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The Role of Courts as Agents of Social Control

The Role of Courts as Agents of Social Control

The Role of Courts as Agents of Social Control. One of the underlying lessons in Week 4’s course materials is that clashing value systems foster nonviolent crimes in an archetypal society.  Since much of the focus is on social disorganization in local communities and neighborhoods, I sought to understand the criminal justice system’s role in restoring social order in our value system. As such, I recently attended a court proceeding involving a juvenile property theft case. The defendant was a minor and had stolen a bike from a local store. He was a first-time offender classified under nonviolent crimes. In my understanding, the presiding judge who heard this case was tasked with determining whether the minor should be sanctioned according to the law or if he should be offered a chance at rehabilitation. After hearing both sides, the judge decided that the minor would serve a probationary period, allowing him to attend counseling and community service.

Court’s role in restoring social values and desirable community

 

Attending this in-person event reinforced my understanding of the court’s role in restoring social values and desirable community standards. I needed to understand society’s priority: should we be tough on crime by punishing to deter recurrence or is it more reasonable to reform nonviolent offenders by re-socializing them? My experience in this case taught me that the court system should focus on rehabilitating those willing to be helped. Shaw and McKay (1942) argue that a clashing value system fosters crime through social disorganization. Therefore, the courts are among the agents of social control charged with restoring order by mending society’s value system. This case also demonstrated the importance of sanctions to deter future offenses and ensure people abide by the laws. Additionally, the court’s decision to offer the defendant a chance at rehabilitation instead of immediate punishment showed that restoring social control and conventional societal standards is possible through sanctions and rehabilitation.

 

 

Reference

Shaw, C. R., & McKay, H. D. (1942). Juvenile delinquency and urban areas. University of Chicago Press.

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Civilian Vigilance not Gun Politics Lessons from Monterey Park

Civilian Vigilance not Gun Politics Lessons from Monterey Park

 

 

Civilian Vigilance not Gun Politics Lessons from Monterey Park. If I had a penny for every time a deranged soul or vengeful American went on a shooting spree, I would probably be on my fifth mimosa. But before I go on that imaginary drinking spree, word is that a 72-year-old man just shot dead 11 people leaving scores injured while at it. The event, occurring in just under 24 hours in Los Angeles, was neutralized by a concerned citizen who successfully disarmed the culprit. That’s it. My point exactly. Maybe all America needed was civilian vigilance, and we’ve been getting it wrong all this time. Had the Good Samaritan been there on time, he would have been better placed to save a few more lives. Creating a vibrant civilian base is our last hope since the war on guns is already lost.

 

GUN VIOLENCE

 

Second Amendment, a Fruit of the Poisonous Tree

Civilian Vigilance not Gun Politics Lessons from Monterey Park. When our founding fathers jotted down only the binary amendment to our beloved constitution, they envisioned the need to have “a well-regulated militia” as necessary for the security of the Free State. And I genuinely believe they were on to something because – let’s face it – we were in the middle of a revolution. Unfortunately for us is that nearly a quarter millennia later, we are stuck suffering the fruits of the poisonous tree; we are only too happy to abuse the Second Amendment as an excuse for us to shoot each other. So now we are a trigger-happy nation, perhaps the only consistent thing about being American.

Backlash

If the past zillion years are anything to go by, we must not rely on Congress to fix our gun violence problem. Those folks are incapable of coming up with ‘commonsense’ solutions to serious issues. Our good old conservatives are more interested in campaign checks from the gun lobby, while their liberal counterparts complain and play blame games. We are a society that worries more about not harming fetuses, yet we allow them to be shot at in schools after they are born. So we have a society in free fall, yet gun violence has become a partisan political issue instead of a public safety issue amid all the backlash in Congress.

Towards More Proactive Measures to Curb Gun Violence

We’ve seen this dance before; we click our tongues and send outpouring sympathies to the victims and bereaved Americans after every fatal shooting incident. Yet we never really do anything about it. We are simply indifferent. That culture of indifference needs to be replaced by a vibrant public. Citizens on the lookout. With the help of surveillance, authorities will be able to detect suspicious activities and be better prepared to intervene with the help of civilians. The history books might not document this, but Brandon Tsay is an American hero. He singlehandedly disarmed the shooter saving more lives. That is the most important lesson from the Monterey shooting. We need to take matters into our own hands.

 

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 Death of Reason in Post-Trump America

 Death of Reason in Post-Trump America

 Death of Reason in Post-Trump America. The recently concluded Midterms saw the Republicans regain control of the House in a Red Wave that swept through the United States in the wake of the decision by the Supreme Court to overturn Roe v Wade. Studying the outcome of major elections in the recent past will cement our understanding of how political polarization continually undermines the ability to find common ground on sensitive issues such as abortion. The decision to vacate Roe v Wade in March 2022 effectively lifted the constitutional protection of women’s freedom to choose whether to keep or terminate pregnancies. It intensified the existing polarization that has characterized our politics in post-Trump America, subsequently influencing voting patterns in the 2022 Midterms.

 

 

 

Terrifying Backlash

Republicans regained control of the House in a heated campaign that created a Red Wave in rural America and various conservative strongholds around the country. The party’s conservative wing rose in solidarity with the Supreme Court’s 5-4 ruling to have abortion rights relegated back to the states by removing federal protection of women’s liberties on pregnancy termination. Elsewhere, the ruling inspired a terrifying backlash in liberal America amid strong opposition to state interference in the federal protection of civil liberties.

Common Ground a Fantasy?

We live in interesting times where our partisan affiliations dictate our stand on critical issues. As such, it is increasingly difficult to find common ground, even in matters like abortion that require ‘commonsense’ solutions. Even conservative women who deeply believe in freedom of choice still voted overwhelmingly for Republicans. On the other hand, liberals who believe abortion is dangerous still supported Democrats. Therefore, the 2022 Midterms were not about issues but political affiliation. Experts confirm that the ongoing political polarization has divided Americans into liberal and conservative hardliners. This way, the outcome of the Midterms was largely driven by how voters responded to the court’s decision in Roe v Wade.

Political Polarization in Post-Trump America

The unprecedented election of Donald Trump in 2016 ushered in an era of heightened political polarization that destroyed the voices of reason and undermined the need for finding common ground. It brought a surge of populism with it, which has profoundly impacted American politics, as it has shifted the focus away from finding common ground and toward more extreme views and partisan positions. Regrettably, this fondness for populism has been embraced by both sides of the political spectrum and has led to an increasingly hostile environment, with both sides refusing to compromise. Many Americans are willing to abandon their values merely because certain ideas conflict with their political ideology. Trump normalized this culture that is now deeply embedded in our political fabric.

 

 

A nation on edge

Which way America? Post Roe v Wade, America is a picture of a nation on edge. The impact of March 2022 decision has had a drastic impact on society. It now means that women’s reproductive rights are merely an idea of the past, as abortion would become illegal in many states. It has adversely affected healthcare providers because access to abortion would be limited, and unsafe abortions would increase, leading to higher maternal mortality rates. It is evident that we need to rethink who we are and what we stand for as Americans – not liberals or conservatives. It also means we must bring back reason; decisions on sensitive matters require a commonsense approach. We have reached a moment when we need to heed George Washington’s call to rise above superficial identities and think progressively as Americans.

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Psychology of Learning- Classical Conditioning

Psychology of Learning- Classical Conditioning

Psychology of Learning- Classical Conditioning. Theoretical inclinations are paramount in the understanding of learning. Instruction is a behavior with no autonomy, thereby obliging theorists to propose ideas that can help describe the process. Ivan Pavlov’s classical conditioning is one of the theories that help describe the process. The theory purports that learning is a process of pairing that unconsciously creates conditioned reflexes from specific stimuli. Rehman et al. (2017) define classical conditioning as an unconscious learning method entailing an automatic and conditioned response that individuals pair with a certain stimulus. Therefore, classical conditioning involves the placement of a neutral stimulus to initiate behavioral changes due to the alterations of naturally occurring reflexes.

Pavlov’s Experiment

Ivan Pavlov, a Russian psychologist, stumbles upon the notion by accident as he researches dogs’ digestion. He gradually notices that the reactions of dogs to food change over time. Initially, the dogs only salivate when they see food. The theorist observes that they also salivate in reaction to the consistent sounds that are present at the time of the arrival of the food. For instance, they respond to the sound of the food carts. He tests the theory by introducing a bell before food to the animals. At first, the dogs do not react to the bell, but they eventually begin to salivate once they hear the sounds, even in the absence of food (Rehman et al., 2017). Therefore, the experiment proves that ringing the bell gradually elicits learning and conditions the dogs to react to the process.

https://surendranathcollege.ac.in/new/upload/DEBASHREE_SINHACLASSICAL%20CONDITIONING2021-01-07Classical%20Conditioning%20pdf.pdf

 

Conceptualization of Classical Conditioning

Classical conditioning entails a schematic depiction of the processes contributing to adopting behavior and learning. Ivan Pavlov conceptualizes classical conditioning through concepts such as unconditioned stimulus, neutral stimulus, the conditioned stimulus, unconditioned response, and conditioned response (Eelen, 2018). In Ivan Pavlov’s experiment, the neutral signal is the sound of the bell. The naturally occurring reflex is salivating (Cherry & Gans, n.d).  The direct associations of the neutral stimulus with the environmental stimulus (introduction of food items) elicit salivation as a response.

  • Unconditioned Stimulus

An unconditional stimulus refers to a trigger whose aftermath is an automatic response. For instance, cold air is an unconditioned response that makes individuals shiver (Cherry, 2022).

  • Neutral Stimulus

A neutral stimulus does not trigger responses on its own. For instance,  a person hearing the sound of a fan without feeling the breeze does not shiver (Cherry, 2022).

  • Conditioned Stimulus

A conditioned stimulus refers to an initially neutral stimulus (one that does not trigger any responses) that now leads to a behavioral response. A good example of a conditioned stimulus is an individual who never feared dogs being bitten by one, consequently making them wary of the animals (Cherry, 2022). In such a case, the dog is a conditioned stimulus.

  • Unconditioned Response

An unconditioned response is a behavior that an unconditioned stimulus stimulates (Cherry, 2022). A good example is watering when an individual smells their favorite food.

  • Conditioned Response

A conditioned response is a learned response that results from exposure to a conditioned response. A good example is fear resulting from being bitten by a dog.

The process of Classical Conditioning in Learning

Before conditioning, an unconditioned stimulus automatically leads to an unconditioned stimulus. The neutral stimulus has no effect. During conditioning, individuals pair the neutral stimulus repeatedly with the unconditioned stimulus, making the neutral stimulus a conditioned stimulus. The latter can now trigger a conditioned response. After conditioning, the conditioned stimulus can now evoke responses, even without the existence of the unconditioned stimulus.

Conclusion

In conclusion, classical conditioning is a theoretical inclination that describes the learning process. The theory purports that the rate of learning and acquisition depends on the noticeability of the stimulus. Individuals learn certain things and assume certain behaviors due to exposure to stimuli over time, leading to conditioned responses.

References

Cherry, K. (2022, August 28). How classical conditioning works, with examples. Verywell Mind. Retrieved January 16, 2023, from https://www.verywellmind.com/classical-conditioning-2794859

Cherry, K., & Gans, S. (n.d.). What Is Classical Conditioning? Verywell Mind. Retrieved January 16, 2023, from https://lah.elearningontario.ca/CMS/public/exported_courses/HSP3C/exported/HSP3CU02/HSP3CU02/HSP3CU02A02/_teacher/verywell.com-WhatIsClassicalConditioning.pdf

Eelen, P. (2018). Classical conditioning: classical yet modern. Psychologica Belgica58(1), 196-208.

Rehman, I., Mahabadi, N., Sanvictores, T., & Rehman, C. I. (2017). Classical conditioning.

 

 

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The Impact of the Russia-Ukraine War on the American Economy

The Impact of the Russia-Ukraine War on the American Economy

The Impact of the Russia-Ukraine War on the American Economy. Despite being miles away from the Russia-Ukraine war, the US economy has suffered a major blow as an aftermath of the wrangle. The US faces difficulty importing raw materials or exporting products to Russia and Ukraine amidst their fight. Besides, industries in the US have suffered directly from the war due to the high cost of raw materials. The risk of unemployment has also risen due to the shortage of supplies in the industries. The US economy has become weaker due to the supply shortage and trade sanctions caused by the Russia-Ukraine war.

The Impact of the Russia-Ukraine War on the American Economy. The Russia-Ukraine war has led to a decrease in the supply of commodities from Ukraine and Russia to the US, disabling the economy to serve the high level of demand. The US depends on Ukraine and Russia for many commodities like neon gas, pig iron, platinum, palladium, and oil. According to Smialek and Swanson (2022), the rise of oil and food prices worldwide attracts an inflation surge, increasing US uncertainty (Mbah and Wasim 148). The war between Ukraine and Russia has resulted in a short supply of these commodities, leading to a shortage of raw materials in various US industries. As a result, the manufacturing, electronics, and automotive industries have suffered a blow to their sales. Failure to meet the commodity demand due to the decline in raw materials has led to possible inflation. Besides, industries suffering the direct impacts of the shortage of commodities have had to reduce their staff to stay within their operating budgets. Therefore, the Russia-Ukraine war has led to supply shortages in the US, causing hardships in various industries.

The Russia-Ukraine war has been in the US due to the resulting sanctions on importing farm inputs like fertilizer. Besides sourcing fertilizer from countries like Canada and Belarus, the US acquires 10% of its fertilizer from Russia (Ibendahl 2). However, the Russia-Ukraine war has caused problems importing fertilizer from Russia to the US. Ibendahl states that Russia and Belarus account for more than a third of world production, and disruption in US imports from Russia can have the greatest impact on potash (p.3). A rise in key farm inputs could project a significant increase in the prices of farm goods. Therefore, the Russia-Ukraine war has led to an increase in the prices of farm produce in the US market.

The US supply shortage of commodities due to the Russia-Ukraine war has contributed to the rise in prices of goods, fueling inflation and slowing down US economic growth. The Russia-Ukraine war has caused a rise in inflation in the US as a result of the increased food and raw material prices (Coulter and Martínez-García para. 2). Sanctions in Russia and difficulties in Ukraine due to the war has led to a shortage of raw materials in US industries, leading to a shortage of supply in the US industries. Consequently, the US inflation level has risen, which weighs on the country’s economic growth. The US economic growth has been in turmoil amid the Russia-Ukraine war, which has attracted an inflation increase.

In summary, the Russia-Ukraine war has weakened the US economy due to the resulting trade sanctions and supply shortages. The US economy depends on imports from Russia and Ukraine, which have become minute due to the war. US industries that depend on imports from Russia and Ukraine have suffered a shortage of raw materials. Besides, the agricultural industry has been unable to thrive more smoothly due to fertilizer sanctions against Russia. As a result, the US suffered economically, contributing to inflation. The US must find alternative sources of potash and other essential raw materials to facilitate its economy when an alike crisis emerges.

 

Works Cited

Coulter, Jarod. and Martínez-García, Enrique. (2022). “Russia’s War on Ukraine Will Leave Scars on U.S., World Economies.” Federal Reserve Bank of Dallas, 17 May 2022, www.dallasfed.org/research/economics/2022/0517. Accessed 14 Jan. 2023.

Ibendahl, Gregg. “The Russia-Ukraine Conflict and the Effect on Fertilizer.” (2022). Available at: https://www.agmanager.info/production-economics/prices-and-price-forecasts/russia-ukraine-conflict-and-effect-fertilizer Accessed 14 Jan. 2023.

Mbah, Ruth Endam, and Divine Forcha Wasum. “Russian-Ukraine 2022 War: A Review of the Economic Impact of the Russian-Ukraine Crisis on the USA, UK, Canada, and Europe.” Advances in Social Sciences Research Journal, vol. 9, no. 3, 2022, pp.144-153.

 

 

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COVID-19 Impacts on the Tourism Sector

            COVID-19 Impacts on the Tourism Sector. The World Health Organization (WHO) declared COVID-19 a global pandemic on March 2020. Due to this virus, most countries faced travel bans while institutions and workplaces moved online. The tourism industry was greatly affected as most tourism-dependent countries faced lockdowns and banned travel. Physical distance was encouraged to prevent infection of the virus; The tourism sector involves close contact between hosts and tourists. While most countries banned international travel and announced lockdowns, most businesses closed, which led to economic crisis and unemployment cases.

The economic recession has been a major impact since the emergence of COVID-19. Tourism is known to increase revenue, but the pandemic brought drawbacks to the economy. According to United Nations World Tourism Organization (UNWTO), most festivals ceased, while markets and 90% of museums closed. Pak et al. (2020) state that the pandemic caused deaths, workplace absenteeism, and low productivity. The tourism sector was mainly affected as most employees were in close contact with the visitors. Although closing public areas and keeping social distance prevented the virus contraction, closing businesses caused economic fallout.

The emergence of coronavirus led to the suspension of businesses and staff layoffs; the pandemic affected destinations that mostly relied on tourism for revenue leading to stress and frustration. According to Nghiem and Wilson (2021), economic hardship causes stress and loneliness, which may later lead to a high risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) mortality. Wang et al. (2016) claim that CVD is still the leading cause of death worldwide, estimated at 17.8 million deaths. Thus, most tourism-dependent businesses closed, and people lost their jobs, which led to stress and higher risks like CVD mortality.

The tourism sector faced a great fallout due to the rise of the economic crisis and unemployment cases. Tourism-dependent countries suffered as the economy plummeted, whereby most businesses closed and never reopened. In employment sectors, most people suffered frustration and stress as they had no sources of income. Today, the tourism industry has started to rise, however slowly. International tourism has resumed as people take prevention measures. Also, the WHO advises people to take vaccines to reduce virus infections.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

References

Nghiem, N., & Wilson, N. (2021). The potential impact of COVID-19 related unemployment on increased cardiovascular disease in a high-income country: Modeling health loss, cost, and equity. PLOS ONE, 16(5), e0246053. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0246053

Pak, A., Adegboye, O., Adekunle, A., Rahman, K., McBryde, E., & Eisen, D. (2020). Economic consequences of the COVID-19 outbreak: The Need for Epidemic Preparedness. Frontiers in Public Health, 8. https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fpubh.2020.00241/full

United Nations World Tourism Organization. (2020). Tourism and covid-19 – unprecedented economic impacts. https://www.unwto.org/tourism-and-covid-19-unprecedented-economic-impacts

Wang, H., Naghavi, M., Allen, C., Barber, R. M., Bhutta, Z. A., Carter, A., & Bell, M. L. (2016). Global, regional, and national life expectancy, all-cause mortality, and cause-specific mortality for 249 causes of death, 1980–2015: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2015. The lancet388(10053), 1459-1544.

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Childhood Obesity

Childhood Obesity

Childhood obesity is a problem that affects many individuals around the globe. The problem is rampant because healthcare institutions use a lot of resources in their endeavors to curb it. The issue affects individuals of all ages, leaving them in poor states of health. The epidemic has raised concerns because it strikes children and adolescents at high rates. The ailment arises due to a high intake of calories as well as genetic factors (Kumar, S., & Kelly, A. S. (2017). The diagnosis of obesity follows the criteria of Body Mass Index (BMI); health practitioners regard children with a BMI of 30 and higher as obese (Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research, 2021). Obesity is a cosmetic concern and a medical condition that can increase the risk of individuals contracting other diseases, affecting their health adversely.

 

 

 

 

 

Prevalence of the Condition

The prevalence of the problem is considerably high; between 2017 and 2018, approximately 14.4 million individuals reported having the problem. Thorough observation indicates that the prevalence is 13% in children between the ages of 2-5 years, 20.3% for those between 6-11 years, and 21.2 % for those aged 12-19 years (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2022). The problem’s pervasiveness in the United States is high because 1 in 3 children report complications. The actual percentages in the region are 22.8% of preschool children,34.2% for those aged between 6-11 years, and 34.5 % for those aged between 12-19 years (Kumar & Kelly, 2017). Ultimately, the commonness of childhood obesity implies that individuals need to monitor their weight closely to prevent the contraction of the condition.

Predisposing/Risk Factors for Childhood Obesity

Several factors predispose childhood obesity and place children at risk of contracting the condition. These include:

  1. Socioeconomic status- Higher socioeconomic standards put children and adolescents at higher risk for the disease (Farrag et al., 2017). Therefore, children from high-income families are the most susceptible.
  2. Gender- Boys are at higher risk of contracting the condition because they do not monitor their weight effectively (Wang et al., 2018). Furthermore, mothers monitor the weight statuses of girls more than boys, thereby reducing the chances of female children attracting the ailment.
  3. Diet- Consumption of food with a high percentage of carbohydrates contributes to obesity (Farrag et al., 2017). High-glucose foodstuffs include sugar-sweetened beverages, cakes, doughnuts, savory snacks, and iced desserts.
  4. Sleep-children who sleep less than six hours daily are at higher risk of becoming obese.
  5. Underlying medical conditions- Underlying medical conditions such as type 2 diabetes, high blood pressure, fatty liver disease, and other comorbidities increase the chances of children’s obesity (Kumar & Kelly, 2017).

Comorbidities of Childhood Obesity

Comorbidity refers to the existence of more than one medical condition concurrently. Childhood obesity is associated with other systems of the body, such as the endocrine, musculoskeletal, gastrointestinal, pulmonary, and cardiovascular systems; most children and adolescents with the condition report having complications such as diabetes, obstructive sleep apnea, and steatohepatitis (Kumar & Kelly, 2017). The implication is that individuals with obesity are at risk of contracting other ailments because the affliction alters general body functioning significantly.

Intervention Strategies for Childhood Obesity

Several interventions can help in the treatment and management of the condition. Dietary modification, as well as an increase in physical activities, aid in the control of the condition significantly; parents and caregivers can prevent and treat the disease by encouraging children to increase the consumption of fruits and vegetables, engage in sporting activities, and reduce sedentary activities such as video games and excessive use of computers and television (Kumar & Kelly, 2017). The authors further note that bariatric surgery helps significantly reduce weight and control comorbidities associated with the medical condition. Intervention programs by healthcare sectors also contribute significantly to the control of the condition.

Concluding Remarks

Obesity among children is a serious health issue that requires immediate attention. Various factors predispose to the condition and can increase the risks of contracting other diseases. Therefore, parents should identify factors contributing to the problem and seek proper intervention strategies to prevent their children from contracting it.

References

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2022, May 17). Childhood obesity facts. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Retrieved January 12, 2023, from https://www.cdc.gov/obesity/data/childhood.html#:~:text=The%20prevalence%20of%20obesity%20was,more%20common%20among%20certain%20populations.

Farrag, N. S., Cheskin, L. J., & Farag, M. K. (2017). A systematic review of childhood obesity in the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) region: prevalence and risk factors meta-analysis. Advances in pediatric research4.

Kumar, S., & Kelly, A. S. (2017, February). Review of childhood obesity: from epidemiology, etiology, and comorbidities to clinical assessment and treatment. In Mayo Clinic Proceedings (Vol. 92, No. 2, pp. 251-265). Elsevier.

Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research. (2021, September 2). Obesity. Mayo Clinic. Retrieved January 12, 2023, from https://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/obesity/symptoms-causes/syc-20375742#:~:text=Obesity%20is%20a%20complex%20disease,blood%20pressure%20and%20certain%20cancers.

Wang, V. H., Min, J., Xue, H., Du, S., Xu, F., Wang, H., & Wang, Y. (2018). What factors may contribute to sex differences in childhood obesity prevalence in China?. Public health nutrition21(11), 2056-2064.

 

 

 

 

Appendices

 

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2022, June 3). About adult BMI. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Retrieved January 12, 2023, from https://www.cdc.gov/healthyweight/assessing/bmi/adult_bmi/index.html#InterpretedAdults

 

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Journal on Experience as a counselor

Journal on Experience as a counselor

Hardly any issues could defeat hope during my working days until last week. The day started well until we received the news that left us flabbergasted. We learned we were short of staff as we had lost a great counselor. Mrs. Cooper was an extraordinary counselor who knew her customers well and what they needed. She would go over and beyond to fulfill her customers’ needs, ensuring satisfaction. It isn’t easy to employ staff new to the system in most organizations. Two main reasons why it is difficult are: One, it is expensive to hire. Two, finding the right people to hire is hard, hence promoting staff with Experience and knowledge of the system. Therefore, the employee fit for the position is promoted; Mrs. Cooper retired from counseling and then assumed the supervisor position.

Serving as a supervisor, she had to discontinue all her previous roles, whereby she had 100 cases to be shared among the rest of the employees. Due to these changes, we encountered rude staff. Hence the cases had to be shared with inexperienced counselors like me. From where I stand, I have a workload of issues that I do not know how to tackle, and I feel like no one cares. A horrible feeling, that is! Since the changes occurred at the workplace, I am speaking with my therapist as I have sleep deprivation. I am also frequently meeting with my lead counselor, who helps me understand all the roles and cases I have been assigned. I am also seeking outside support to help tackle the issues with courage. With all the help, I believe I will grow mentally and solve problems in the future.

From this experience, I learned that we should always be ready to enroll in higher duties and perform tasks we have no experience with. We should also quit comfort and strive to learn roles performed by the high-ups. The Experience was an important insight because it allowed me to grow mentally and develop new ideas and strategies for tackling complex tasks. I have applied previously learned knowledge in this internship, and my skills have greatly improved. Further, I feel confident about the work, and I will not be afraid of failure in the future. Ultimately, like Mrs. Cooper, a great counselor works well with the team and clients. One should have excellent relationships with customers and be committed to supporting teammates. Additionally, one should be positively willing to engage in new challenges.

My main goal is to attain as much experience as possible and better understand how I will take up my future role as a counselor. In the future, I will not overlook any skill’s importance and will take all tasks assigned with courage. For me to grow in my roles, I will seek support as well as assist my team. In case of any difficulty, I will keep trying and never give up till I attain the expected goals. I will also ensure flexibility in all tasks and adapt when things change. As a great rehabilitation counselor, I will ensure I understand my clients to fulfill their needs.

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Is Man the “Lowest” Animal?

Is Man the “Lowest” Animal?

            The Lowest Animal, a philosophical essay written in 1896 by Mark Twain, shows how man is the “lowest animal”. Some people believe that humankind has descended from the “highest animal”, while others believe that they have ascended from the “lowest” animal. I think a man is the “highest” animal, but their actions make them the “lowest” animal. Compared to other animals, man is intelligent and has all senses but fails to make the right decisions. In Mark Twain’s essay, people are, vengeful, immoral, and prejudiced against their fellows. However, bad traits do not make humans the lowest animal.

In The Lowest Animal, humans are the only animals inclined to slavery. Twain claims that man is the only slave and also the only animal enslaves. He says humans are slaves in one form or another, holding other slaves in bondage (P. 3). Twain shows how people work for others to get minor wages to cater to their needs. In contrast, other animals like ants are also disposed to slavery. Research by Tennenhouse shows how the blood-red ants go on a mission every summer to capture slaves. The ants invade the nests of other ant species and kill the queen. The ants later kidnap the pupae to raise an upcoming slave generation that gathers food as they defend the colony. Therefore, contrary to Mark Twain, other animal species are also subjected to slavery.

In addition to humans, other animals can dispossess their fellow species. According to Twain (P. 3), man is the only animal that plunders their helpless fellow in their country, takes possession of it, and drives them out of it or destroys them. Inversely, most animals are known to defend a certain area against intrusion and to maintain access to the territory’s resources. On the one hand, some fights are brutal, whereby most animals end up injured or dead. On the other hand, these fights lead to cannibalism; animals feed on their prey to eliminate their competitors or even feed on their young ones. As stated by Coon et al., parents kill their offspring to make themselves available for mating so that they can produce a better brood. Therefore, other animals are also as acquisitive as humans.

Counter to Twain’s essay, humans and other animals can identify their own and other species. According to Ward et al., a single species can dominate social aggregations of fish, thus the ability to distinguish between their own and others and a tendency to be socially attracted to conspecifics. Fish can also bias their behavior in favor of kin and familiar individuals, requiring a more specific form of social recognition (P. 2). Moreover, animals can discriminate their species through smell, sight, hearing, or behavior. The animal’s ability to distinguish other species proves they have the same senses as humans. While humans have larger brains, other animals use their senses to differentiate themselves.

Mark Twain is one-sided when it comes to animal intelligence. In Twain’s essay, the Higher animals have fewer diseases while man starts as a child and lives on illnesses till death (P. 5). Giving all examples of the diseases that can affect humans, Twain shows how people are the weakest animals, whereas they are the strongest. In this case, humans are the highest animal because they work hard and do research to find cures for illnesses; others people study animals, while the rest become veterinarians and cure animal illnesses. Twain also shows how humans are less smart than other animals by saying humans are incapable of learning things that other animals learn fast (P. 4). In defense, most animals learn through classic conditioning. Hence, humans are the most intelligent, as they have to learn ways of caring for animals.

Humans are known to seek revenge, while other animals are calm and appreciative. According to Twain, human is the cruelest animal (P. 3). However, animals can show vengeance and appreciation. The elephant is an example of an animal that shows appreciation and seeks revenge. According to a Newsweek report by Jones, a certain villager killed an elephant’s calf and buried it in the village. A week later, as he was grazing, a herd of 44 elephants approached and trampled him to death.  In another case of appreciation, when Lawrence Antony, the conservationist, died in 2012, a herd of elephants traveled for hours to stand vigil at his house. While most animals show their appreciative and calm nature, they also seek revenge like people.

In a nutshell, Humans are vengeful, immoral, and discriminative towards others, which does not make them the lowest animals. Twain is overly one-sided as he criticizes human slavery and vengeance, greed, discrimination, and intelligence. Through his techniques, some readers agree with his ideas. Nonetheless, looking at another dimension, a reader may disagree with his theories. Thus, humans are the highest animals, and despite their flaws, they can work towards perfection.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Work Cited

Ward, Ashley. “Social Recognition and Social Attraction in Group-Living Fishes.” Frontiers in Ecology and Revolution, vol 8, no. 15, 04 Feb 2020, P. 2. https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fevo.2020.00015/full. Accessed on 09 Jan 2023.

Tennenhouse, Erica. “How blood-red ants Became Slave Snatchers.” Plants and Animals, 11 April 2018. Toronto Canada. https://www.science.org/content/article/how-blood-red-ants-became-slave-snatchers. Accessed 09 Jan 2023.

Coon, Jaime et al. “Observation of parental infanticide in Dickcissels (Spiza Americana): Video evidence and potential mechanisms.” Wilson Journal of Ornithology, vol. 130, no. 1, 2018, pp. 341-45. https://experts.illinois.edu/en/publications/an-observation-of-parental-infanticide-in-dickcissels-spiza-ameri. Accessed 09 Jan 2023

Twain, Mark. Mark Twain’s book of animals. California: University of California Press, 2010.Print.

Jones, Spencer. “Elephants In India Get Revenge on Man Involved in Death of Calf.” Travel Noire, 24 Oct 2022. https://travelnoire.com/elephants-in-india-get-revenge-on-man-involved-in-death-of-calf

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What is the pathophysiology of Down syndrome?

 What are the symptoms of Down syndrome?

Symptoms of Down Syndrome

The medical condition has various symptoms. The major syndromes are difficulties in breathing, problematic speech development, and impaired cognition. More so, patients exhibit physical abnormalities such as large gaps between their toes, slanted and almond-shaped eyes, and small chins (Hegazy & Baraka, 2021). Other common features include a flattened face, short neck and ears, a tongue that tends to stick out of the mouth, small feet and hands, white spots on the iris, palmar creases, fingers that curve towards the thumb, loose joints, and reduced height (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2022). The organization further notes that individuals with Down syndrome report low intelligence quotient measures and are less interactive because of slow speech. Other significant diagnostic signs include increased risks of obesity, abnormal functioning of the thyroid metabolism, intestinal malabsorption, and an increase in the frequency of infections; these symptoms emanate from the reduction in the body’s immune functions (Marianne Belleza, 2021). They are significant in assessing and diagnosing the condition for effective management practices.

 

Assessment and Diagnosis

The assessment and diagnosis of Down syndrome vary. Common methods that medical practitioners employ in the processes include prenatal screening, diagnostic testing, laboratory studies of the bone marrow, fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH), nuchal translucency (NT) scan, and amniocentesis(Marianne Belleza, 2021). The methods above contribute significantly to proper screening.

Treatment

The condition has no treatment. However, proper management strategies to curb the infection include:

  1. Speech training and management
  2. Occupational therapy
  3. Physical therapy
  4. Unique schooling programs for extra help/attention

Individuals who get help early enough can realize their potential and cultivate their talents, thereby improving their lives.

Nursing Intervention Strategies for Down Syndrome

Marianne Belleza (2021) details ideal nursing interventions, citing the following.

  1. Provision of adequate and balanced nutrition for patients
  2. Frequent visits and consultations to check on patients’ wellbeing
  3. Imparting knowledge to parents on the importance of understanding the condition
  4. Provision of emotional support to those who are infected and affected
  5. In-depth assessment and diagnosis of the condition for the adoption of early management practices

Conclusion

Down syndrome is indeed a condition that has had adverse effects on individuals’ health since childhood. Studies have stipulated that the prevalence is significant, considering that 1 in approximately 700 individuals that are born have the disorder. Nurses play a fundamental role in managing the condition, considering it has no cure.

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