Biodegradable Plastics Contribution To Global Methane Production Environmental Sciences Essay

Industry of biodegradable Plastics is a freshly emerged sector, which originated to plan degradable plastics by common biological beings such as, bacteriums, algae and Fungi. Invention of bioplastics specifically resulted to suppress the monopoly of petrochemical plastics in the market since ; petrochemical plastics have become a onerous issue due to economic emphasis, environmental impacts and resource deficit caused by use of non-renewable crude oil oil. Since biodegradable plastics are designed to degrade in the biological environments, the most common and executable method of terminal of life scenario is landfills. Objective of the present survey is to gauge maximal extra methane coevals via biodegradable plastics under landfill anaerobiotic conditions. Literature was reviewed on presently available types of biodegradable plastics, single polymers comprised, production capacity ( twelvemonth 2007 ) and methane production informations from single polymers. Empirical information for methane coevals were based on the published experimental literature on single polymers under research lab simulated landfill conditions utilizing thermophilic anaerobiotic sludge digestion. Methane coevals in organic molecules was theoretically calculated based on derived presently available chemical equations, presuming standard temperature and force per unit area conditions. Global methane part by biodegradable plastics was calculated merely utilizing theoretical values since no sufficient informations were available at experimental conditions. Study demonstrates 0.011 % of planetary part of methane by biodegradable plastics if full production capacity in twelvemonth 2007 is assumed to be landfilled and wholly biodegraded. 1.52 % of methane is contributed to planetary emanations, if 90 % of petrochemical plastics are substituted by biodegradable plastics, which the per centum of petrochemical plastics could be technically substituted harmonizing to the studies of PROBIP ( 2009 ) . In comparing of theoretical and experimental informations, experimental information was in the scope of 55.9- 68.84 % upon theoretical informations. The estimated values demonstrate a low degree of methane emanation compared with other anthropogenetic methane beginnings, showing a negligible impact to planetary methane emanation and/or planetary heating by biodegradable plastics.
Introduction
Plastics are man-made, typically long concatenation polymeric molecules. Substitution of natural stuffs by plastics came about to the scenario back in 1907 after innovation of man-made polymer “ Bakelite ” from phenol and methanal ( Thompson et al. , 2009 ) . Improvement of the synthesis methods and techniques have ameliorated the quality of plastics with more stable and lasting belongingss ( Shah et al. , 2008 ) . Today plastics have become an indispensable portion of the worlds ‘ life peculiarly due to their extended usage in packaging, cosmetics, chemicals, and detergents. Plastics we use today are synthesized stuffs extracted from rough oil, coal and natural gas ( Seymour, 1989 ) which is termed as Petroleum based plastics. Property of high doggedness ( really slow biodegradation rate ) of plastics have created being immune to environmental degradability which mounted social consciousness and concerns of proper disposal and direction ( Albertsson et al. , 1987 ) . Wide assortment of plastics are manufactured including polypropene, polystyrene, polyvinyl chloride, polythene, polyurethane and rayonss with estimated planetary production of about 140million dozenss per twelvemonth ( Shimao 2001 ) . Therefore inordinate utilizations of plastics have exerted a immense force per unit area globally in footings of salvaging of confined petroleum oil, waste disposal and direction, and environmental diversion.

To get the better of the jobs related to petroleum based plastics attending of scientists have devoted their attending that lead to advance research activities to give rise to alternate stuffs, intended to degrade through biological procedures ( Shah et al. , 2008, Lenz and Marchessault, 2004, Amass et al. , 2001 ) . A new type of thermoplastic polyester was foremost produced by Imperial Chemical Industries Ltd- London in 1982, which was considered to be wholly biodegradable ( Anderson and Dawes, 1990 ) . The invented merchandise is known as biodegradable plastic since, it ‘s degraded by environmentally available micro-organisms. Term Bioplastic ( BP ) is perplexingly used today to construe bio-based and bio-degradable stuffs. However the survey will chiefly see on the Biodegradable plastics ( BDP ) , which is intended to utilize as a promising solution for the crude oil based plastics. Harmonizing to ASTM definition of BP, BP is a degradable plastic in which the debasement consequences from the action of naturally-occurring micro-organisms such as bacteriums, Fungis, and algae ( Narayan, 1999 ) .
Many different types of BPs have been successfully produced and have invaded the market during past few old ages. BPs are synthesized utilizing works extracted polymers or usage of growing of micro-organisms. Tailoring the belongingss of works extracted polymers via chemical alteration of the chief polymer by hydrolysable or oxidisable groups and utilizing polymer blends ( Amass et al. , 1998 ) have amended BP to utilize in a wide scope of applications contained with novel and good features. The primary end expected over innovation of BPs was the environmental concerns including waste direction, decrease of nursery gas release, and salvaging of non-renewable energy ( petroleum oil and gas ) . Apart from that secondarily, economic facets and new proficient chances came into scenario ( PROBIP, 2009 ) .
Today BPs are popular compounds used in packaging stuffs, wetting agents, as biomedical stuffs ( eg: lesion dressings, drug bringing, Surgical implants ) , and agricultural compounds ( eg: command the fertiliser and pesticide release ) . BPs used as packaging stuffs has led to first-class direction scheme chiefly to forestall environmental accretion ( Amass et al. , 1998 ) . Merely 0.3 % ( 0.36 million metric dozenss ) of the world-wide production of conventional plastics has replaced by biodegradable plastics by the twelvemonth of 2007. In twelvemonth 2007 universe plastic coevals was reported as 205 million dozenss ( Gervet and Nordell. , 2007 ) . However 90 % of the conventional plastics are estimated the per centum is capable of technically substituted by BPs. There is an rush in coevals of bio based plastics globally that resulted in an estimated planetary growing of 38 % from 2003 to 2007 ( PROBIP, 2009 ) .
Initially when BPs were come ining to the market ( 1990 ) no standard processs were existed to look into the biodegradability of the plastics. To forestall misconceptions with biodegradability of BPs, criterions have been developed by standard organisations to place the actual biodrgradability of BPs in trade good ( Mohee et al. , 2007 ) . At the terminal of the service life BPs wind up in landfills, anaerobiotic intervention workss or composting installations. Based on the degradable belongingss and the belongingss of the material terminal of life, the options vary. Landfill disposed BPs will finally undergo anaerobiotic biodegradation where, the stuffs are disintegrated to methane, C dioxide, H sulfide, ammonium hydroxide, H and H2O as a consequence of series of microbic metabolic interactions ( ATSDR, 2010 ) . Methane gas is a well-known and of import by merchandise which public attending has paid as a planetary heating gas and besides as an economically feasible biofuel. The survey is a preliminary effort to look into the degrees of extra methane gas released if terminal of life option is chosen to be a landfill utilizing normally available types of BPs globally, with different biodegradability degrees.
Back land
Types of BPs
Literature studies legion types of BPs in the market today, such as amylum plastics, Poly glycolic acid ( PGA ) , Poly lactic acid ( PLS ) , poly lactic acid-co-glycolic acid, poly 3- hydroxybutanoate ( P3HB ) , Poly 3- hydroxyl valerate ( PHV ) , Polyethylene succinate ( PES ) , Poly butylenes succinate, Poly propiolactone ( PPL ) , starch blends, etc ( Figure 1 ) ( Shah et al. , 2008, PROBIP, 2009 ) , derived from renewable resources such as amylum, works based oils, or cellulose ( Beta analytic, 2010 ) . The survey covers 5 major groups of BDPs presently available in the market with inside informations on different makers engaged in fabricating procedure ( Table 1 ) . Except these chief groups mentioned, chitin ( polyose ) , protein ( collagen, casein ) , and amino acid based BDPs are manufactured in undistinguished degrees, which are non covered in this survey. Main group of polymer contributes the planetary BP production is Cellulose plastics, which the production capacity is about 4000Mt per annum. To be considered as a bioplastic, it should be certified lawfully through criterions, EN 13432 or EN 14995 in Europe, ASTM D-6400, ASTM D6868, ASTM D6954, ASTM D7081 in United States, DIN V4900 in Germany or ISO 17088 in other states ( Beta analytic, 2010, ASTM, 2010 ) . As mentioned earlier all BPs are non biodegradable and the biodegradability is based basically on the molecular construction of the compound. ASTM D-6400 requires 60-90 % decomposition of BPs within 180 yearss in natural environment in order to be considered as a biodegradable plastic. ASTM has demonstrated both aerophilic and anaerobiotic criterion methods to place ( severally in composting environments and anaerobiotic digestion procedures ) the extent of biodegradability of BDPs ( Narayan, 1999 ) .
Decomposition
Degradation and possible degradability of a peculiar BDP varies depending on the environment exists: anaerobic or aerobic ( Ishigaki et al. , 2004 ) . Based on the debasement belongings of a peculiar BDP, terminal of life option should be chosen, whether it is to be disposed in a landfill or composting installation. Different types of dirt micro-organisms ( bacteriums and Fungis ) are responsible for the biodegradation of different types of BPs specifically ( Shah et al. , 2008 ) . Rate and procedure of biodegradation of BPs rely on the Soil belongingss, nature of the pretreatment, features of the polymer such as tactual sensation, mobility, molecular weight, functional groups present, additives, handiness and optimum growing of specific micro-organisms ( Artham and Doble, 2008, Glass and Swift, 1989, Gu et al. , 2000 ) . Initially biodegradation starts with decomposition of the polymer via physical and biological forces. Some fungous hyphae are able to perforate the polymer construction and cause clefts and swelling of the stuff ( Griffin, 1980 ) . Heating, chilling, stop deading melt, wetting and drying like physical forces besides contribute the mechanical debasement procedure ( Kamal and Huang, 1992 ) . By and large high molecular weighted polymers have a lesser possible to biodegrade than the low molecular weighted compounds. Broadly extracellular and intracellular microbic enzymes are responsible for biodegradation procedure, and so converted into oligomers, dimers and monomers which can be easy penetrable into bacterial cells. Therefore utilizes for bacterial energy production let go ofing CO2, CH4, and H2O ( Hamilton et al. , 1995, Gu et al. , 200 ) . Present survey will be given accent landfills, as the terminal of life clip option. Less information is available on the biodegradation of BDP in landfill anaerobiotic conditions than aerophilic composting. Thence more probes have to be implemented and few have been reported ( Yagi et al. , 2009 ) . In a landfill high per centum is readily degraded by anaerobiotic communities in anoxic conditions. As a consequence of series of physical, chemical, cubic decimeter and biological reactions that take topographic point in a landfill, landfill gas is produced, with changing composings based on the type of waste contained ( Barlaz et al. , 1990 ) . Anaerobic debasement of C, Hydrogen and Oxygen incorporating substance is given by the Buswell equation as follows ( Yagi et al. , 2009 ) .
CnHaOb + ( n- a/4 – b/2 ) H2O ( n/2 + a/8 – b/4 ) CH4 + ( n/2 – a/8 + b/4 ) CO2 ( A )
Anaerobic decomposition of Carbon, Hydrogen, Oxygen and Nitrogen incorporating substance is given as follows ( Behera et al. , 2010 ) .
CaHbOcNd + ( ( 4a-b-2c+3d ) /4 ) H2O ( ( 4a+b-2c-3d ) /8 ) CH4 + ( ( 4a-b+2c+3d ) /8 ) CO2 +
vitamin D NH3 ( B )
CO2 and CH4 are the chief gaseous substances released during anaerobiotic debasement of any compound. Methane produced in landfills is recovered as an energy beginning where provides an economic advantage. However if non recovered, methane would readily come in to the ambiance, which is listed as one of the major subscriber to planetary heating. Methane is an effectual heat pin downing agent in the ambiance and over 20 times more powerful than CO2 ( USEPA, 2010 a ) . Surveies have reported on methane outputs obtained via anaerobiotic biodegradation for few polymers ( Cellulose ester, Polycaprolactone and Poly lactic acid ) and most are yet to be studied.
Methane as a potent planetary heating gas
Global heating is understood as the chief causing of planetary clime alteration. Global heating is caused due to increase of green house gases in the ambiance such as Carbon dioxide, methane, Nitrous oxide, and H2O vapour ( US composting council, 2009 ) . Methane is considered as a green house gas with high heat pin downing capacity which lasts about 9- 15 old ages in the ambiance. Global warming possible ( GWP ) of green house gases are represented in relation to a mention gas, CO2, where GWP is considered as 1. Global warming potency of methane gas is 21 which infers, 21 times more effectual heat pin downing agent than CO2. Methane is emitted to the ambiance chiefly from anthropogenetic and natural beginnings. 50 % of methane in the ambiance is attributed to anthropogenetic beginnings such as fossil fuel burning, biomass combustion, rice cultivation, carnal farming, and waste direction. Contribution of anthropogenetic methane to planetary green house gas emanation was 282.6 million dozenss in the twelvemonth 2000 ( 22.9 % ) as declared by USEPA ( 2006 ) . Natural beginnings of methane emanations include emanations from wetlands, permafrost, white ants, oceans wild fires and fresh H2O organic structures. Degrees of methane emitted from each part or state depends on factors, such as climatic conditions, industrial and agricultural lands, energy type used and godforsaken direction processs. Largest methane emanation homo related beginnings in USA are landfills, carnal farming, and manure direction where the 2nd highest of the list goes to landfills. In the facet of planetary methane production, landfills attributed the 3rd highest beginning of emanation and globally methane part by landfills was over 12 % for twelvemonth 2000 ( USEPA, 2010 B ) . Organic compounds in a landfill, upon decomposition release methane as mentioned above and recent appraisal suggests that 72 % of MSW watercourse contained with organic substances: paper, nutrient garbages, yard dust, textiles/ leather, and wood. Percentages of each MSW constituent landfilled was severally, 34 % , 12 % , 13 % , 7 % , and 6 % ( US composting council. , 2009 ) . Thus methane coevals from each MSW constituent may be assumed being in the same order as above from each MSW constituent, since methane production is relative to the C sum in an organic substance. Thus paper is the chief methane gas subscriber to the ambiance from a landfill while others play a minor function. BDPs is fresh emerging organic compound set in the landfills and besides a new planetary beginning of methane breathing from a landfill.
Gas Generation theoretical account
Landfill gas appraisal is utile for landfill operators, regulators, energy users and energy recovery undertaking proprietors to look into how gas is produced and recovered in a peculiar clip period. USEPA has generated a Landfill methane gas appraisal theoretical account to imitate the gas production in landfills utilizing first order decay curve, which is written as, M ( T ) = M0 vitamin E -kt. Where M ( T ) is the mass of a batch waste staying at any clip, M0 is the initial mass of waste, K is the decay rate ( clip -1 ) and T is the clip since decay was begun. Gas production is straight correlated to mass doomed, which is termed as L0 ( M3 of methane per metric ton of waste ) . Entire Volume of gas ( G0 ) that can be produced by the debasement of mass of weight ( M0 ) is, calculated utilizing the equation, G0 = L0 M0. BDP is a freshly emerging landfill constituent which contributes the planetary methane coevals. The survey will supply an appraisal of extra methane produced upon this new reaching.
Methods
Study was based on appraisal of extra methane gas sum produced from landfills with subsequent outgrowth of BDPs to the market. Literature was reviewed related to trade name names, measure, polymer types incorporated and biodegradability ( particularly in footings of methane production ) of BDPs normally found in the planetary market ( Table1 and Table 2 ) . Manufacturer and measure informations obtained were associated with the twelvemonth 2007. This survey has considered merely biobased and non biobased BDPs and not degradable bio based or non biobased plastics have non been used for analysis as they are incapable of degrade in a landfill and release methane. Study was carried out in 4 stairss.
Measure 1: Methane production per twenty-four hours was calculated utilizing published experimental informations on methane gas production in fake landfill conditions presuming entire manufactured BDPs were being landfilled ( Table 2 ) . Biodegradability of a peculiar BDP is likely to change based on the per centums of single polymers contained in the blend. Although production capacity was available in regard to a peculiar trade name name, no production informations was available for single polymers individually. Since a peculiar manufacturer industries different types of BDP stuffs related to fabric, agribusiness, biomedical points and packaging, per centums of single polymers used for blends vary mostly from each other even within the same trade name name. Therefore it ‘s hard to nail a distinguishable per centum for each polymer in a peculiar BDP being manufactured. Further information on per centums of each polymer are neither readily available from the makers ‘ web sites nor descriptive surveies have done sing per centums. Therefore trade name names with multiple polymer types were assumed to be every bit distributed, therefore manufactured capacity from each polymer was obtained by averaging the manufactured capacity of the peculiar trade name name. Most published literature was based on the biodegradability of single polymer types instead than the biodegradability of a peculiar trade name name except for Mater Bi amylum BDP ( Mohee et al. , 2007 ) .
Measure 2: Methane production per twenty-four hours was calculated utilizing theoretical stoichiometric methane production informations presuming entire biodegradation of the compound and entire manufactured BDPs ( 2007 ) were being landfilled. Trade names with multiple Numberss of polymers, per centums of single polymers are assumed every bit distributed as mentioned in step1 ( Table 3 ) . Methane gas sum released is theoretically calculated utilizing the chemical equations ( A ) and ( B ) . Maximum biogas ( CO2, CH4 and NH3 ) sum produced by debasement of 1 kgs ton of Poly lactic acid ( ( C2H4O2 ) N ) was calculated to be 7.5 ten 10 5 M3 ( ( 106/60 ) x 22.4x 2 ) at standard temperature and force per unit area. CH4: CO2 ratio for poly lactic acid is 1:1. Theoretical maximal volume of CH4 produced calculated harmonizing to the combined gas jurisprudence was reported to be 3.73 ten 10 5m3, presuming entire biodegradation of the compound. Table 3 displays the maximal theoretical methane volume produced at standard temperature and force per unit area for C, H, O and N related polymers intended to discourse in this survey.
Measure 3: Maximal methane production was calculated sing the sum of BDPs being landfilled per twelvemonth when 90 % ( the possible sum that can be technically substituted by BPs from petrochemical plastics in usage today ) of petrochemical plastics were substituted over BPs. All BDPs produced are assumed to be readily ( during a period of twelvemonth ) biodegradable in this scenario.
Measure 4: Contribution of landfilled BDPs to planetary methane emanation was calculated utilizing the entire methane emanation informations obtained from measure 3 and step 4.
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
Datas on methane coevals ( Table 2, step 1 ) was obtained from published experiments on anaerobiotic decomposition of single polymer compounds, imitating landfill, thermophilic conditions by utilizing anaerobiotic sludge as the medium in controlled research lab conditions. However, since different writers have used different conditions with different types of sludges and diversed microbic communities, ( affects diverseness of microbic communities ) ( Abou-Zeid et al. , 2004 ) would impact the dependability of the survey in using the values for comparing, due to debut of many prejudices. It was non possible to gauge planetary methane production based on published experimental informations since sufficient informations were non available to cover a sensible figure of polymers attended this survey. However, appraisal for planetary methane production from BDPs was able to obtained by utilizing theoretical computation to near the aims as showed in measure 2, Table 3 ( see appendix for computations ) . If assumed the full manufactured BDPs in twelvemonth 2007 were landfilled and entire landfilled is wholly biodegraded, the methane sum produced was calculated to be 8.31 ten 10 8m3. Global part resulted was 0.011 % in this scenario ( see appendix ) . MSW watercourse is declared to be composed of 205 million dozenss of petrochemical plastics in twelvemonth 2003 ( Garnet and Nordell, 2007 ) . The sum of BDPs that could perchance replace to petrochemical plastics was calculated to be 184.5 million dozenss. Assuming equal proportions of different BDPs tabulated in Table 2 are being landfilled, the sum of methane released is calculated to be 1.06 ten 1011m3 / twelvemonth. 90 % permutation scenario is an appraisal undertaken to understand whether methane released causes important part to planetary anthropogenetic methane gas emanation, in its maximal degree of BDP industry. The scenario is responsible for 1.38 % of planetary methane part. This was 116 % of entire landfill methane coevals based on the twelvemonth 2006 sum methane emanation ( USEPA, 2006 ) , which is higher than the entire current landfill methane coevals. The values were obtained on the footing of 2007 BDP industry informations nevertheless expected entire plastic production will besides be raised seemingly at the clip of 90 % permutation petrochemical plastics upon BDPs. Entire BP production capacity amounted to be in twelvemonth 2020 is 1.5-4.4 million dozenss ( PROBIP 2009 ) .
In comparing of the methane outputs ( m3/kt ) from theoretical stoichiometric computations and research lab measurings ( Table 4 ) , extremely vary. It is obvious that, experimental methane production in laboratory conditions is lower than the theoretical information. Percentage of experimental methane emanation was in the scope of 55.9-68.84 % of the theoretical values, when compared the methane emanation degrees of available experimental informations ( PCL and PCL ) . Methane sums will be farther diminished if methane emanation is calculated sing the experimental information. Efficiency of biodegradation procedure occur in a landfill governs the rate and sum of methane generated into the ambiance. Numerous factors such as size of waste atom, composing of waste, pH, temperature, design of the landfill, foods and as the most of import factor wet control the methane emanation in a landfil ( Micales and Skog, 1996, Augenstein and Pacey, 1991 ) . Rathje and Murphy ( 1992 ) have demonstrated mummification of garbage under degrees where, a landfill does non have optimal degree of wet hindering debasement or methane release ( Barlaz et al. , 1987 ) . Bogner and Spokas ( 1993 ) have shown that C transition value of 25-40 % for even readily degradable stuffs in a landfill and Aragno ( 1988 ) reported 35-40 % organic affair debasement to Carbon dioxide and methane under ideal laboratory conditions. However in the present survey Methane coevals resulted was higher than the published literature, showing higher methane emanations from BDPs than other beginnings such as wood, paper, etc. Therefore under existent landfill conditions released methane sums is lesser than the controlled research lab obtained values as confirms by published informations and informations from the present survey. Further debasement procedure in a landfill takes topographic point over decennaries of periods and even after 20-30 old ages of period big measures of non-degraded parts have been observed even for readily degradable stuffs ( Micales and Skog, 1996 ) . Therefore methane outputs per twelvemonth should be more lessen than the quoted values in the survey. Efficient and effectual usage of landfill methane as a good fuel or enrgt beginning would farther relieve the methane release into the ambiance in landfills ( Gregg, 2010 ) .
SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS
The survey estimates maximal extra planetary theoretical methane resulted from decomposition of BDPs which is a fresh methane beginning emerged from landfills. Result suggest that the planetary part of BDPs to methane coevals is relatively less compared with other anthropogenetic beginnings. However in comparing of the methane emanation from BDPs, with other landfill constituents, BDPs are likely to lend a considerable sum of methane, which demonstrated the highest sum of methane emanation other landfill constituents. Experimental information groundss an overestimate of the theoretical estimations. Study has come across with many premises in each word picture scenario, which weakens the appraisal. However survey provides an appraisal of the extra methane gas released globally due to BDP landfilling, where no surveies or appraisals have done so far in a maximal possible logical and scientific manner using available informations. Further surveies on single polymer debasement are indispensable in order to beef up and verify the consequences obtained for sound actual appraisals.
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List of Tables
Table 1 Manufacturers and sums of BDP manufactured in twelvemonth 2007
Table 2 Literature published on methane production, biodegradability of polymers incorporated to BDPs and calculated methane production degrees
Table 3 Maximum theoretical methane sums released during anaerobiotic biodegrdation of major polymer types in standard temperature and force per unit area
Table 4 Comparison of theoretical and experimental methane emanation degrees
List of Figures
Figure 1 Molecular constructions of polymers involved in the production of common BDPs
Table 1 Manufacturers and sums of BDP manufactured in twelvemonth 2007.
Manufacturer
State of production
Trade Name
Polymer type
Polymer Name
Worldwide production ( kt.p.a. ) in 2007
Biodegradability
A
Cellulose Plastics ( with regerated cellulose and cellulose esters )
A
A
A
A
2046
A
1
Lenzing
GLO
Lenzing viscose Lenzing modal Tencel
Viscose modal and encel fibres
Cellulose ester ( CA ) Cellulose acetate propionate ( CAP )
Cellulose ethanoate butyrate ( CAB
590
Fully biodegradable
2
Birla
India, Thailand, Indonesia
Birla Cellulose
Viscose modal and encel fibres
Cellulose acetate Cellulose ethanoate propionate Cellulose ethanoate butyrate
500
Fully biodegradable
3
Formosa Chemicals & A ; Fibre
Taiwan
Sodium
Viscose Staple fibers
Cellulose xanthate
140
Fully biodegradable
4
Kelheim
Germany
Danufil, Galaxy, Viloft
Viscose Staple fibers
Cellulose ester Cellulose ethanoate propionate Cellulose ethanoate butyrate
72
Fully biodegradable
5
Celanese
United states
Sodium
CA flakes, tows and fibril
Cellulose ester ( Cellulose ethanoate )
250
Sodium
6
Eastman
United states
Sodium
CA tows and fibril, CAB, CAP
Cellulose ester Cellulose ethanoate propionate Cellulose ethanoate butyrate
200
Sodium
7
Rhodia Acetow
Germany
Sodium
CA tows
Cellulose ester ( Cellulose ethanoate )
130
Sodium
8
Daicel
Japan
Sodium
CA tows
Cellulose ester ( Cellulose ethanoate )
90
Sodium
A
Other
A
A
74
Manufacturer
State of production
Trade Name
Polymer type
Polymer Name
Worldwide production ( kt.p.a. ) in 2007
Biodegrad
ability
Bacillus
Polylactic Acid ( PLA ) polymers
151
A
9
PURAC
Taiwan
PURAC
A
Polylactic acid ( PLA )
75
Fully biodegradable
10
Nature Works
United states
Ingeo
A
Polylactic Acid
70
Fully biodegradable
A
Other
6
A
C
Starch blends
153
A
11
Novamont
Italy
Mater Bi
Starch blends
Starch/ Polycaprolactone ( PCL ) *
40
Fully biodegradable
12
Rodenburg
Newzealand
Solanyl
Fermented amylum
A
40
Fully biodegradable
13
Biotec
Danmark
Bioplast
amylum blends
A
20
Fully biodegradable
A
Other
53
A
Calciferol
Polyhydroxy alkanoates
2
A
14
Tianan
Canada
Enmat
PHBV, PHBV and Ecoflex ( petrochemical polymer )
poly ( 3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyvalerate ) ( PHBV )
2
Fully biodegradable
Tocopherol
Polyurethane from Biobased polyol
12.3
A
15
Dow
United states
Renuva
Polyurethane
8.8
Fully biodegradable
A
Other
3.5
A
Manufacturer
State of production
Trade Name
Polymer type
Polymer Name
Worldwide production ( kt.p.a. ) in 2007
Biodegrad
ability
A
F
Other biodegradable polymers
140
A
16
DuPont
Japan
Biomax
PBST/PET copolymer
Poly ( butylene succinate terephthalate ) Poly ( ethylene terephthalate ) ( PET )
90
Sodium
17
Novamont
Japan
EatBio
Polytetramethylene adipate- co- terephthalate ( PTMAT )
15
Fully biodegradable
18
BASF
Danmark
Ecoflex
Poly butylene adipate-co-butylene terephthalate ( PBAT )
14
Fully biodegradable
A
Other
21
A
Data Beginning: ( PROBIP, 2009 ) , NA-Data Not Available
* Data beginning: Bertoldi et al. , 1996.
Table 2 Literature published on methane production, biodegradability of polymers incorporated to BDPs and calculated methane production degrees.
.
Polymer
Initial mass ( g )
Methane volume ( L )
Dayss of incubation
Methane production ( % )
Biodegrada
Bility ( % )
Methane volume ( m3/ karat ) / L0*
Global polymer production ( kt/annum ) M0
Volume of methane gas ( G0 ) ( m3/day ) **
Mentions
Polylactic acid
10
2.57
22
53.8
91
257,000
151
3.9 x 107
Yagi et al. , 2009
Mater Bi ( Starch Blend )
1.96
0.245
32
99.11
26.9
24,500
40
9.8 x 106
Mohee et al. , 2007
Polycaprolactone
10
6.59
22
65.8
92
659,000
20
1.3 ten 10 7
Yagi et al. , 2009
* Calculated methane volume ( m3/kton ) based on published informations.
** Calculated methane sums harmonizing to the USEPA gas appraisal theoretical account.
Table 3 Maximum theoretical methane sums released during anaerobiotic biodegrdation of major polymer types in standard temperature and force per unit area conditions.
Major polymer type
Polymer
Production capacity ( kt/annum )
Theoretical methane production ( m3/kt )
Theoretical methane production ( m3/yr )
Cellulose based
Cellulose ethanoate
668.76
6.2 ten 10 5
4.1 ten 10 8
Cellulose ethanoate butyrate
448.76
4.0 ten 10 5
1.8 ten 10 8
Starch blends ( Mater Bi )
Starch
20
4.1 ten 10 5
8.3 ten 10 7
Polycaprolactone
20
7.36 ten 10 5
1.5 ten 10 7
Poly lactic acid
Poly lactic acid
151
3.73 ten 10 5
5.6 ten 10 7
Polyhydroxy alkaonates
poly ( 3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyvalerate )
20
1.1 ten 10 6
2.2 ten 10 7
Polyurethane based polyol
Polyurethane
8.8
5.5 ten 10 5
1.3 ten 10 4
Other
Polyethylene terephthalate
45
6.5 ten 10 5
2.9 ten 10 7
Polytetramethylene adipate -co- terephthalate
15
1.47 x10 6
2.2 ten 10 7
Polybutylene adipate -co-butylene terephthalate
14
7.0 ten 10 5
9.8 x10 6
Entire theoretical Methane production due to C, H, O polymers in twelvemonth 2007 if assumed all manufactured polymers being landfilled
1411.32
7.0 ten 10 7
8.31 ten 10 8
Theoretical sum methane coevals per twelvemonth is estimated to be 8.4 x10 8m3 based on twelvemonth 2007 manufactured BDP capacity.
Table 4 Comparison of theoretical and experimental methane emanation degrees.
Polymer
Experimental Methane volume ( m3/ karat )
Theoretical methane sum ( m3/ karat )
% experimental emanation in relation to theoretical emanation
Polylactic acid
257,000
373,333.33
68.84
Polycaprolactone
659,000
1,178,947.37
55.9
Figure 1 Molecular constructions of polymers involved in the production of common BDPs

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