2010). Effects of token financial incentives on response rates and item nonresponse for mail surveys. Human Dimensions of Wildlife, 15, 288–295. Doi: 10.1080/10871201003736047.

Survey Methodology

Survey Methodology

Survey Methodology

Mixed-moSurvey Methodologyde study designs combine two or more modes of data collection for a single project. Mixed-Mode research designs are becoming increasingly popular as a way to improve survey quality. Different study designs may be used during distinct stages of a study such as screening, recruitment and questionnaire administration or they may be used during a single phase such as data collection. Utilizing mixed methods of research either during different phases of the study or in one phase offers the possibility of offsetting the drawbacks of one approach with the strengths of another.

Types of the Mixed-Mode Designs

Mixed-mode designs are mainly classified into concurrent, sequential, multiphase and embedded designs. The main examples of mixed-mode designs include concurrent and sequential designs. In concurrent mixed-mode, a study offers two or more models at the same time (simultaneous quantitative and qualitative) whereas, in sequential mixed-mode, a study assigns modes sequentially during the life of the study (Mauz et al., 2018). Sequential designs include exploratory designs where qualitative methods are applied before quantitative methods and explanatory designs where quantitative methods are applied before qualitative methods. Other mixed-modes include multiphase and embedded designs (Bian, n.d.). In multiphase modes, a long-term study program consists of qualitative and quantitative components while in embedded modes, one type of research design is used within the framework of another. Mixed-mode designs collect both quantitative and qualitative data and analyze both types of data sequentially, concurrently, multiphase, or by embedding.

 

Why Mixed-Mode Designs Improve Survey Quality

 

Survey Methodology

Mixed-mode study designs improve survey quality by offsetting the weaknesses of one approach with the strengths of another. Study designs vary concerning factors such as speed of data collection, cost of the study, appropriateness for administering different types of data collection methods, and impact on the data quality. Therefore, using mixed-mode designs allows researchers to minimize the errors and costs associated with a specific study mode (Hox, Leeuw, & Klausch, 2017). Roberts (2007) agrees that mixing modes of designs maximizes the quality of the data collected. Weaknesses of qualitative studies can be offset by quantitatively structuring surveys while the drawbacks of quantitative studies can be offset by qualitatively describing processes in a study. O’Donnell, Lutfey, Marceau, and McKinlay (2007) argue that qualitative methods form a foundation for quantitative studies by improving the data collection process, improving cost-effectiveness and improving instrument validity. Mixed-mode designs have the potential to improve survey quality by tackling the problem of measurement and nonresponse errors. For instance, using an additional mode of study to administer specific research questions may help to reduce the probability of certain forms of measurement error. Likewise, an alternative study design can help access a group of participants who would otherwise be difficult to access in the main research mode. Mixed-mode designs enable researchers to study diverse views whereby they start data collection with one mode, and follows up respondents with a different mode which offers advantages concerning increasing participation and minimizing errors (Krosnick, 2011). The reason for utilizing each type of mixed-mode design is to reduce a particular form of research error.

 

 

Evaluation of Studies that Examine the Consequences of Mixed-Mode Designs for Survey Quality

 

Survey Methodology

Several studies have examined the consequences of mixed-mode designs for survey quality. For instance, the pilot study conducted by Mauz et al. (2018) compared sequential and concurrent mixed-mode designs concerning survey quality indicators such as costs, representation and overall response rates to establish which mixed-mode is better than the other. The study compared the use of sequential and concurrent mixed-mode designs in a health interview survey of adults. The two designs utilized computer-assisted telephone interviewing and two kinds of self-administered questionnaires to determine whether one of the two mixed-mode designs outdid the other on diverse survey quality indicators. The study findings indicated that sequential and concurrent mixed-mode designs improve survey quality by reducing costs, improving data quality, increasing response rates and allowing better sample composition (Mauz et al., 2018). Regarding data quality, the sequential mixed-mode design showed less item non-response than the concurrent mixed-mode design. Overall, the sequential mixed-mode design improved data quality and was more time and cost-effective. Mixed-mode designs offer a combination of study methods that provide a balance between the strengths and shortcomings associated with the choice one survey design.

Additionally, the study conducted by Patrick et al. (2018) examines the impact of using a sequential mixed-mode design in the United States National Monitoring the Future Study. The National Monitoring the Future Study surveys substance abuse among adults and adolescents in the United States using paper questionnaires. The study by Patrick et al. (2018) utilizes a sequential mixed-mode design by testing three conditions using web-based surveys in the longitudinal part of the research. The study offers an opportunity to examine the effects of using the sequential mixed-mode design on survey quality. Research findings indicate that the overall response was higher in the sequential mixed-mode designs than in the single mode of study. Patrick et al. (2018) argue that mixed-mode designs promote survey quality by allowing a cost-effective mode of data collection, increasing the response rate, reducing measurement error, reducing the time between data collection and data dissemination and improving data quality. The study concludes that sequential mixed-mode designs offer a combination of study methods that offset the shortcomings of one study design with the benefits of another survey design.

                                                                     Conclusion                                  

Mixed-mode designs are increasingly utilized in research because of their potential to offset the shortcomings of one approach with the benefits of another. The mixed-mode study designs promote survey quality by providing a balance between the strengths and weaknesses associated with the choice of only one study design. Whether a researcher is going to reap the benefits of a mixed-mode design mostly depends on the choice of the mixed study methods and how the study methods are combined.  Mixed-mode designs are mainly classified into concurrent and sequential designs; concurrent mixed-mode designs offer two or more models at the same time whereas sequential mixed-mode designs assign modes successively during the life of the survey. Mixed-mode study designs improve survey quality by balancing the flaws of one approach with the strengths of another. For instance, flaws of qualitative studies can be off-set by quantitatively structuring surveys while the limitations of quantitative studies can be off-set by qualitatively describing processes in a survey. Numerous studies have examined the consequences of mixed-mode designs for survey quality, and the research findings have indicated that the mixed-mode designs improve study quality by reducing costs, improving data quality, allowing better sample composition and increasing the response rates. The benefits of mixed-modes increase a study’s quality and acceptance.

                                                                    

 

References

Bian, H. (n.d.). Mixed methods research. East Carolina University. Retrieved from http://core.ecu.edu/ofe/statisticsresearch/mixed%20methods%20new.pdf.

Hox, J., Leeuw, E.D., & Klausch, T. (2017). Mixed-mode research: Issues in design and analysis. In P., Biermer et al. (Eds.), Total Survey Error in Practice, (pp.511-530). Doi: 10.1002/9781119041702.ch23.

Krosnick, J.A. (2011). Experiments for evaluating survey questions, in: Question Evaluation Methods. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, pp. 213–238. Doi:10.1002/9781118037003.ch14

Mauz, E. et al. (2018). Mixing modes in a population-based interview survey: Comparison of a sequential and a concurrent mixed-mode design for public health research. Archives of Public Health, 76(8). Doi: 10.1186/s13690-017-0237-1.

O’Donnell, A.B., Lutfey, K.E., Marceau, L.D., & McKinlay, J.B. (2007). Using focus groups to improve the validity of cross-national survey research: A study of physician decision making. Qualitative Health Research, 17 (7), 971–981. Doi: 10.1177/1049732307305257.

Patrick, M.E. et al. (2018). A sequential mixed-mode experiment in the U.S. national monitoring the future study. Journal of Survey Statistics and Methodology, 6(1), 72–97. Doi:10.1093/jssam/smx011.

Roberts, C. (2007). Mixing modes of data collection in surveys: A methodological review. ESRC National Centre for Research Methods Briefing Paper. Retrieved from http://eprints.ncrm.ac.uk/418/1/MethodsReviewPaperNCRM-008.pdf.