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Global Healthcare Comparison

Global Healthcare Comparison

Global Healthcare Comparison

Do you believe eye contact and personal contact should be avoided?

You would have a difficult time practicing as a nurse if you believed these to be true. But they are very real beliefs in some cultures.

Differences in cultural beliefs, subcultures, religion, ethnic customs, dietary customs, language, and a host of other factors contribute to the complex environment that surrounds global healthcare issues. Failure to understand and account for these differences can create a gulf between practitioners and the public they serve.

In this Assignment, you will examine a global health issue and consider the approach to this issue by the United States and by one other country.

To Prepare:

  • Review the World Health Organization’s (WHO) global health agenda and select one global health issue to focus on for this Assignment.
  • Select at least one additional country to compare to the U.S. for this Assignment.
  • Reflect on how the global health issue you selected is approached in the U.S. and in the additional country you selected.
  • Review and download the Global Health Comparison Matrix provided in the Resources.

 

World Health Organization’s (WHO) global health agenda

World Health Organization’s (WHO) global health agenda

 

Part 1: Global Health Comparison Matrix

Focusing on the country you selected and the U.S., complete the Global Health Comparison Matrix. Be sure to address the following:

  • Consider the U.S. national/federal health policies that have been adapted for the global health issue you selected from the WHO global health agenda. Compare these policies to the additional country you selected for study.
  • Explain the strengths and weaknesses of each policy.
  • Explain how the social determinants of health may impact the global health issue you selected. Be specific and provide examples.
  • Using the WHO’s Organization’s global health agenda as well as the results of your own research, analyze how each country’s government addresses cost, quality, and access to the global health issue selected.
  • Explain how the health policy you selected might impact the health of the global population. Be specific and provide examples.
  • Explain how the health policy you selected might impact the role of the nurse in each country.
  • Explain how global health issues impact local healthcare organizations and policies in both countries. Be specific and provide examples.

 

Part 2: A Plan for Social Change

 

A Plan for Social Change

Reflect on the global health policy comparison and analysis you conducted in Part 1 of the Assignment and the impact that global health issues may have on the world, the U.S., your community, as well as your practice as a nurse leader.

In a 1-page response, create a plan for social change that incorporates a global perspective or lens into your local practice and role as a nurse leader.

  • Explain how you would advocate for the incorporation of a global perspective or lens into your local practice and role as a nurse leader.
  • Explain how the incorporation of a global perspective or lens might impact your local practice and role as a nurse leader.
  • Explain how the incorporation of a global perspective or lens into your local practice as a nurse leader represents and contributes to social change. Be specific and provide examples

Turning Variables Into Knowledge

Turning Variables Into Knowledge

Turning Variables Into Knowledge

Imagine that you are hired as a data analyst for a bank. The bank would like to learn more about its customers’ spending and banking habits to identify areas of improvement. You have been asked to review the bank’s income statements over the last 5 years and identify trends that will allow them to better understand their customers.

Download your chosen bank’s annual income statements from the last 5 years from the Mergent database in the University of Arizona Global Campus Library. Review the Mergent Online: Accessing Mergent Online (Links to an external site.) resource for tips on accessing and searching the Mergent database. Use the “Company Financials” tab in Mergent to access the income statements.

Identify three variables or categories that the bank may be interested in further researching, such as sales or revenue. Using these three variables or categories, build a frequency table, a bar chart, and a pie chart using Excel. Review the Microsoft Excel Help: BUS625 Excel Guide (Links to an external site.) webpage for resources to help utilize Microsoft Excel. You will be using the same three variables in each table and chart, so the same data will be displayed in three different formats.

After creating the three tables, which of the tables and charts do you find most useful for communicating information about the bank’s customers? Write a brief case report summarizing your analysis and results.

In your paper,

Identify three variables in the income statements that the bank may be interested further researching to learn more about its customers.
Develop a frequency table, a bar chart, and a pie chart using variables in the income statements for your bank.
Analyze the table and charts to find the most useful information for communicating information about the bank’s customers.
Summarize your analysis and results, including how the charts were useful in your research.
The Turning Variables Into Knowledge paper

Must be two to three double-spaced pages in length (not including title and references pages, charts or tables), and formatted according to APA Style (Links to an external site.) as outlined in the Writing Center’s APA Formatting for Microsoft Word (Links to an external site.) resource.
Must include a separate title page with the following:
Title of paper in bold font
Space should appear between the title and the rest of the information on the title page.
Student’s name
Name of institution (University of Arizona Global Campus)
Course name and number
Instructor’s name
Due date
Must utilize academic voice. See the Academic Voice (Links to an external site.) resource for additional guidance.
Must include an introduction and conclusion paragraph. Your introduction paragraph needs to end with a clear thesis statement that indicates the purpose of your paper.
For assistance on writing Introductions & Conclusions

Research your own state and determine whether you live in an equitable distribution or a community property jurisdiction

Research your own state and determine whether you live in an equitable distribution or a community property jurisdiction

Research your own state and determine whether you live in an equitable distribution or a community property jurisdiction

Jeff and Amy have been married for eight years and have one child, John. They had a good life, until recently when Amy began to suspect Jeff was having an affair. Now that Amy has filed for divorce, Jeff has vowed to “take her to the cleaners.”

Amy Jeansonne believes her spouse, Jeff, is having an affair. She wants a divorce. They have one child, John, who is five years old. Amy is a lawyer, and her husband is in technology sales. Both parties are seeking sole custody of John.

Amy and Jeff have been married eight years. The couple only has joint bank accounts, with approximately $10,000 in their checking account and $30,000 in their savings account. The marital home (jointly held) is assessed at $250,000 for tax purposes. However, Jeff is very handy and has added on to and remodeled the home, adding a den with a hot tub in it. He did most of the work himself. There is currently a $100,000 mortgage and a $20,000 home equity loan secured by the property. Jeff does do side jobs for friends and family, and Amy believes he has not declared those payments as income. Amy has a 401(k) account worth $200,000, and Jeff’s 401(k) is worth $250,000. They own two cars and a boat, with approximately $35,000 owed on the vehicles in total. Their combined total annual income is $300,000.

Additionally, she has discovered hotel, restaurant, and jewelry store receipts in Jeff’s coat pocket, and she did not attend any of those places with him.

When Amy and Jeff married, she had a jewelry collection valued at approximately $10,000. During the marriage, she received as gifts from her relatives an additional $15,000 worth of jewelry. The collection is now valued at $35,000, $10,000 of which is attributed to appreciation in the value of the rings, watches, and necklaces included in the collection.

Before marriage, Jeff had a 1957 mint green Chevy worth $15,000 which is now worth $35,000. The difference in value is due to appreciation in the value of the vehicle over time.

The parties have resided in the marital home since their marriage eight years ago. The property has been appraised at $250,000. The down payment of $40,000 came from Amy’s mother and father, who insisted that the home be titled solely in her name. The purchase price was $175,000, and there is a mortgage on the property with a remaining balance of $70,000. Jeff added a den to the property through his own labor over a six-month period. It is estimated that this increased the value of the home by approximately $15,000. The remainder of the increase in value is attributable to market forces. The parties have contributed equally throughout the marriage to payment of the mortgage, insurance, property taxes, and household expenses. Amy wants to remain in the martial home to allow their five year old son, to remain in the home where he was born.

Amy and Jeff each want their pensions to remain intact, but we do not know the current value of each pension.

Amy has a personal credit card in the amount of $1,500; Jeff has a personal credit card in the amount of $3,000. The couple has a joint credit card in the amount of $8,000.

Amy has been paying back her law school debt since before she and Jeff married. She still owes $5,600. She has paid off approximately $22,000 since Jeff and Amy married.

Research your own state and determine whether you live in an equitable distribution or a community property jurisdiction.
Identify on a chart (similar to the one provided in Chapter 12 related to the Property Division Illustration or one available through your state’s court system). Reflect the value of each asset and liability.
Indicate your recommendations on the chart how you believe the assets and liabilities should be divided between the parties, given the standard in your state and the facts in this case.

Proposed title for the feasibility study

Feasibility Study Topic and Area of Interest A detailed feasibility study is an essential element in the process of diligently assessing any new health services business venture. According to data released by the Bureau of Labor Statistics, the health care industry is currently one of the fastest growing fields in the United States, and it is projected that the field will grow by 22 percent by 2018. This is compared to an 11 percent average growth rate for all other industries (United States Department of Labor, 2012). Whether you are considering new medical service lines, an expansion of your current operation or any other type of health care business venture, a feasibility study is an essential planning tool for any future health care leader. In this assignment, you will be taking the first step toward the completion of your final assignment by settling on the topic for your feasibility study. Please read the Leff, et al (2005) article, “Hospital at Home: Feasibility and Outcomes of a Program to Provide Hospital-Level Care at Home for Acutely Ill Older Patients.” Reflect on the procedures and content found in the article to aid you in choosing and shaping a topic for your feasibility study. The topic you select should be of interest and meaningful to you and your career, and it must be related to health care delivery. Create a document that includes the following:

  • Title: Proposed title for the feasibility study
  • Topic: Topic of the feasibility study
  • Description: A brief description (250-500 words) of how the proposal will impact the quality, availability, accessibility, and affordability of care
  • List of Resources: A list of five scholarly sources that you plan to use as you complete your feasibility study

Writing the Feasibility Study Topic and Area of InterestThe Paper:

  • Must be one to two double-spaced pages in length, excluding the title and reference pages, and formatted according to APA style as outlined in the Writing Center.
  • Must include a title page with the following:

Posted in Uncategorized

Patient Medical History

Patient Medical History

Patient Medical History

Mr. Tyler, a 55-year-old accountant, has had a “drinking problem” throughout most of his adult life. He drinks a case of beer each day. He has lost several jobs over the years for drinking at the workplace or showing up for work drunk. He lost his driver’s license for drunk driving, and his drinking has placed a considerable strain on his marriage. He has tried several self-help programs as well as Alcoholics Anonymous, all with little success. He has been hospitalized on several occasions over the years. Mr. Tyler has a severe tremor in his hands (probably a result of excessive alcohol intake), which makes it very difficult for him to use a spoon, fork, and knife to eat.
It’s your first day on the job as a CDM/DSS/NA, and you are consulted by his physician to see him for “Feeding Problems” and “Malnutrition”. The physician is wondering if there is any way to help Mr. Tyler with eating.
You review his medical record (which is quite extensive) and begin to work through your nutrition assessment for Mr. Tyler.
Past Medical History
First Hospitalization:
You note that Mr. Tyler was first hospitalized 15 years ago at age 40 with a complaint of vomiting up blood after a binge drinking episode that lasted seven days. He had excessive and repeated vomiting episodes at that time. The vomitus was bright red.
The hospital chart listed an admitting diagnosis of “Upper GI bleed” due to repeated vomiting.

 

How do you write a medical history for a patient?

Patient Medical History

Second Hospitalization
At age 45 (10 years ago), Mr. Tyler was hospitalized again this time with complaints of upper abdominal pain and noted to have “coffee-ground” emesis. He also complained of “heartburn” (a burning sensation in the area of the sternum), which was partially relieved with antacids. A diagnosis of “upper GI bleed due to gastritis and reflux esophagitis” is noted in the chart.

Third Hospitalization
At age 55, Mr. Tyler entered the hospital with complaints of a high fever, nausea, loss of appetite, and a dull, continual pain in the left side of the back. In addition, he had diarrhea of a particularly foul odor and yellow color. He had also lost 15 pounds over the last month and a half. He lost his appetite and sometimes he has some difficulties chewing and swallowing his regular foods. He is noted to have fluid accumulation (aka edema).
Anthropometrics:
Height: 5’11
Weight: 150 lbs
Labs: Albumin 2.1 (low)
Show your work/calculations, and the formula that you used for full credit.
1. Calculate his BMI. (2 points)
2. Calculate percent weight loss. (2 points)
3. Calculate his calorie, protein and fluid needs that are appropriate for his current diagnosis. (3 points)
4. What therapeutic diet do you think is the best recommendation for Mr. Tyler? (2 points)
5. Name two guidelines that Mr. Tyler should follow on the prescribed diet. (2 points)
6. List 4 beverages that may cause distress and should be avoided on his diet. (2 points)
7. List four food items that may cause distress and should be avoided on his diet. (2 points)
8. List four food items that may beneficial and could help Mr. Tyler. (2 points)

Nutrition Care Assessment and Recommendations

 

Patient Medical History

9. Briefly explain your nutritional assessment of Mr. Tyler such as: timing of meals, consistency of foods, any social support, and supplement recommendations. What can you recommend to help him increase his nutritional intake? (4 points)

10. Design a day meal plan for Mr. Tyler (Breakfast, Lunch, Dinner, and Snack) based on dietary guidelines, therapeutic dietary recommendations and the USDA My Plate. Don’t forget to write each food item with an appropriate portion size. What is the consistency/texture of the food items? What overall texture modification, if any, do you think Mr. Tyler might need? (10 points)
Overall texture recommendation for Mr. Tyler and why: _______________________

Table is worth 8 points

Meal
Portion Size AND Food Item
Food Group
Example
½ cup oatmeal
½ cup apple juice
1 cup coffee
Grains
Fruit
Free Food
Breakfast

Lunch

Snack

Dinner

11. Complete a Medical Record Entry for the Case Study Medical Record Documentation
ADIME format charting

Nutrition Assessment

Estimated Nutrient Needs:

Nutrition Diagnosis

PES Statement:

Intervention
Nutrition Prescription Recommendations:

Interventions:

Goals:

Monitoring/Evaluation

Piaget Developmental Psychology Questions

Piaget Developmental Psychology Questions

Piaget Developmental Psychology Questions

How do the components of Piaget’s model of genetic epistemology relate to the model of brain and mind discussed in video-lecture, text, and videos? Please put in parenthesis and underline specific pages from text and specific videos used to generate this answer.

 

  1. Which components of Piaget’s model of genetic epistemology are related to the Nature Hypotheses discussed in video-lecture, text, and video, and how? Please put in parenthesis and underline specific pages from text and specific videos used to generate this answer.

 

  1. Which components of Piaget’s model of genetic epistemology are related to the Nurture Hypotheses discussed in video-lecture, text, and video, and how? Please put in parenthesis and underline specific pages from text and specific videos used to generate this answer.

 

  1. Which components of Piaget’s model of genetic epistemology are related to the execution of behavior during critical/sensitive periods as discussed in video-lecture, text, and video and how? Please put in parenthesis and underline specific pages from text and specific videos used to generate this answer.

 

  1. Please describe variables that YOU think should be included in the environment to enable successful execution and development of mental processes during the stages Piaget defined and discussed in video-lecture and your text. Please put in parenthesis and underline specific pages from text and specific videos used to generate this answer.

 

  1. How are components of MIND involved in Natural Selection as defined and discussed in video lecture and text?

 

  1. How are components of MIND involved in expression of APRIORI behavior?

 

  1. How are components of MIND involved in expression of APOSTERIORI behavior?

 

  1. What components of MIND are involved in the ability of the external stimulus to execute appropriate responses?

 

  1. What components of MIND are involved in the ability of the internal stimulus to execute appropriate responses?

 

  1. What components of MIND are involved in acquisition of knowledge?

 

  1. How does MIND produce variation in behavior executed towards a specific situation?
  1. How is MIND related to the NATURE hypothesis described in your text and in video lecture?

 

  1. How is MIND related to the NURTURE hypothesis described in your text and in video lecture?

 

  1. How is MIND related to the dis- and continuous models described in your text and in video lecture?

 

  1. How are components of Piaget’s model of genetic epistemology deployed to achieve the goals described by Erikson’s stages of development as discussed in the text and video lecture? Please put in parenthesis and underline specific pages from text and specific videos used to generate this answer.

 

  1. Please write a paragraph describing the relationship between the components of Piaget’s model of genetic epistemology and the goals described by the psychoanalytic stages of development as discussed in the text and video lecture? Please put in parenthesis and underline specific pages from text and specific videos used to generate this answer.

 

  1. Please write a paragraph describing the relationship between the components of Piaget’s model of genetic epistemology and the goals described by the Humanistic stages of development as discussed in the text and video lecture? Please put in parenthesis and underline specific pages from text and specific videos used to generate this answer.

 

  1. How might you structure the environment to increase the likelihood of that a of a person (specify age) engages the intervening events Piaget suggested occur to enable transition through the sensitive periods described by Erikson (specify stage). Please put in parenthesis and underline specific pages from text and specific videos used to generate this answer.

 

  1. How might knowledge produced by the developmental psychologists concerned with structure of behavior and mental processes and their ability to change as discussed in video-lecture, read about in text, and observed in videos relate to your career goals? Please cite specific examples. Please put in parenthesis and underline specific pages from text and specific videos used to generate this answer.

 

  1. How might knowledge produced by the developmental psychologists concerned with structure of behavior and mental processes and their ability to change as discussed in video-lecture, read about in text, and observed in videos relate to your academic goals? Please cite specific examples. Please put in parenthesis and underline specific pages from text and specific videos used to generate this answer.

Medieval women’s Literature

Medieval women’s Literature

Medieval women’s Literature

Essay Question:

 

How does writing empower women in the Middle Ages? Discuss in relation to TWO texts studied on the module.

 

Text 1: Christine de Pizan, The Book of the City of Ladies

 

 

Christine de Pizan, The Book of the City of Ladies, Penguin Classics, ed. and trans. by Rosalind Brown-Grant (2004). This text was written in French but we read it in translation.

 

 

              Text 2: The Lais of Marie de France

 

e France, Marie., and Edward. Gallagher. The Lays of Marie De France. Indianapolis: Hackett, 2010. Web.

 

 

 

 

 

Recommended Secondary sources on author, not specific to primary texts! You must source this yourself! –

 

Christine de Pizan

 

Barbara Altmann & Deborah McGrady, eds., Christine de Pizan: A Casebook (London: Psychology Press, 2003)

The Cambridge companion to medieval women’s writing, edited by Carolyn Dinshaw and David Wallace (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2003). See essay by Roberta L. Krueger. Available online

Susan Groag-Bell, ‘Christine de Pizan (1364-1430): Humanism and the Problem of the Studious Woman,’ Feminist Studies 3.3/4 (1976), 173-184. Available online.

Rosalind Brown-Grant, Christine de Pizan and the moral defence of women: reading beyond gender (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1999)

Ruth Evans and Lesley Johnson, eds., Feminist Readings in Middle English Literature (Routledge, 1994)

Christine Laennec, ‘Unladylike Polemics: Christine de Pizan’s Strategies of Attack and Defense,’ Tusla Studies in Women’s Literature, 12.1 (1993), 47-59. Available online

. J. C. Laidlaw, ‘Christine de Pizan: An Author’s Progress,’ The Modern Language Review, 78.3 (1983), 525-550. Available online.

Carol M. Meale, Women and Literature in Britain, 1150-1500 (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1996)

Jennifer Summit, Lost property: the woman writer and English literary history, 1380-1589 (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2000)

Marilynn Desmond, Christine de Pizan: Texts/Intertexts/Contexts (Minnesota: University of Minnesota Press, 1998)

Diane Watt, Medieval Women’s Writing (Polity, 2006). Available as an e-book.
Jody Enders, ‘The Feminist Mnemonics of Christine de Pizan,’ Modern Language Quarterly. 55, no. 3, Sept 1994, 231-250.

 

Questions to be asked of The Book of the City of Ladies:

 

  1. Examining Part I, chapters 1 and 2 of Book of the City of Ladies, what does the character ‘Christine’ reveal to be the impact on her of the kinds of literature that she has been reading? How does she explain this effect?
  2. What anxieties of authorship does ‘Christine’ reveal in the first chapter of Part I of The City of Ladies? Why might a medieval woman writer have experienced such anxieties?
  3. What solutions are offered to ‘Christine’ and by whom? Why are Christine’s instructors authoritative?
  4. How does Christine de Pizan (the author) employ an allegory of building a city in order to construct her argument about women?
  5. What is de Pizan’s argument about women? How is it effective? Why might she feel it necessary to include such statements as ‘there is nothing worse than a woman who is dissolute and depraved: she’s like a monster, a creature going against its own nature, which is to be timid, meek and pure’ (Part I, chapter 8)
  6. How is her book structured? How do parts two and three of the Book continue and complete her task? What is the significance of the Virgin Mary becoming Queen over this city of ladies?

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Marie de France-  Secondary sources

 

 

Roberta L. Kreuger, ‘Marie de France’ in Carolyn Dinshaw and David Wallace, eds., The Cambridge Companion to Medieval Women’s Writing (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2003), 172-183. E-book.

Catherine Batt, ‘The French of the English and Early British Women’s Literary Culture’ in The History of British Women’s Writing, 700-1500 (London: Routledge, 2012), 51-59. E-book.

June Hall McCash, “La vie seinte Audree: A Fourth Text by Marie de France?”, Speculum 77.3 (2002), 744-77. Access via JStor.

Logan E. Whalen, A Companion to Marie De France (Leiden: Brill, 2011). E-book.

Sharon Kinoshita and Peggy McCracken, Marie de France: A Critical Companion (D. S. Brewer: Cambridge, 2014), p. 11.

Liz Herbert McAvoy, Diane Watt. The History of British Women’s Writing, 700-1500 : Volume One. Palgrave Macmillan; 2012.

 

 

The Subject Matter

All of the Lais are about men and women who suffer in love, but there is no simple lesson in this mosaic of tales. Rather, in diverse ways, each tale inscribes social and sexual transgression, the fusion of animal and human natures, real and otherworld settings in a way that encourages readers to ‘gloss’, or interpret, for themselves.

Roberta L. Kreuger, ‘Marie de France’ in Carolyn Dinshaw and David Wallace, eds., The Cambridge Companion to Medieval Women’s Writing (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2003), 172-183 (p. 174).

The Lais consistently pay attention to the place of women in feudal structures, but not just to admonish or critique. Marie imagines new possibilities in which women could choose their own lovers […] or rescue men […]. The Lais imagine ways in which women can manipulate and exploit feudal structures, and they imagine the ways in which those structures may be changed through women’s desires and even agency, if only in a limited way.

 

Some Questions to be asked of the Lais

  1. What aspects of love are explored in our three lais under discussion?
  2. In what ways does each of our lais offer ‘new possibilities’ for women?
  3. In what ways are women’s possibilities limited and why?

 

 

 

Questions to consider to answer the essay question

 

Connection between the construction of womanhood and women’s writing?

 

 

  • Cultural expectations of womanhood & pervasiveness of misogyny
  • And also:
  • i)          Auctoritas/Authority – God was the ultimate authority/author and then man in God’s image. How could women presume to usurp the role of author?
  • ii)         Lack of literary foremothers/role models
  • iii)        Access to literacy
  • iv) Access to tools of writing & the means to disseminate their work
  1. iv) Time and space (in their homes/lives/headspace) to do so…

 

What challenges did their historical/cultural circumstances present to women writers and readers?

 

 

 

Literary techniques to be discussed about each text

Describe aspects of an agency’s culture that can influence discretion

Describe aspects of an agency’s culture that can influence discretion

Describe aspects of an agency’s culture that can influence discretion

You are a domestic violence advocate working for the National Coalition Against Domestic Violence (NCADV). You are asked to create a presentation for a small, local police department agency that will help them to determine how laws, ordinances, policies, and procedures may affect the decisions made by their officers when responding to domestic violence calls. Using the scenario linked in the Supporting Materials section, create a presentation that explains how various aspects of the decision-making process, such as discretion and laws, can affect the outcome of each situation.

Directions
Using the provided scenario, create an oral or written presentation on domestic violence. All sections should be identified, and all of the following required elements should be included for both situations:

 

Describe differences between the processes of internal and external decision making

Describe aspects of an agency’s culture that can influence discretion

Situation 1:
Identify the discretionary decision.
What must you decide in the situation?
What are the possible outcomes of this decision?
Explain how laws can limit or rely on discretion.
How does the Rhode Island statute affect the decision making process for this situation? Does it limit discretion or rely on it? How?
Describe aspects of an agency’s culture that can influence discretion.
Explain how the amount of discretion can impact a decision.
What amount of discretion is the officer given in this situation?
How does it impact their decision making process?
Describe differences between the processes of internal and external decision making.
What decisions are made internally?
What decisions are made externally?
What are the differences?
Situation 2:
Identify the discretionary decision.
What must you decide in the situation?
What are the possible outcomes of this decision?
Explain how laws can limit or rely on discretion.
How does the Rhode Island statute affect the decision making process for this situation? Does it limit discretion, or rely on it? How?
Describe aspects of an agency’s culture that can influence discretion.
Explain how the amount of discretion can impact a decision.
What amount of discretion is the officer given in this situation?
How does it impact their decision making process?
Describe differences between the processes of internal and external decision making:
What decisions are made internally?
What decisions are made externally?
What are the differences?
What to Submit

Gene Mutation and Analysis

Gene Mutation and Analysis

Gene Mutation and Analysis

Alignment and Mutant Identification

Gene Mutation and Analysis

Identifying the mutation is also automated using online bioinformatics tools that will align your wild-type amino acid sequence (the one you obtained from the PDB entry page in step 1) with your mutant amino acid sequence (your translation from the previous step). Note it is important to compare two protein sequences and not DNA to protein. For PDB entries with multiple chains, you should only be aligning the WT and mutant sequences of the indicated chain. The following link will perform a pairwise alignment of your protein sequences: https://web.expasy.org/sim/ Select User-entered sequence for each box. Paste your wild-type sequence in the top box and the mutant sequence in the bottom box. Make sure they are named accordingly. Use the default parameters and click submit. The two sequences will be aligned with wild-type on top and mutant on the bottom. If you have done this correctly, the first alignment will go the length of the entire sequence for both wild-type and mutant. It should have a score of 99.x% identity. If it says 100% you may have pasted the same sequence in both input windows or they may have been a problem with your mutant sequence and you should contact Dr. Roose. If you are getting many very short alignments with many gaps, you have aligned the wrong sequences (usually one DNA and one protein). Where they are identical will be marked with an asterisk and the location without an asterisk represents to mutated amino acid. If your eyes are having trouble finding the missing asterisk, use the find tool to search for ‘* *’.

 

Paste this alignment into an MS Word file with the mutation position highlighted. Adjust your margins if necessary to preserve the alignment formatting.

Mutant Identification

Identify the mutation by single letter code and position number using the following format H87A, where the first letter is the wild-type amino acid, the number is the amino acid position number and the second letter is the mutant amino acid. The numbers on your alignment represent position numbers within the sequence. You could manually count them out or use the find tool to identify the residue of interest in the wild-type sequence (+/- a few residues should be enough). Then highlight text within your FASTA sequence and go to Review –> Character count to determine the amino acid position.

Evolutionary Conservation Image and Sequence

Gene Mutation and Analysis

Go to https://consurfdb.tau.ac.il/index.php

 

Analyzing the evolutionary conservation of your protein structure will show what residues are variable and what residues the most conserved (or unchanging) across multiple sequences in different organisms. Residues that are considered variable can accommodate many different types of amino acids without changing structure and function. This means that these sites can mutate over time to different residues without any pressure to stay the same.  However, conserved residues means that the protein across multiple organisms tend to keep the same residue or residues with very similar properties. This is because there is selective pressure to keep residues with those properties or there will be detrimental consequences to the protein structure and function. This view can give you an idea of what regions of the protein are more important to structure and what regions are less important.

 

What are the 4 types of gene mutations?

Gene Mutation and Analysis

Click the link to the ConSurfDB to analyze your protein at the ConSurf Database. Input your PDB ID and select a chain from the pulldown list that autopopulates. (Just pick any one if your protein entry has multiple chains). Then click apply. Click (or download) the View Colored Sequence in PDF format. Screen shot your color-coded sequence and add this image to the slide. The results also provide a structure image with the same color-coding for the selected chain so you can visualize where areas of conservation/nonconservation are within the 3D context of your protein’s structure. Screenshot this image or select the ‘View ConSurf-DB results with full-size NGL viewer’ link at the bottom of your results to open a large view to save an image. Include this image on the slide.

Should we care about the availability of natural resources to future generations?

Should we care about the availability of natural resources to future generations?

Should we care about the availability of natural resources to future generations?

Natural resource use and future generations , Should we care about the availability of natural resources to future generations? Do we have a moral, economic or any other reason to care about posterity?
Your paper should have the following sections: 1. An introduction that presents your issue and why this issue is important. Your introduction should be explicit and be clear about the issue you are addressing/question you are answering. 2. A brief analysis of previous literature on the topic and a discussion of how your paper summarizes, criticizes and/or extends this body of knowledge. 3. A description of the theory/concepts that apply to your question 4. The underlying biophysical relationships involved. This should include quantitative as well as qualitative information and reasoning. 5. A discussion of the data that you would use in an empirical analysis and an econometric specification, including a description of variables, why they belong in your model and the impact you expect the dependent variables to have on your independent variable. An original econometric analysis of data would not be necessary but highly recommended! 7. A brief conclusion that summarizes what you learned and areas for future research. Whether, how, and to what extent the situation is “bad” from an economic perspective. Is it inefficient, unsustainable, or inequitable? Why or why not? (Be clear about your “accounting stance”—that is, from what stakeholder’s perspective you are making these judgements)