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A mock-up screen of a “digital dashboard” for a diabetes disease surveillance system

A mock-up screen of a “digital dashboard” for a diabetes disease surveillance system

            Diabetes creates a lot of concern in public health because of its association with severe infections and death. A computer-monitored surveillance system provides essential information that assists health specialists in monitoring trends and disease burdens, implementing, planning, and coming up with necessary preventive and control measures (Brachman, 2001). A medical digital dashboard surveillance system is a computerized interactive tool used in hospitals to ascertain the status of operations in a health center. Such a system was used in the surveillance of Influenza disease with specific designs according to public health requirements (Cheng et al., 2011). The system assists in displaying various hospital management operations taking place in a healthcare center. The diagram below shows a mock-up screen of a digital dashboard for a diabetes surveillance system. In addition, the following diagram shows a framework for the digital dashboard by specific application to diabetes surveillance.

 

 

 

 

Figure 1: Mock-up screen of a digital dashboard for diabetes surveillance.

 

 

 

 

 

 

A framework for the display of data using appropriate interactive graphics, symbols, and words.

The mock-up screen will have three elements. The data input section is where all the information about a patient will be put online or under the supervision of a physician. The data input device may include a personal computer or an internet-enabled mobile phone. The patient is required to register their details on a computer. Secondly, the data fed into the surveillance system will be processed and stored in the computer hardware. The information is stored in various servers where it is easily accessible. Finally, the information must be delivered to the public health specialists for analysis. Specialists will get the information from the public health website and make the necessary report on Diabetes surveillance (Chen, Zeng & Yan, 2010).

 

 

References

Brachman, P. S. (2001). Perspectives on the Department of Defense Global Emerging Infections Surveillance and Response System a program review. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press.

Chen, H., Zeng, D., & Yan, P. (2010). Infectious disease informatics syndromic surveillance for public health and biodefense. New York: Springer.

Cheng C. K. Y., Ip, D. K. M., Cowling, B. J, Ho, L. M., Leung, G. M., Lau, E. H. Y. (2011). Digital Dashboard Design Using Multiple Data Streams for Disease Surveillance With Influenza Surveillance as an Example. J Med Internet Res 2011; 13(4):e85. Retrieved from:

http://www.jmir.org/2011/4/e85/

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What are the legal requirements for nursing documentation?

What are the legal requirements for nursing documentation?

What are the legal requirements for nursing documentation?
What are the legal requirements for nursing documentation? Ms Amy Jones was a 55-year-old woman being treated for depression at a mental health facility. She was alert, oriented, ambulating without difficulty, and interacting appropriately with staff. The patient’s family was scheduled for a meeting with her treatment team in the afternoon. During the day Ms. Jones met with her psychiatrist, Dr. Ian Smith, in Ms. Jones’s room. When her roommate came in, Dr. Smith suggested that they complete their session in his office, and Ms. Jones accompanied him to that space. On the way she complained that she felt weak but could make it. During the session she reported that she had a headache, which Dr. Smith attributed to anxiety. He went to look for a nurse to provide medication for Ms. Jones. On his return with Ms. Mary Sullivan, a registered nurse, Ms. Jones was on the floor on her knees vomiting. A physician working across the hall came and assisted Dr. Smith and Nurse Sullivan with Ms. Jones, who was now quite somnolent, into a wheelchair. Dr. Allen, the primary care physician, ordered that Ms. Jones be given Phenergan IM for the vomiting and that the nursing staff monitor her bowel sounds. Dr. Allen reported that she was not informed of Ms. Jones’ complaints of headache or loss of bowel control. Dr. Allen thought that she was dealing with gastrointestinal symptoms so she had the nurses check for bowel sounds and softness of the patient’s belly. She reports that she received a second callback and was told bowel sounds were normal, the patient’s stomach was soft, and the patient was resting comfortably. Ms. Jones was bathed and returned to her bed. She took the prescribed Phenergan after which she vomited several more times during that shift. She was incontinent of stool once. No one considered conducting neurologic checks because the staff thought Ms. Jones was suffering from a virus.

 

What is the legal implication of documentation?

What are the legal requirements for nursing documentation?

When Ms. Jones’s family members arrived, the nurses advised them that their mother was sick and was sleeping, and would not be able to attend the meeting. The family members could not arouse the patient. The staff said that Ms. Jones had been administered Phenergan for vomiting and would be awake by evening. Family members returned that evening and found the patient still unresponsive with vomit in her mouth. The family checked Ms. Jones’ pupils and found them unequal. The family reported to the registered nurse at the desk, and another nurse checked Ms. Jones’ vital signs and reported them to be normal. The family telephoned Ms. Jones’ primary care physician, Dr. Allen, and the nurse gave him a report. Soon after this call, an ambulance transported Ms. Jones to the hospital for evaluation. Ms. Jones subsequently died at the hospital.

Ms. Jones’ daughter stated that the registered nurse did not assess her mother; on arrival in the unit, the EMT assessed Ms. Jones. Ms. Jones’ daughter did not believe that her mother had been adequately monitored from noon to 6:30 PM. She also complained that the nurses were laughing at the family’s concerns about the condition in which they found their mother.

Ms. Cherie Hoffman, a registered nurse, had been employed at the facility for 25 years. She began her career as a nursing assistant, a title she held for 7 years. She then served as a licensed practical nurse for 10 years and then as a registered nurse for the past 6 years. She was familiar with all of the policies and procedures of the facility. On the day of the event Ms. Hoffman was working as the charge nurse; she noted that it was a particularly busy day. She returned from lunch and was informed by Nurse Sullivan that Ms. Jones was ill and had vomited. She was bathed, and the staff had documented her vital signs, completed the Glucoscan, and medicated Ms. Jones with Phenergan per Dr. Allen’s order. The family was not notified of a change in Ms. Jones’ condition because they were expected for a family conference at 3 PM, and Nurse Sullivan hoped that Ms. Jones would feel better by then and could participate in the conference. Nurse Hoffman assisted Nurse Sullivan in monitoring Ms. Jones throughout the rest of the shift. Nurse Hoffman had understood that Ms. Jones had not been sleeping well and thought it would be good to let her sleep. Nurse Hoffman thought Nurse Sullivan had last assessed Ms. Jones at 7 PM.

 

What are the guidelines for documentation?

What are the legal requirements for nursing documentation?

Nurse Hoffman states she was never informed that Ms. Jones had collapsed prior to vomiting or that she had a headache, or that Ms. Jones was somnolent after the episode. She reported that Ms. Jones had a history of headaches, nausea, and dizziness, all of which had been attributed to medications.

Nurse Sullivan recalls reporting everything to Nurse Hoffman. Nurse Sullivan said she had checked bowel sounds as directed. Ms. Jones was incontinent of stool at 2 PM. and was bathed and repositioned. Around 6 PM. Nurse Sullivan straightened Ms. Jones in bed and said that Ms. Jones looked comfortable. Nurse Sullivan said that she did not feel anxious about the patient, as she thought Ms. Jones was sleeping. Ms. Jones was not on 15-minute checks, but Nurse Sullivan recalled checking on Ms. Jones frequently throughout the shift to assess for vomiting.
According to what you learned on this documentation presented by the healthcare provider and provide examples of whether the nurse follows or did not follow documentation requisites.

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Essay about Unit

Essay about Unit.
In this task I will be writing a case study about two different individuals who have different needs to one another, in order to complete an application for my second year to train as a social worker. Michael is a 79 year old man who lives in a residential care home because he cannot look after himself as he has dementia and forgets to do things like feed himself, wash himself. He cannot go out to the shop or even go for a walk about because he cannot stable himself to walk properly and finds it hard to walk around without being in pain because of his arthritis.
When he was younger he used to work in the metal works making all sorts of metal which was used for buildings, doors anything that had metal in them Michael has made in the metal works. Michael even used run to keep him health and fit he would even do cross country running. Michael is an atheist who doesn’t believe in anything and he still gets on with his life even though his friends believe in different religions such as Christian, Muslim. Michaels family live almost 2 hours away which means they cannot go and see him as much as they would like to see him and because of that he eels really lonely and that he has no one to talk to.
Michael has one younger brother who lives abroad so he doesn’t have a chance to see him unless he comes back to the I-J for like 4 weeks every year and if he comes to see Michael. Nancy is a 83 year old woman who lives in a residential care home because she arthritis, she has also broken her wrist which enables her to be able to wash herself properly, she also has bipolar disorder. Bipolar is also known as manic depression this condition can affect your mood which can swing from one extreme to the other.

Nancy goes through a tag of depression every day after losing her husband 2 years ago and she thinks that she is worthless and that she cannot do anything right. Nancy is a Christian who follows the religion very carefully and listens to what is right and knows what is wrong and she is strict by following the rules. Nanny’s family come to see her every two days because they live 30 minutes away which means they can come see her more often and she likes that they come and see her because they are the only family she has got and she can talk to them and have fun with them.
Nancy is the youngest r her and her sister but her sister never comes to see her because she has her own problems such as bad arthritis pains in her legs and her knees which enables her to walk. When she was younger Nancy used to love running, swimming she used to take part in sports for her school teams she used to travel up and down the country in order to take part in competing for her school team to win medals and for the school to win some medals.
Empowerment of individual- Giving individuals enough information to enable them to make informed decisions and make choices about their life. It lies at the heart of the care value base, devised by the Care Sector Consortium in 1992. The care worker could empower Michael by getting him a mobility scooter so he can get out of the house rather than being indoors all day on how own. A mobility scooter is an electronic scooter that lets people who cannot walk properly still get out and about of the house.
Also where Michael has dementia he tends to forget things very easily so the care worker could leave him notes in important places such as the kitchen, bathroom, and toilet telling him how to use the things that are in there and how to cook his food. This would help him physically because he is still getting out and about and leading a normal life also he would be eating instead of forgetting to eat. Intellectually it would help him because he is still thinking and using his brain to read the notes that have been left for him.
It would help Michael emotionally because after years of being stuck in doors on his own he will be able to go out into the fresh air and go to the shops and parks on his own without worrying about not being able to walk properly, also it would help his socially because once he starts getting out the house he can interact with new people and tart making friends whilst he is out instead of having no friends and being alone.
The care worker could empower Nancy by getting her a career who with her all day and leaves at night, the career would help Nancy to open Jars, fridges, doors and anything that Nancy would not be able to open because of her arthritis, and because of her broken wrist she is unable to do a lot of things for herself, especially washing herself when she is taking a bath or a shower. Also she could take some lessons on working on her bipolar in order to stop it from getting any worse and calming it down which is causing her to become even more depressed than she normally is and is making her keep herself to herself and not talk to anyone else.
Physically this will help Nancy to get back to the way she was where she would talk to anyone and everyone in the nursing home. It would make her a better person for herself and others. Intellectually it will help her to understand that her bipolar is causing her to shut herself away from everyone and that she has no one to talk to when she needs people to talk to, to cheer her up. This will help her emotionally because she knows hat she would be getting help in order for her to get better and that she would have more people to talk to when she needs them.
It would also help her socially because she can talk to people about her depression and losing her husband and she would make more friends whilst she is at the residential care home. Promotion of choice- Every person should be encouraged to exercise their choice or control of their lives for example by choosing which activities they want to take part in when they are in a residential care setting. An advocate can help them to understand that the choice is remoter by representing the individual and explaining what is important to them.
Michael could have the promotion of choice by being asked does he want to be able to get out of the house instead of being there all day on his own with no one to talk to or to make any friends. This could help him physically because he is being given a choice to go outside on the scooter or be inside all day. Intellectually it makes him think does he want to get out of the house into fresh air or being indoors all day doing the same things he usually does. Emotionally this helps him to feel as if he can o things on his own without any help from people and makes him think that he does have a choice.
Socially this will help him because if he does go out he can make new friends and meet new people rather than him being on his own. Nancy could have the promotion of choice by being asked does she want to go to classes which could help her with her bipolar disorder which could help her to stop being depressed. Physically this can help her become a better person and a happier person all round. Intellectually it could help her to become a stronger person fighting her own battles thou other people doing it for her and to become a better person like she was before everything happened.
Emotionally it could help her see that she is bringing herself down and is causing her more pain and hurt. This would help her socially because she would be able to talk to people more about how she is feeling and what she is going through and she would be able to make more friends and be able to spend time with them more. Promotion of rights- Every individual in a health and social care setting environment has the rights to confidentiality, choice and to have their individuality acknowledged and respected. All individuals have a right to voice their opinions and receive effective communication.
They must have access to the policies and procedures of the organization that is providing their care. Michael has the provision of rights by knowing that he has the right to choose if he wants to have the scooter and he has the rights to his own confidentiality by means of which no one else should know what his problems are. Physically this would make him feel better of himself because no one else would know what kind of problems are going on with him and only he and the career would understand what kind of needs he has.
Intellectually this would make him think that he can trust the career and can tell them what it is he needs and nothing would be said to anyone else. Emotionally this would make Michael understand that the career is there for his needs and his needs only and would help him anyway that they can. Socially this would make Michael be able to talk to people more and maybe he could tell them what is the matter with him and they would understand. Nancy has the provision of rights by choosing if she wants to have a career with her every day to help her to open things such as Jars and if she ants to have classes to help with her bipolar.
Physically this could help Nancy because she knows that she has a right to choose what she wants to do with her life a future. Intellectually this would help Nancy to think that she can have a career with her to help her do things more easily than doing it herself. Emotionally this will help Nancy to understand that there is help there if she needs it and if she was to ask they would help her and not turn away and leave her to do it herself. Socially this will help her to talk to people easier and understand that she can talk about her robbers with people.
Recognition of preferences- When providing social care support for vulnerable people, it is important to find out and recognize their preferences. This helps to ensure that they are able to live independently and allow them to stay in control of their daily lives. For example individuals should be able to state their preferences as to the type of support they wish to receive. Michael has a right to recognition of preferences by knowing that he could live by himself if he wanted to but he would still need help to do the daily things that people have to do.
Physically this would help him to learn to live on his own without lots of people being around all the time wanting to know his business. Intellectually this would help Michael to understand that he could try and do things on his own rather than wanting to rely on other people to do it for him and be more independent. Emotionally this would help Michael to understand that he could live on his own and try to do things on his own with the exception of a career being there for him. Socially this would enable Michael to talk to people more than Just being on his own and leaning with his problems and knowing that he can talk to people about it.
Nancy has the recognition of rights by knowing that she could live on her own, if she wanted to but she would still need help to do the daily things that people have to do. Physically this would help Nancy to understand that she could live on her own but have a career there Just in case she needs them to help her wash and to help her get up from a chair because of her arthritis. Intellectually this could help her understand that they are giving her a chance to do things independently and not having people here 2417 doing it for her.
Emotionally this could help Nancy to realism that she could do things for herself she don’t always need someone there to make sure that she can do it. Socially this would help her to get out more and to interact with other people around and not be left on her own. Involvement of individuals in planning their support- Care should be person-centered which means that care is focused on the individual to ensure that independence and autonomy are promoted. A social care worker should not make any decision or start delivering a service without discussion ND consultation with the individual involved.
Michael has the right to be involved of planning in his support by telling the career when he needs help and if he wants help rather than Just getting help when he don’t want it. Physically this would help Michael to understand that he can tell the career when he wants or needs help rather than Just getting it and making him depressed. Intellectually this could help him to know that he can talk to the career rather than being scared and not talking to the career about it. Emotionally this can help Michael to know that the career is there of hey are needed and he Just has to ask for help.
Socially this will help him to talk to the career more instead of being scared to ask in case the career doesn’t listen to him. Nancy has the right to be involved of planning in her support by telling the career when she needs help and if she wants help rather than Just getting help when she don’t want it. Physically this can help Nancy to know that the career is always there if they are needed and will help when asked. Intellectually this will help her to think that the career will always help when they are asked instead of doing it when they are not asked.
Emotionally this will help Nancy to understand that she can do things for herself but the career is there Just to help her when needed. Socially this helps Nancy to understand that she can talk to people about what is going on and that she can ask for help when needed. Respect for diversity- Britain is a multicultural society and this has an impact on health and social care delivery. The value of diversity should be obvious but unfortunately many people lack knowledge and understanding of different cultures, races or religions, and may therefore become fearful of something or someone who is different.
Michael has the right of respect for diversity knowing that he is atheist and the careers could be another religion he wouldn’t asking for things that they perhaps may not like or might not want to do. Physically this could help Michael to understand that if he wanted something cooked that they may not like to cook because they do not like it in their religion they may not want to cook it. Intellectually this would make him think that maybe he could try and do it for himself while the career watches him. Emotionally this will help him to understand other religions more and what their beliefs are.
Socially this could make him understand that talking to them about their different religion is good and so that he can understand what they believe in. Nancy has the right of respect for diversity knowing that she is Christian and the careers could be another religion she wouldn’t asking for things that they perhaps may not like or might not want to do. Physically this will help Nancy to understand that everyone’s religion and beliefs are different they are not all the same. Intellectually this would make Nancy understand that not everyone has the same religion and they all believe in different things.
Emotionally this will make her think that she could try and do things for herself. Socially this could make her think that she might want to try and do things for herself. Holistic approach- All care work is about improving an individual’s quality of life by taking a holistic approach to providing care. Holistic care means looking at all of a person’s needs and providing opportunities for these needs to be met. The career has the right to try and improve the individual’s quality of life by taking the persons needs and trying to make the best out of them.
Michael has the rights to a career because of his dementia. Physically this makes him understand that he is important and that his needs are trying to be met and looked after well. Intellectually this will make him think that his needs are important and that the career will always help him. Emotionally this will help Michael to understand that he can try and do things for himself whilst the career is there watching him to make sure that he is safe. Socially this will help Michael to understand that he can talk to the career about his needs and what he thinks can be done about them.
Nanny’s needs are that she has arthritis, broken wrist and she has bipolar disorder and the career should help her to do daily things so she can live a quality life. Physically this will make Nancy understand that she can still do everything that she could do when she had no problems but she Just has to have a career there to help her. Intellectually this could get Nancy to understand that she could try and do it for herself. Emotionally this will get Nancy to understand that she should try and walk around more to help her try and gain her strength again.
Socially this can help her to know that she could talk to people about her problems and try talking to people about her bipolar disorder. Multi- agency involvement- Multi- disciplinary working is about teams of workers from all different specialist professions and services working together in order to prevent problems from occurring in the support planning process. Working well with other agencies allows for all the different options to be considered and resources can be offered to be included in a support plan.
It is extremely important for the service provider to be fully aware of the power they have in their professional capacity and not misuse the power. This means being aware of the conflicts that can emerge in relation to the individuals rights and needs Michael has the right to multi-agency involvement because of his dementia and arthritis which means that he could need a doctor and maybe the physiotherapist in order for him to be able to walk properly again and to help him to try and remember things. Physically this would help Michael to remember things instead or forgetting them instantly.
Intellectually this will help him to start remembering people he used to know and how to things at home like shower, cook. Emotionally this can help him to become a better person and start getting him to do things for himself. Socially this will help Michael talk to people more without forgetting things. Nancy has arthritis and bipolar which means she would need a doctor and maybe social worker so she can talk to people about her problems. Physically this will help Nancy to understand that maybe she should talk about her problems rather than keep them to herself.
Intellectually this can help her to start getting rid of all the guilt that she is keeping inside her rather than letting it out. Emotionally this will help her to understand that maybe people are right she should start talking to people more instead of keeping herself to herself. Socially this will help Nancy to understand that no one will make fun of her if she tells them she has bipolar. Anti-Discriminatory practice- Discrimination is caused by prejudice which in turn leads to negative behavior.
Discriminatory actions or behavior can lead to some people not having their needs met. Negative behavior can damage a person physically and psychologically and can also cause stress. Michael thinks that people will make fun of his because he has dementia and that he keeps forgetting things easily than any other person may not. Physically this makes him depressed because e thinks that he is worthless, he can talk to doctor to help him understand why they might do that. Intellectually it makes him think that no one cares about him and they don’t want to know him.
Emotionally this will make him think that he is worthless and that he can’t trust anyone. Socially this makes him not want to talk to people about his problems and keep them to himself. Nancy doesn’t want to tell anyone about her problems because she thinks they might not take her seriously and find it all a Joke if she tells them she has bipolar. Physically this makes her down in herself and would ant to keep herself away from other people. Intellectually this will makes Nancy think why would she want to share her problems with people she thinks would understand but don’t.
Emotionally it would make her think that she is nothing and that no one really cares about her. Socially this would make her not want to talk to people because they might make fun of her. Maintaining confidentiality- Every individual has a right to confidentiality and privacy and control over their personal details. Maintaining confidentiality has become a specific issue in principles and values. It is vital to successful care giving to keep information provided by all individuals confidential.
Michael trusts the career to keep his problems confidential and not tell anyone else without telling him first and making sure that they could tell the other person. Physically this would make him think that he can trust them and believe them if they say they won’t tell anyone. Intellectually this will make him think if he can tell them or not without them telling anyone about his problems. Emotionally this will make Michael feel trustworthy towards his career and would be able to tell them things he wouldn’t tell other people.
Socially this would help Michael to talk more to people about all thee problems he has and has confidence. Nancy trusts the career to keep her problems confidential and not to tell anyone else without telling her first and making sure that they could tell the other person. Physically this would make her feel as if she could trust their career and could tell them all about her problems. Intellectually this will make Nancy understand that maybe she could tell there career things and they wouldn’t tell anyone else about them.
Emotionally this will cake her feel as if she can put all her trust in the career and tell them things they wouldn’t normally tell other people. Socially this could show her that she could talk to other people about her problems without being laughed at. Ml- Review the benefit to individuals and professional staff, of taking a holistic approach to planning support Holistic Approach- A holistic view means that we are interested in engaging and developing the whole person. You can think of this as different levels, such as physical, emotional, mental and spiritual.
It’s the concept that the human being is lit-dimensional. We have conscious and unconscious aspects, rational and irrational aspects. It is important for care professionals to help support the whole individual because it then helps the person in care to be looked after properly and have their needs met when it is needed. The purpose of this essay is to get people to understand what holistic approach and why it is important for health care professionals to follow and support the individual with the needs that they need. Five advantages of working in a holistic way for Michael and Nancy are, Empowers them
Michael will feel like he can make his own formed decision and choose whether or not he wants to do something that he might not want to do in the first place. Secondly it can make him more confident in himself to do things on his own and carry out tasks that he thought he might not be able to do in the first place instead of the career doing it all for him. Also he will feel more socially competent, he wants to go outside more by himself and try to meet new people every time he goes out. He has made a few friends who he goes and see and they come to his and they talk to each there or go for walks.
Nancy will feel as if she can make her own formed decision because the career gives her a choice whether she wants to do something or not and the career doesn’t force her into doing it if she doesn’t want to. Nancy will have more confidence in herself to do the tasks on her own without the career doing it all for her which could make her feel as if she can’t do things. She will also feel more socially competent she can talk to people a lot more than she used to before her career was with her, she is also able to go outside on her own meeting new people and making new friends.
She can maintain a strong friendship with people because she likes meeting new people. Respects them and treats them as individuals Michael might feel respected and feel important by the career because he or she helps them to do the things that they cannot do.. Whereas the doctors think that he cannot do things on his own and that he has to have a career with him 2417 to help him get up and around the house or go outside and is concerned about his wellbeing. Michael will be treated as an individual and will have the right to influence the right kind of treatment that he needs and not be given the wrong type of treatment.

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Performance

Exploring the Effectiveness of Performance Appraisal

Exploring the Effectiveness of Performance Appraisal.
EXPLORING THE EFFECTIVENESS OF PERFORMANCE APPRAISAL IN MULTI NATIONAL COMPANY. BY MITHILA S. PARAB 2007-08 A Dissertation presented in part consideration for the degree of “MA MANAGEMENT” ACKNOWLEDGEMENT I would like to thank my supervisor, Nick Bacon for his invaluable advice and guidance throughout the project. I would like to thank all the participants who participated in my research. I would like to thank my family and friends for their guidance and encouragement throughout the project, without which the project would have been impossible. ABSTRACT This dissertation seeks to present the effectiveness of the appraisal system of a Multi national company in India. Hence, the performance appraisal system of this company was studied. The study also explains how performance appraisal systems have encouraged employee development in the organization considered. The study explores the importance of performance appraisal in the organization.
It explores how organizations have to be organized and systematic in their approach, so that they can extract the exact performance from their employees which can help them, to create a balance between performance and achieving organizational objectives. This paper, explains how performance appraisal helps in evaluating and assessing the employees on a common ground and helps to establish training and development program which helps the employee to grow in the organization. It also helps, to understand how performance appraisal helps in other personnel decisions like promotion, salary increments etc. TABLE OF CONTENTS CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION Performance appraisal overview How widespread is performance appraisal? Objective of study Overview of chapters CHAPTER 2 LITERATURE REVIEW How was performance appraisal evolved? Linkage of Human resource management and Performance appraisal Pg. no 6 7 8 9 9 11 11 14 17 20 23 25 26 26 27 29 30 31 Purpose of performance appraisal Perception of PA in organization How is Pa conducted? Management by Objective: Graphic Rating Scale BARS and BOS Motivation and Goal setting theory Feedback 360 degree feedback Summary of Literature Review CHAPTER 3 RESEARCH METHOD Research objective Research methods Quantitative Vs Qualitative Why Qualitative? Research Tactics Primary data Design of interview questions When was research done? Secondary research Limitation of Qualitative research Summary of research methods CHAPTER 4 ANALYSIS OF DATA PART A COMPANY INFORMATION PART B ANALYSIS OF DATA Summary of chapter CHAPTER 5 CONCLUSION 34 34 34 34 35 36 36 36 37 38 38 39 40 40 42 53 54 5 Exploring the effectiveness of Performance Appraisal in Multi national company. CHAPTER 1 : INTRODUCTION:
The purpose of this dissertation is to explore the effectiveness of performance appraisals in Multi national company and its effect on the employees and the organization. This paper, explains how performance evaluation helps in assessing, evaluating and appraising employees performance in the organization as well as rewarding employees and providing them with the necessary training and development. It tries to explain, how it motivates employees when goal setting theory is applied in order to perform better in the organization.

The, study basically highlights the impact of performance appraisal on the employees and on the organization. The key purpose of performance management in organizations is that it helps in; measuring the effectiveness of performance in the organization also, it helps in identifying training needs and largely promotes motivation towards work. But, how exactly does performance appraisal help in running the organization? Every organization has a set of objectives and functions and the main task is to accomplish the desired objectives and functions.
This can only be achieved, if the employees know their duties well. Employees form an important asset of the company, therefore they should be provided with a proper package, remuneration and good training and development. All these facilities will only help the employee to be, highly motivated towards their work and would help in producing the right output i. e. performance. Performance appraisal is used all over the world. Many organizations use 6 performance appraisal in order to develop a clearer picture of their organization.
The performance appraisal process allows an organization to measure and evaluate an individual employee’s behavior and accomplishments over a specific period of time (DeVries et al. , 1981). In recent years the attention towards performance appraisal has increased rapidly, due to its important potential implications ,relating to fair employment practices and the because of increasing concerns about employee productivity in the organization. (Pearce and Porter,1996 ) What ultimately lies is the end product which is performance which has to proper, therefore, in order to achieve that, the employees should be utilized to the full extent.
Organizations have to be organized and systematic in their approach, so that they can extract the exact performance from their employees which can help them, to create a balance between performance and organizational objectives. Performance Appraisal : Overview The most basic purpose of performance appraisal is to provide information to the employees about their job and the amount of effort and behavior expected from them. Performance appraisal (PA) systems aim to help, develop individuals, improve organizational performance and to develop the basis from which builds a baseline for planning for the future.
Generally PA includes the following main purposes: 1 Creation of a shared vision of the organization’s objectives, occasionally through a mission statement communicated to all employees. 2 Setting of individual performance targets relating to the operating unit’s target within the overall organization. 3 A formal review of progress towards these targets, and/or the identification of training needs. 4 The PA system assessed regularly to evaluate its effectiveness for overall organizational performance. (Coates,1994) 7 McEvoy and Cascio(1990) suggested that employees should be told their duties i. . they should be told what is expected from them plus effective orientation towards effective performance. As a result, the intention is to provide employees with an adequate understanding about their job, and encourage employees to work towards their organizational goals. When objectives are set for the employees it becomes simpler for them to attain the desired task. Performance can be obtained, when a desired goal is given. Locke’s ( 1968) Goal setting theory emphasizes the importance of conscious goal levels as determinants of employee performance.
Goal setting theory is summarized as follows- a. hard goals produce a higher level of performance than easy goals, b. some specific hard goals produce higher level of output; c. behavioral intentions regulate choice behavior. How widespread is performance appraisal? Performance appraisal is widely used in many Western countries. In US the percentage of organizations using performance appraisal increased from 89 percent to 94 percent from 1970s to 1980s. (Locher and Teel,1988) Similarly, in UK the use of formal performance appraisal system has rapidly increased. Armstrong and Baron,1998) Appraisal is particularly prominent in some big industrial sectors in the UK, such as financial services. Cully et al (1998) add that performance appraisal has developed from an initial application to the middle managers and professional occupations and is now frequently applied to non-managers and professionals. 8 Performance appraisal is also used in non-western countries like China, India, Hong Kong and Japan. Objective of the study: The aim of this study is to explore the operation and effects of performance appraisal in Multi national company.
It will assess whether the appraisal process creates a positive response or negative response from employees and assess the subsequent impact on employee attitudes and behaviors. The appraisal process studied is that of a Multi national company in India. The appraisal system of this company was designed to improve employee productivity. The findings, suggests that the performance appraisal system is important in the Multi national company among employees and the organization. The study also explains how performance appraisal systems have encouraged employee development in the organization considered.
An over view of the existing literature relevant to this topic is considered in the following chapter. Over view of the chapters: Chapter 1: Introduction: A brief introduction about the purpose of the research is given. A brief overview of performance appraisal is presented. Then the research objective is mentioned. Then a brief description about the remaining chapters is given. Chapter 2 : Literature review: Chapter 2 comprises of Literature review. It starts with the history of performance appraisal system.
It explains how performance appraisal system was evolved in the industry and what its current importance in the industry is. The chapter then, explains 9 the various concepts relevant to the subject. The purpose and perception of appraisal system is explained. This is followed by the process of performance appraisal. The literature review was designed to explain the main motive of the research, therefore accordingly the relevant literatures pertaining to the research was only considered. Chapter 3 : Research methods Chapter 3 comprises of research method adopted in the.
This chapter gives an overview of the research and the research objective. It then explains the purpose of qualitative research adopted in the research. It then highlights the relationship between the study and the research method adopted. The majority of the chapter explains how the data was collected for the research and the process of data analysis. Chapter 4 : Analysis of Data Chapter 4 comprises of the Analysis section. This section gives a brief introduction to the parameters on which the employees are tested in the organization and the scale on which they are judged are explained.
This chapter then explains the findings of the research. This section broadly explains the reaction of the employees, of the appraisal system of their company. Chapter 5 : Conclusion Chapter 5 concludes the research by stating briefly the findings of the research and sums up the whole research. The conclusion also suggests recommendations for fur 10 CHAPTER 2 LITERATURE REVIEW: This chapter gives a review on the literature of performance appraisal. It explores areas from the time performance appraisal was evolved till the current rating scale in the industry. How was performance appraisal evolved?
Evolution of performance appraisal. The formal performance appraisal system has a short but considerable historical background. Grint (1993 ) traces evidence of performance appraisal system in the third-century Chinese practice. In this context, “Imperial Raters” were employed by emperors of the Wei dynasty to rate the performance of the official family members. (Wiese and Buckley, 1998 ) Performance appraisal was seen in the industry in early 1800. In UK, Randell (1994) identified its use in Robert Owen’s use of “silent monitors” in the cotton mills of Scotland.
Here, the Silent monitors were blocks of wood with different colors painted on each visible side and it was hung above each employee’s work station. At the end of the day, the block was turned so that a particular color, representing a grade (rating) of the employee’s performance, was facing the aisle for everyone to see. (Weise and Buckley, 1998) Anecdotal evidence indicates that this practice had a facilitating influence on subsequent behavior. 11 In US the trend of performance was started in1813 in the US War department. Here , an Army General submitted an evaluation of each of his men.
Using a global rating, with descriptions of his men such as “a good-natured man” or “a knave despised by all” (Bellows and Estep, 1954,Weise and Buckley,1998). One impetus of development of performance appraisals in United States was traced in salesman selection by industrial psychologists at Carnegie- Mellon University (Scott et al. , 1941), who used trait psychology to develop a ‘man-to-man’ rating system. Historically, performance appraisals have been used for administrative purposes, such as retention, discharge, promotion, and salary administration decisions (DeVries et al. 1981; Murphy and Cleveland, 1995; Patten, 1977) as cited in Weise and Buckley (1998) By the early 1950s, 61 per cent of organizations regularly used performance appraisals, compared with only 15 per cent immediately after World War II (Spriegel, 1962,Weise and Buckley,1998). The primary tool was the trait-rating system, which focuses on past actions, using a standard, numerical scoring system to appraise people on the basis of a previously established set of dimensions (DeVries et al. , 1981). The main tool, used under here was rait rating system. But, there were a lot of inconsistencies found in it, as the manager had to take up the role of a judge and not a leader. This laid to the development of new systems based on management by objectives. Peter Drucker first proposed the concept of Management by objective in 1954. Mcgreror then used it in the appraisal process in the year 1957. He suggested that, employees should be appraised on the basis of short-term goals, rather than traits, which are jointly set by the employee and the manager. (Weise and Buckley,1998).
This method was very advantageous as, this lead to a transformation of a managers role from being a judge to a helper. It also shows that, employee 12 productivity ultimately leads to performance. Thirdly, it shifts the orientation towards future actions instead of past behaviors (DeVries et al. , 1981; Patten, 1977) However, when employees performance was measured on the basis of units, then MBO was ineffective. This lead to new development in the appraisal process , where the employee was evaluated on the basis of ‘behaviour based rating’.
The first tool, to focus on behaviors was the Behaviorally Anchored Rating Scales (BARS), designed by Smith and Kendall (1963) Therefore, it is seen that PA system has come a long way for the betterment of the organization and the employees. New development of PA was useful at every stage. Today, performance appraisals are expected to serve a number of purposes simultaneously. When discussing the uses of performance appraisal, it is important to distinguish between organizational goals, rater goals, and ratee goals. (Weise and Buckley,1998)
Thus, Performance appraisals today should be used as a vital tool to identify the work potential of an employee, instead of choosing the best individual in the organization. Performance appraisal goals needs to become more inclusive – goals which are beneficial to both individual and organization. For example, instead of just assisting an organization make decisions concerning an individual, performance appraisals should be used to help an individual make personal decisions regarding his/her current performance and provide strategies for future development. (Weise and Buckley,1998)
Performance appraisal is regarded widely as a necessary attribute of management, part of an over-riding value set of efficiency, of being seen to succeed, to perform and to control. (Barlow,1989) Performance management forms a baseline for setting the objectives and helps in giving a clear picture to employees and clearly explains, what is expected from them. Therefore, the question that arises is, whether performance appraisal system is meant only for completing the organizations objectives? Yes, performance appraisal does that ,but at the same time it gives training and development to employees, proper pay package 3 and right remuneration packages which help in motivating the employees to produce the right output i. e. performance. Performance appraisal is a unique and significant managerial tool used to motivate and control workforce. Linkage of Human resource management and Performance appraisal: Human resource forms an indispensable part of the organization. Hence, it is very important to examine the role of appraisal in the effective and efficient utilization of this resource. (Cummings and Swab, pg 56) Fig : 1. The process of Human utilization PERFORMANCE HUMAN ABILITIES AND ENERGIES
PROCESSING AND CONVERSION of HUMAN ENERGIES According to Bratton and Gold,(2003:7),” Human resource management (HRM) is a strategic approach to managing employment relations which emphasizes that leveraging peoples capabilities is critical to achieving competitive advantage, this being achieved through a distinctive set of integrated employment policies, programs 14 and practices. ” HRM forms a core in understanding people’s behavior towards their colleagues as well as their companies. The model laid down by Fombrun, Tichy and Devanna (1984) of HRM gives a clear picture of the HRM process. Bratton and Gold,2003) Fig 2. HRM Process Selection: Performance Human resource development Appraisal Rewards In this modelSelection: Selecting the right candidate who would fulfill the organisational goals and objectives Performance: The output of employee’s abilities which add value to the organization Human resource development: Providing the necessary training session, this would help the employees to possess the relevant knowledge and skill to perform better in the organization. Due to this the employees would improve individual skills as well as advance in the organization. 15
Appraisal: Appraisal which depends largely upon the employees capability to perform would then show the employee’s competencies and talent. The modern human resource system may be divided into four parts acquisition of human resources(recruitment and selection),training and development ,motivation and compensation. Performance appraisal is involved in all four parts and serves to tie them together by providing feedback information for all of the other parts. ( Latham and wexley,1977 : griffin:604) Performance appraisal therefore is known as the powerful tool for managing human resources. Forbrum and Laud,1983) Therefore, an HRM process forms an important element in the organizational structure. HRM department knows the objectives and function well of the organization. Therefore, it knows what kind of people the company needs and recruits in that way. It provides adequate training session to employees so that they know their tasks, well in advance and act accordingly, it helps in encouraging and motivating employees and sees to it that, the employees do their duties well. When the employees know their task well, they would obviously perform well.
But, still HRM has to do another important task is to check whether the performance of the employees is as per the standards or not. This is where a formal appraisal system comes into picture. Therefore, Huber,(1980) rightly puts it that in the context of human resource management, formal appraisal serve three purposes: 1. Evaluation, 2. development and 3. Employee protection. Richard & Johnson (2004) suggest that organizations need to match HR framework and practices up to holistically corporate strategy in order to achieve superior performance in the organization. 6 WHY is PA necessary? Earlier, PA did not exist in the organization. Then why did the need of performance appraisal arise? Why was it necessary to include performance appraisal system in an organization? Cant a organization run efficiently if there is no PA system ? Wiese and Buckley (1998 ) gave an answer to this. They said that, a formal performance appraisal system serves as an asset in conducting formal decision process within the organization . It also helps employees, in developing their career and increasing their commitment towards their organization.
Murphy and Cleveland (1995) add that it is always advantageous to use a formal appraisal system in the organization. Performance appraisal provides information that is relevant for many personnel decisions, like increments in salaries, it introduces scope for promotion, transfers, and training and development programs, as well as for employee development and performance feedback (Jacobs, Kafry, & Zedeck,1980) Huber(1980) is also of the same opinion that millions of public and private employees have their performance appraised in order to determine salary, promotions, tenure, layoffs and development potential.
Purpose of performance appraisal: The most known purpose of performance appraisal is to improve performance of individuals. Performance appraisal has basically two important purposes, from an organizational point of view: 1. The maintenance of organizational control and 2. the measurement of the efficiency with which the organizations human resources are being utilized. (Cummings and Shwab. 1973 pg. 55) But ,there are also a variety of other declared purposes and desired benefits for appraisal, including: Improving 17 otivation and morale of the employees, clarifying the expectations and reducing the ambiguity about performance, determining rewards, identifying training and development opportunities, improving communication, selecting people for promotion, managing career growths, counseling, discipline, planning remedial actions and setting goals and targets. (Bratton and Gold,2003:284, Bowles and Coates,1993). However, according to Armstrong and Baron, there is rise in more harder and judgmental forms of performance appraisal than softer and developmental approaches.
Therefore there has been a shift in performance appraisal away from using it for career planning and identifying future potential and increased use of it for improving current performance and allocating rewards. (Redman and Wilkinson,2001: pg. 60) Performance appraisal can be used as an effective tool to improve employees’ job performance by identifying strengths and weaknesses of the employees and determining how their strengths can be best utilized within the organization and overcome weakness over the period of time. The next question that comes into mind is that who gets more out of the appraisal process the organization or the employees?
Who obtains more gain out of it? Both, i. e the organization and employees or any one of them. The following studies give us an explicit understanding of the different purposes of performance appraisal in the organizational context and highlights the different key features of performance appraisal. It also helps us to know who benefits from the appraisal system. Mcgregor (1972) in his paper, “An uneasy look at performance appraisal” said that formal performance appraisal plans are designed to meet three needs, one of the organization and one two for the individual: The following are his ideas about PA. 8 Firstly, PA provides systematic verdict to back up salary increases, promotions, transfers, demotions or terminations. Secondly, PA forms a means of telling subordinate how he is doing, how his performance is towards the organization and suggesting the changes in his behavior, attitudes, skills or job knowledge improvements ,they let him know “where he stands” with the boss. Thirdly, PA is increasingly being used as a basis for coaching and counseling of the individual by the superior.
Similarly, Murphy and Cleveland (1995) studied how performance appraisal is used in organization. They compared ‘between individual’ and ‘within-individual’ performances. The ‘between individual’ performances was able to provide information to make decisions regarding promotion, retention and salary issues. The ‘within individual’ performances was useful in identifying the training and development needs which includes performance feedback, identifying the strengths and weaknesses of employees as well as determining transfers.
Another use of performance appraisal was found out through this study was that of ‘ system maintenance’ which was used to identify the organizational goals and objectives, to analyze the organizational training needs and to improve the personnel planning system of the organization. Finally, documentation purposes are to meet the legal requirements by documenting personnel decisions and conducting validation research on the performance appraisal tools.
Bowles and Coates (1993) conducted a postal survey of 250 West Midland companies in June 1992, where the organizations were asked questions pertaining to the use of Performance management in the organization. These questions included the perceived function of PA in the management of work, its strengths and weaknesses, the role of 19 commitment in the management of work. Through their survey they found out that PA was beneficial in the following ways: 1. PA was beneficial in developing the communication between employer and employee, 2.
It was useful in defining performance expectations and 3. Identification of training needs. An important study in the field of employee’s performance appraisal program was conducted by Redman et al (2000) on National Health Service Trust hospital (UK). In this study, they explained the effectiveness of performance appraisal in public sector. Their research was mainly to check in what context does performance appraisal hold an upper hand in proving its worth in the public sector. The results however were pretty surprising.
The results obtained showed that performance appraisal was considered as ‘organizational virus’. Nelson (2000) adds that PA largely helps the employee to have a focused and fixed approach towards the target goal. He elaborates that appraisal system acts like a boosting factor for the employee to do his job well. It recognizes the employee’s capabilities in order to achieve the given objective and function. It also helps in knowing the shortcomings of the employees and acts like an important element, for career development and planning.
Perception of PA in organization It revolves if PA gives a positive impact or a negative impact to the employees. It shows whether the employees get motivated to perform better, if they receive a good feedback or do they get de-motivated and loose interest in their job. So far, we have 20 come across the purpose, uses of PA in the organization, but the perception i. e. the understanding of PA is not taken into consideration in most cases which is important for the employee as well as the organization.
If the employees don’t recognize this, then they would suffer unnecessarily in the organization the reason being that, an employee has a certain level of expectation from his company when he joins it; he expects sum kind of growth from it, also the organization expects a lot from him. But, a negative feedback of performance would largely hamper him mentally and make him loose his interest in his job. There would be change in his attitude, which would be problematic for him as well as the organization. He would be de motivated to achieve the organizational objectives.
Many employees have a kind of view that, their promotion or salary increments largely depends on their performance. Employees therefore are in a dilemma and consider this situation as ‘survival of the fittest’ . They know for a fact that, their performance is only taken into consideration at the end of the day, and in order to grow in the company they need to be pro active towards their work. The feedback the employee receives from his superior, may simply describe the level of performance achieved. (Evans,1986) Hence, it is important for the managers to conduct the appraisal process properly.
Employees can only accept criticism if it is useful and relevant to them. Managers should know how to provide information regarding improvement in performance and how to present criticism as well. Managers feel that whenever they have to provide a negative feedback, the employee is most likely be dejected and de-motivated. Meyer et. al (1965) carried out a study in General Electric Company where certain points relating to performance feedback was highlighted. In this study, 92 appraises were appraised by their managers on two 21 occasions over two weeks.
The study was carried out by questionnaires, interviews and observation. The first interview, included performance and salary and the second performance and improvement. It was observed, that there was a lot criticism pointed out by the managers, which lead to defensive behavior of the employee. The conclusions from this study were that- Criticism leads to create a negative impact on the motivation and performance of the employees. Interviews designed to improve performance should not at the same time weigh salary and promotion issues. Participation by the employee in goal setting helps to produce favorable results.
After this study, there were many studies which reflect upon employee’s performance issues due to negative feedback. Ilgen et. al (1979) add that the appraisal has to be fair. Employees who believe that the appraisal system is under any kind of bias and misunderstanding between them and the managers are, most likely to be dissatisfied by their work and can also leave their jobs. The extent to which employees are able to accept feedback will vary to a considerable degree between employees and managers will need to be able to cope with such variations .
That is ,they will need to ‘know’ their people as individuals, and this itself will be a reflection of the development of managers. ( Bratton and Gold,2000,p. 286) One possible reason for the widespread dissatisfaction with performance appraisal in organization is that the systems used by organizations do not help them or their employees meet the desired goals. ( Murphy and Cleveland. ) It has been shown that individuals are motivated to seek feedback (if it is seen as a valuable resource) to reduce uncertainty and to provide information relevant to self evaluations (Ashford, 1986). 22 How is PA conducted?
Performance appraisal system should not merely be a checklist of ‘do’s and don’ts ‘,it should provide a wider perspective to the employees. Performance appraisal has to be designed in such a way that, both, the employee and the organization can obtain fruitful results from it. A performance appraisal system should be made in such a way that the organization can ensure proper accomplishment of goals; at the same time the employee can expect clear and concise work expectations. Knowing what is expected from them is the first step in helping one cope better with the stress usually associated with lack of clear divisions. Baker,1984) To make performance appraisal effective,our criteria need to be present. These are? Employees should be actively involved in the evaluation and development process ? Bosses need to enter performance appraisals with the constructive and helpful attitude. ? ? Realistic goals must be mutually set. Bosses must be aware,and have knowledge of the employee’s job and performance. (Baker,1984) Cole (1988) presented the following appraisal process framework. This framework explains how the appraisal process is carried out.
First, the appraisal form is completed by the manager and the employee then a formal interview is explained where a job improvement plan is established which gives three outcomes action agreed, promotion or transfer or salary review. 23 FIG. 3 PA PROCESS APPRAISAL FORM COMPLETED INTERVIEW CONDUCTED JOB IMPROVEMENT PLAN ACTION AGREED PROMOTION OR TRANSFER SALARY REVIEW 24 APPRAISAL METHODS: Management by Objective: Management by objective (MBO) was introduced by Peter Drucker in 1954 which changed a managers role from being a judge to a helper.
Management by objective is an approach where employees are evaluated by how well they accomplish their tasks and objectives which are important to be critical in the successful completion of their job. MBO is a process, which converts organizational objectives into individual objectives. It helps in goal setting, planning, self review and performance review. In goal setting, the organizational objectives are used as guidelines through which the individual objectives are set up. Goals are set up between the managers and the employees, which become the standards against which the employee’s results will be evaluated.
MBO is used in planning process ie making the action plan for carrying out the assigned goals. It includes identifying the proper activities necessary to accomplish the objectives. Self-control is another important step in MBO, where a systematic monitoring of performance is done by the individuals so that they get a clearer picture of their performance. (Rudman,2003) says that it is crucial to have very precise and well defined objectives, this will eradicate scenarios whereby the appraiser have to appraise performance based on unclear objectives which will in turn will affect motivation.
The advantage of MBO lie in its result oriented emphasis. It assists the management for planning and control functions and is considered as a result oriented approach for performance appraisal ,because employees would know exactly what is expected of them and how they will be evaluated and how their evaluation will be based on their success in achieving their goal. MBO clearly defines an employee’s goals and objectives to be achieved in the organization. 25 Although management by objectives has many positive features, its limitations need to be understood.
The primary issue that needs to be addressed by the organization is the high level of management commitment and time required to reorient the thinking of employees (Patten, 1977,Weise and Buckey,1998). Graphic Rating Scale (GRS) GRS is considered as the most popular and oldest of the appraisal systems. GRS is used mainly in evaluating performance based on quantity and quality of work. In this the rating of an employee is done on some specific areas only. The rater has to mark the employee on the basis of certain scale which best describes the employees performance in the organization.
GRS helps in analyzing employees on a quantitative scale and can help to compare and contrast the employee’s behavior on this scale. There is greater standardization of items so comparability with other individuals in diverse job categories is possible. (Henderson, 1984, p. 175) BARS and BOS : Behaviorally Anchored Rating Scales (BARS) was introduced by Smith and Kendall. BARS development is a long and arduous process, involving many steps and many people. From this process, performance dimensions are more clearly defined and are based on more observable behaviors. Weise and Buckley,1998) This system received special attention in the field of performance appraisal. This method was useful in analyzing the performance on the basis of behavior. BARS, clearly highlights the 26 definite, observable and measurable behaviors done in the job. Behaviorally Anchored Rating Scale was greatly accepted because it made use of specific behaviors which is derived for each job and which would produce relatively reliable and error-free ratings. Behavior observation scales were then introduced which were intended to improve BARS. (Latham and Wexley, 1977)
Motivation and Goal setting theory Performance appraisal process and its outcome can affect an employee’s motivation. Employee’s performance is seen as most directly as a consequence of the employee’s ability and his motivation to perform. (Cummings and Swabs, 1973, pp. 46) In Organisational context, the performance is evaluated by examining the employee’s abilities and capabilities to achieve the desired objectives. Behaviour Maintenance Model The BMM presented by Cummings and Swabs attempted to show how people become motivated to perform effectively in the organization.
This model shows the importance of outcomes in the motivational process. 27 Fig 4 Behavior Maintenance Model SATISFACTION GOAL ATTAINMENT MOTIVATION GOAL ASPIRATIONS In the framework, Goal aspirations lead to goal attainment and motivation. When goal aspirations leads to goal attainment which when achieved by the employee give a sense of job satisfaction him. When an employee is satisfied then he ultimately becomes motivated to work more efficiently in the organization. Evans(1986) also presented a model of motivation in which a goal ie a starting point is set up by the supervisor or the individual and it is then accepted by them.
This goal largely influences the employee’s persistence, attention effort and the approach or the strategy which he adopts to complete the goal. These factors and the constraints of performance determine the actual performance. When this task has been accomplished then this actual performance is compared with the original 28 Fig 5 Evans Model of Motivation Goal set and goal accepted Effort Constraints on performance Attention Persistence Strategy Ability Performance Comparison with goals Feedback
Locke( 1968) introduced the Goal setting theory whereby the employee gets motivated to work for his organization when he has a goal to achieve. Locke’s Goal setting theory is summarized as follows- a. hard goals produce a higher level of performance than easy goals, b. some specific hard goals produce higher level of output; c. behavioral intentions regulate choice behavior. Feedback Feedback about the effectiveness of an individual’s behavior has long been recognized as essential for learning and for motivation in performance-oriented organizations. Ilgen et al 1979) Feedback is considered as an important tool in performance appraisal 29 process. Feedback can be a useful tool for development, especially if it is specific and behaviorally oriented, as well as both problem-oriented and solution-oriented (Murphy and Cleveland, 1995) One of the basic purposes of formal appraisal process is the provision of clear and performance based feedback to employees. ( Carroll and Scheiner,1982) Some organizations use feedback as a development tool ,while in some organizations it is used for merit evaluation and compensation adjustment. McEvoy and Buller,1987; London ,Wohlers and Gallagher,1990) Feedback is very essential for the employees because it forms a baseline for the employees which help them to get a review of their past performance and chance to improve their skills for the future. (Ashford,1986) says that when feedback is considered as a valuable resource, then only the individuals feel motivated to seek it, which helps in reducing uncertainty and provides information relevant to self evaluations. There is also evidence that performance feedback (if given appropriately) can lead to substantial improvements in future performance (Guzzo et al. 1985; Kopelman, 1986; Landy et al. , 1982) 360 degree performance appraisal: 360 Degree appraisal is used to describe a comprehensive nature of feedback which is received by an individual through everyone in the job. It is also referred to as ‘multisource feedback’ or ‘multi-rater feedback'(Kettley,1997) adds that when an individual receives feedback from different sources of the organization, including peers, subordinate staff ,customers and themselves, i. e. When a feedback is received from ‘all-round’ a job, then the process is known as 360 degree appraisal or feedback. 0 Nearly all the Fortune 300 companies are adopting 360 degree appraisal process. (London and Smither, 1995). The demand of 360 degree, in UK is increasing rapidly. (Handy et al, 1996, Geake et. al, 1998) There hasn’t been a lot of empirical evidence on the 360 degree appraisal system. (Fletcher and Baldry 1999 : pg63) say that-‘The actual amount of empirical evidence on the impact of 360 degree feedback is disappointingly small considering its extent of its use; widespread adoption seems to have reflected faith rather than proven validity’.
Even though 360 degree, is not widespread enough it is been used for a lot of purposes. Research has shown that 360 degree is used for the following purposes(Fletcher and Bailey 2003) state that 360 degree feedback gives a great scope to commend and criticize on their sub ordinates performance. It also helps in building up the competency of the organizations framework and objective. It aids in increasing self awareness as self-assessment corresponds to subordinates perception. Summary of literature review. Performance appraisal was evolved in the third century in China in the Wei dynasty. Weise and Buckley, 1998) PA was seen in industry in the early 1800. In UK, Randell (1994) observed it in Robert Owens ‘silent monitors’. In US, an Army General introduced it in for evaluation of his army men. Earlier, PA was used only for administrative administration. The linkage of human resource management and performance appraisal is shown in the research. Huber (1980) rightly puts it that in the context of human resource purposes like retention, discharges, promotion and salary 31 management, formal appraisal serves three main purposes: 1. Evaluation, 2. development and 3.
Employee protection Richard & Johnson (2004) also suggest in this context that organizations need to match up with the HR framework, objectives and practices up to holistically corporate strategy in order to achieve superior performance in the organization. The research explained why a formal performance appraisal was necessary in the organization. PA gives an employee a proper understanding of his duties and tasks towards his organization. It helps the organization to evaluate employees on a common ground and gives scope for retention, salary decisions, promotions, training and development programs etc. Jacobs, Kafry & Zedeck,1980 ) Studies by McGregor, Murphy et al, Bowles and Coates etc explained the various purposes of performance appraisal. About 61% of organization adopted Performance appraisal by 1950. Performance appraisal developed on the basis of objectives and goal function, thus MBO was evolved. MBO was helpful in setting up goals, which became the standard against which the employee’s performance was compared. However, MBO was ineffective performance was measured in units. Therefore, behaviorally monitored performance review was introduced.
Thus, Behaviorally Anchored Rating System (BARS) was introduced. BARS was designed by Smith and Kendall in 1963. BARS was found to give more accurate rating of performance. Behavior observation scales were then introduced which were intended to improve BARS. (Latham and Wexley, 1977) It was seen that performance appraisal can be used as a motivational tool. The Behavior Maintenance Model presented by Cummings and Swab in 1973, which explained how people become motivated to perform effectively in the organization. 32
Similarly, Evans (1986) also presented a model which explained how individual and manager decide a goal and how this goal largely influences the individual’s persistence, attention and the strategy he/she adopts to complete the goal. These factors determine his actual performance. When the individual’s tasks are achieved then this actual performance is compared with the original goal. Locke(1968) introduced the Goal setting theory which emphasizes the importance of conscious goal levels as determinants of actual performance. Goal setting theory is summarized as follows- a. ard goals produce a higher level of performance than easy goals, b. some specific hard goals produce higher level of output; c. behavioral intentions regulate choice behavior. Feedback is another important element in the field of performance appraisal. the feedback which an individual receives is the report of the performance achieved by him/her. 360 degree feedback was introduced which refers to feedback received by an individual through everyone in the organization. 360 degree feedback includes feedback from peers ,sub-ordinates and customers.
It is also known as ‘multi-source feedback’. 33 Chapter 3 RESEARCH METHOD This section would help understand and explain the reasons behind the choice of the methodology I have adapted for this research The choosing of research methodology depends on the nature of study topic (Creswell, 1994 ). Research objective The research objective was to understand the effectiveness of an appraisal process on the employees. The main purpose of this dissertation was, to study the employees ability to perform well in the industry and to check the impact of performance feedback over their job.
Research methods. Quantitative Vs Qualitative. Denzin and Lincoln ( 2000 ) say that, Qualitative research generates the socially constructed nature of reality, the intimate relationship between the researcher and what is studied, and the situational constraints that shape inquiry. They seek answers to questions that stress how social experience is created and given meaning. In constrant, quantitative studies emphasize the measurement and analysis of casual relationships between variables, and not processes. (pg 8) 4 Qualitative research thus has a humanistic element to it, whereas Quantitative research is grounded in mathematical and statistical knowledge. (Gephart,2004) Qualitative research is a representation of peoples mind and, it is interpretative and highly inductive. (Van Maanen, 1998) Another interesting difference between the two methods is, that quantitative techniques require the researcher to produce and verify hypothesis and reduce entities into simple variables for the benefit of understanding and generalizing.
Also, it assumes that all occurrences are independent events that have no connection to the surrounding environment. On the other hand, qualitative research attempts to prove and understand phenomena rather than explaining the cause and effect relationship. Further, it believes that all occurrences are linked in some way to the surrounding environment. (Easterby smith et al,2002) Why qualitative? The goal of qualitative research is to understand the research topic more explicitly, from the perspective of the interviewee, and to understand how and why they have arrived at this perspective. Gephart, 2004) adds that, qualitative research methodology largely depends on recounting, understanding and explaining complex or interrelated phenomena, namely, the methodology is to understand multi-dimensional, dynamic picture of a subject of study. Qualitative research method was ideal for this project, because it gave a deeper understanding of the, given theories and helped in obtaining an edge in knowing the concepts well. As the data obtained through qualitative is the interviewees own responses, it helps in gaining a broader perspective about the topic.
The exact responses pertaining to the literature review helps in linking the data well. 35 Research Tactics The tactics used for data collection for the research are classified as follows: Primary data: The research deals with the reaction of the employees after being appraised. Hence , it was necessary to conduct the research through semi structured interviews. Cooper and Schindler (2001) suggest in this context , that if the research is an exploratory study, use of interviews is more appropriated for the researcher to understand and get an in depth view of the topic being explored.
Design of interview question . : The interview questions were designed, keeping in mind the research objective. Eight questions were designed in accordance with the literature review. The interview questions were categorized into four parts. The first part, reflected the employees basic experience with performance appraisal. The second part, focused on the training aspect of the organization, which forms an important part of the appraisal process. The third part, focused on the direct implications of the appraisal process on the employee’s life.
The last part was designed to reflect answers relating to motivation and better performance in the organization. The questions designed were open-ended because ,it could give the employee the chance to elaborate his given situation. Easterby-Smith, et al. , (2002) state that, investigators conduct qualitative interview to understand ‘how individuals construct the reality of their situation formed from the complex personal framework … in order to help explain and predict events in their world’. 36 When was the research done? The research was done in mid July to mid August.
Data analysis: For the data collected in this research through interviews, a framework given by Bryman and Bell(2003) was used. The framework is known as Theoretical sampling which is explained as follows. Theoretical Sampling: It is a process of data collection for generating theory where the researcher collects and analyzes data and decides what data to collect next and where to find it, in order to develop his theory as it emerges (Bryman and Bell, 2003. Thus, data was collected from various sources until there was a theoretical saturation.
The same content leads to descriptive content analysis which is discussed in detail in the next section (Bryman and Bell, 2003, p. 330). Figure – Theoretical sampling 37 Secondary research This has been provided through the available research and various reports. This was done by accessing the library and books, journals, market reports and internet extensively. Limitations: Limitations of qualitative research. : The big problem with qualitative data is how to condense highly complex and context-bound information into a format which tells a story in a way that is fully convinced to the eader. “(Cassell and Symon, 2004) Qualitative research methods are descriptive. Also ,they are subjective in nature which always leads to a kind of research bias. Sometimes, the interviewees were not willing to open up much, towards 38 some question. This would either lead to incomplete information or incorrect information. Another important limitation was time constraint. Due to time constraint, the researcher was not able to take many interviews. Summary of Research methods: The research method was done keeping the research objective in mind.
The research method adopted for this research was Qualitative research method. Qualitative research method helps to understand multi-dimensional, dynamic picture of a subject of study. The research tactics adopted for the research were done in the form of primary data source and secondary data source. Primary data was obtained in the form of structured interviews. The questions designed for these interviews were open ended. The secondary data was obtained in the form of reports, books, journals etc. A theoretical sampling method of Bryman and Bell (2003) was adopted for data analysis method. 9 CHAPTER 4 ANALYSIS OF DATA: This section is divided into two partsPart A describes the parameters on which the performance appraisal process is designed in the organisation. The parameters helped the researcher to understand the effectiveness of performance appraisal in the organization. Part B describes the analysis of data. The analysis of data explained in detail the respondent’s views about the appraisal system PART A : COMPANY INFORMATION; Following is brief description of the various parameters adopted by the company in order to conduct the formal appraisal system.
The appraisal system is conducted twice every year. First, in June and the other in January . The performance appraisal system in the company is conducted on the basis of 5 parameters. 1. Business Acumen 2. People Leadership 3. Effective Communication 4. Execution 5. Customer Centricity Business Acumen: 1. Business Acumen refers to the ability of the employees to conduct quick and accurate decisions pertaining to the business strategies. Performance appraisal considers Business Acumen as an important tool in analysing the individual’s business related activities in the organisation. 40 . People Leadership : People leadership refers to the employees ability to show leadership skills. It also shows whether the employee is able to motivate employees, helps in building up morale of his subordinates. He acts with empathy and ensures better coordination in his team. The company considers this as an important parameter because it helps in knowing the leadership skill of the employee. 3. Effective Communication: Communication is an integral part of every organization. The employee should be having good communication skills. He/she should be able to communicate at all levels. . Execution: Execution is the process where the employee should be able to execute the given task in a specific period of time. Under this parameter, the employee’s efficiency and potentiality is considered. His/her prompt reaction to any situation is considered. This parameter also tests an employee’s capability to handle work load under pressure. 5. Customer centricity : ‘Customer is the King’ . This parameter focuses on the employees way of handling customers. It checks the employee’s promptness in handling the customer and his/her ability to make the customer satisfied.
The above parameters are calculated with the help of the following 3 point rating chart. 41 3= Outstanding The employee understands his job very well. Performance is exceptionally good and much higher than the standard set up. Clearly understands the key objectives and goals of the organization and achieves them in time. Efficient and prompt. 2= Meet expectations Performance meets the required expectation. May exceed expectations in areas like communication and customer centricity. Good understanding of objectives and goals. = Needs Improvement Performance doesn’t meet the expectation and lacks consistency. Lack of understanding of key objectives and goals. Requires additional training and development sessions. PART B : .ANALYSIS OF DATA The analysis of data was done on the basis of the responses obtained through the interview process. The analysis is done by the respondent’s views over the performance appraisal process present in the company. 42 A total of 6 respondents agreed to participate in the research. The interview was designed, taking into consideration the research questions.
The interview considered four main aspects, which are as followsA. Performance appraisal process B. Training and development C. Feedback D. Impact of performance appraisal A. Performance appraisal process. The questions designed under this section were to understand the performance appraisal process in the organisation. This would give the researcher, a clearer picture of the organisational PA process by presenting exact views of the interviewees. Questions under this section: Q 1) Do think it is necessary to have a formal appraisal process in the organisation?
Q 2. ) What are your views about the appraisal system in your organization? Responses : Q. 1 ) Do think it is necessary to have a formal appraisal process in the organisation? Yes. We have a formal appraisal process twice a year in June and January where my manager shares the feedback on the goals defined to achieve by the end of given period. ( Respondent no. 1) 43 Yes, it is necessary to conduct a formal appraisal process. It gives a clearer understanding of our objectives and functions and makes us more competent to achieve our goals. ( Respondent No. 2) Yes.
I have gone through a formal appraisal process about 10 times since 2002. I feel it an essential part of the organization. We, the employees , know our duties well in the organization ,we know what is expected from us and our target goals are laid down for the coming period. ( Respondent no. 4) Q 2. ) What are your views about the appraisal system in your organization? The appraisal system is very comprehensive as it focuses our accomplishment summary, strengths/growths, improvement and development needs and plans, Training needs and other certifications and potentially career interests.
It also rates employees based on people leadership, effective communication and customer centricity. ( Respondent No. 1) I think it’s important to have formal appraisal system. It not only helps you achieve your long-term goals but also helps you understand where you stand in comparison to your colleagues. There will be lot of other hard working people in organization, who will be working towards the same goal or same position that you want, so this process gives you a more clear path, vision as to what you can do differently that will set you apart from other employees.
It generates a healthy competition. (Respondent no. 2) 44 The Appraisal System in my organization is well-organized, both from the Performance Capturing viewpoint as well as from the Review and setting up the goals and expectations of an individual. ( Respondent no. 5) It was seen from the above responses that, the employee were generally happy about the current PA process, because it was designed to help them grow and develop in the organisation. It provided them with the necessary guidance to improve their performance and other key skills in the job.
The employees stated that it lead to healthy competition amongst the employees. B. Training and Development The second part of the interview focused on the training skills obtained through the appraisal process. The questions were designed to understand if the organization really requires training and development program and whether it is useful for them to grow in the organisation. Questions asked- Q. 1) Do you think a formal appraisal process should include training and development programs? Why? 45 Q. 2. ) How did the training and development program of the appraisal process help you?
Were you satisfied with it? Q. 1)Do you think a formal appraisal process should include training and development programs? Why? Responses to Q1. Yes, an appraisal process should possess training and development processes, because it helps an individual to work on his/her improvement areas which could be addressed by training in appropriate soft or technical skill-set. For example If an individual lacks delegation of work to its peer sub ordinates, then he can be recommended for ‘Delegation of Authority’ training which would enable him to understand the concept and delegate responsibility. Respondent 1) Yes, it’s important to have training and development programs part of appraisal process. It’s important for every employee to understand how the appraisal process works and how are they evaluated. They should be given training so that process is very transparent for them and they understand everything. Also once the appraisal is done and employees have given their improvement areas, it’s important to conduct different development programs to help them work on their improvement areas. (Respondent 4) 46 Yes. The formal appraisal process should include the training and development programs.
The main objective of an appraisal process is to showcase where an individual stands from the performance and organization expectations point of view, and what are his development needs and GnOs (Goals and Objectives) for the upcoming year. The Trainings and Development programs help and individual to enhance his abilities and acquire the required skills to meet the expectations/goals set for him by the organization/management and also help his to grow in the organization. (Respondent 3) Q. 2. ) How did the training and development program of the appraisal process help you? Were you satisfied with it?
Answers to Q2. The training and development needs were fulfilled in some areas unlikely in certain areas like leadership it was not fulfilled based on project, location and time priorities. It’s a very costlier affair to organize training onsite and hence had to do a lot of self learning and receiving coaching feedback from assigned coaches. (Respondent 2) Yes, I was satisfied with the training and development programs as it helped me to work on my improvement areas. After going through different training and development programs, my Leadership and People management skills improved a lot.
This in turn helped me to manage my team more efficiently, by understanding there needs, by motivating them and helping them to achieve their individual goals. This helped us to meet our targets set by the organization and also gave production benefit to the Customer. (Respondent 5) 47 I have attended various programs/training in my career till date. They have always helped me to enhance my abilities and skills . For example, the Six Sigma Green Belt Training and the LEAN Quality Trainings have given me a vision to think about Quality in every task we do and thus improvise the performance.
The Coaching Manager and Leadership trainings have helped me to emerge as a better colleague, Team Lead and a mentors to my peers and subordinates. I have been pretty satisfied with these training and would look forward to the opportunities to attend more of them. (Respondent 3) The overall response in this context, was pretty positive. The employees thought that training and development formed an important element in the process. However, one respondent highlighted a different point where training and development was not provided.
The training guidelines helped them to understand their organizational objectives and functions well. All the respondents were satisfied with the training and development program because it helped them to enhance their skills in the job. C. Feedback: The questions designed under this section helped to obtain the immediate reaction of the appraisal system. This was required in understanding how the employees feedback is in the organization. These are the following questions: 48 Q 1. What is your immediate response after being appraised? Q. 2.
Was your performance discussed in detail? Were any improvements suggested? Q 1. What is your immediate response after being appraised? The responses obtained were as followed: Its always to good to know your strengths and your improvement areas. It provides platform to work on areas for the coming period. (Respondent 2) After appraisal I know what are my strong areas, which sets me apart from others and I have to keep working on that. It also helped me to identify my improvement areas, which I have to focus so that I can grow in the Organization and achieve my goal (respondent 3)
This depends upon how the discussion goes along with my managers and appraisers. If the Managers convince me about

Exploring the Effectiveness of Performance Appraisal

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Negative Utilitarianism: An Overview

Negative Utilitarianism: An Overview.
Most utilitarian theories deal with producing the greatest amount of good for the greatest number of people. Negative utilitarianism (NU) requires us to promote the least amount of evil or harm, or to prevent the greatest amount of suffering for the greatest number. Proponents like Karl Popper, Christoph Fehige and Clark Wolf argue that this is a more effective ethical formula, since, they contend, the greatest harms are more consequential than the greatest goods. Karl Popper also referred to an epistemological argument: “It adds to clarity in the fields of ethics, if we formulate our demands negatively, i. e. if we demand the elimination of suffering rather than the promotion of happiness. ”(Karl R. Popper,1945) Most forms of utilitarianism hold that we ought to do that which maximises the good and minimises the bad. There is some disagreement about what the good and the bad are– whether the good is people being happy and the bad is people being unhappy, or the good is people getting what they want and the bad is people not getting what they want, or whatever–but most utilitarians agree that whatever the good and the bad are, we ought to bring about as much of the former and as little of the latter as is possible.
Negative utilitarians disagree. Negative utilitarians are concerned only with minimising the bad. They don’t think we ought to maximise the good and minimise the bad, and that when we must choose between the two we must weigh the difference that we can make to the one against the difference that we can make to the other; rather, negative utilitarians hold just that we ought to minimise the bad, that we ought to alleviate suffering as far as we are able to do so.
Suppose that I have a choice to make: I can either make the happiest man in the world even happier than he already is, or I can alleviate some of the suffering of the unhappiest man in the world. Suppose further that the difference that I can make to the happy man is much greater than the difference that I can make to the unhappy man. Most utilitarians would say that in this case I ought to help the happy man. As I can make a greater difference to the life of the happy man than I can make to the life of the unhappy man, it is the happy man whom I should help.

Negative utilitarians disagree. Negative utilitarians hold that it is more important to alleviate suffering than it is to promote pleasure, and that I should therefore always choose to alleviate suffering rather than promote pleasure when forced to choose between the two. In most supporters of moderate NU the preference to survive is stronger than the wish to be freed from suffering, so that they refuse the idea of a quick and painless destruction of life. Some of them believe that, in time, the worst cases of suffering is defeated and a world of minor suffering can be realized.
The big problem with negative utilitarianism is that it appears to require the destruction of the world. The world contains much suffering, and the future, presumably, contains a great deal more suffering than the present. Each of us will suffer many calamaties in the course of our lives, before those lives finally end with the suffering of death. There is a way, however, to reduce this suffering: we could end it all now. With nuclear weapons technology, we have the capability to blow up the planet, making it uninhabitable.
Doing so would cause us all to suffer death, but death is going to come to us all anyway, so causing everyone to die will not increase the suffering in the world. Causing us to die now, though, will decrease the suffering in the world; it will prevent us from suffering those calamaties that were going to plague us during the remainder of our lives. Destroying the planet, then, will reduce the suffering in the world. According to negative utilitarianism, then, it is what we ought to do. That, though, is surely absurd. Negative utilitarianism, therefore, is false.

Negative Utilitarianism: An Overview

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Principles of Conditioning

Principles of Conditioning.
Needs and drives, what exactly are they and what do they have to do with dogs/dog training? A need or drive is a type of motivation that describes the behaviors dogs show during training. Needs can be something as obvious as water or food, all the way to behaviors that serve no clear physical need at all (ex play behavior). Dog training is all about arranging matters so the dog’s yearnings are met when they perform the desired action. Before any of this can take place you must ensure all of the dog’s primary needs are met.
The dog needs to be in a healthy state, be happy, and have a good emotional connection to the trainer, also known as rapport. There are two types of drives, primary and secondary. Primary drives are the drives that are a necessity for ensuring your dog stays alive and healthy (i. e. thirst and hunger). If these drives are not met it can lead to injury or death. Secondary drives include all of the motivations that make a dog behave the way it does. They are not as necessary for the life and health of a dog, but are still very important. 1) Primary drives: ) Oxygen: i) Quite simply, the dog needs oxygen to survive. Many things your dog does increase the oxygen that they consume, which results in panting. Panting is also a way that your dog expels excess heat. Heavy panting can interfere with the sense of smell (olfactory). b) Thirst: ii) The need for water. It’s important to maintain your dog’s hydration level so it does not interfere with training. Also water cannot be used as a reward for the dog. c) Hunger: iii) Just like oxygen and water, food is also a very important part in keeping your dog happy and healthy.
Though, unlike water food can be used as a reward, normally in the form of a treat. The dog should not eat if it has recently been doing intense physical activity, particularly in hot conditions. d) Drive to avoid pain and discomfort: iv) Dogs are a very intelligent species and learn very quickly, especially when there is a pain factor involved. They will avoid performing actions that they have learned cause them pain. Thus why handlers will inflict a type of discomfort when the dog disobeys or performs an action incorrectly. I. e. f you command the dog to sit but they ignore, or perform an incorrect action the handler will give a physical correction (command avoidance) that inflict pain upon the dog. In this process the dog is learning that if it does not sit like it has been taught it will be corrected (punished). Before you can use this type of training you must ensure that the dog knows the desired response. 2) Secondary drives: e) Socialization: v) This is basically the same as the dogs pack drive. One of the dog’s strongest drives is to have a social relationship with other dogs or humans.

It needs to be a stable relationship in which the dog trusts or has affection for it’s companion. Though this is not an instantly created bond, it is extremely important for the handler to build rapport with the dog. Walking, feeding, grooming, or just playing with the dog for a period of time can build this relationship. Building rapport is very important to the successfulness of the team. Socialization is made up of two sub-types, alpha and beta. (1) Alpha is what the dog initially wants to be. It’s instinct for dogs to want to have supremacy or dominance in a relationship. 2) Beta is when the dog is submissive, and allows others to be in control and dominant. This is what you want your dog to be as a handler. This is because the dog will show willingness or motivation to please the handler by completing actions that the handler commands. f) Play socialization: vi) Play socialization does not clearly serve any important needs, but it is important to incorporate fun play into the relationship between handler and dog. g) Prey drive: vii) This is the dog’s natural instinct to attack, bite, and carry anything the dog sees as prey.
This can be another animal or object. What a dog would do to a rabbit, can be initiated by throwing a ball in most circumstances. This predatory instinct is very important in dog training, especially in controlled aggression. h) Aggression: viii) This includes any behaviors such as biting, growling, and fighting when used to compete with others for resources (food/water) or to protect them selves when felt threatened. Dominant, defensive, and pain-elicited aggression are all a vital role in motivating dogs in patrol training or rewarding them with a bite.

Principles of Conditioning

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Us Holiday

Us Holiday.
Learn more about holidays celebrated by many Americans, such as New Year’s Day, Independence Day, and Thanksgiving. Americans celebrate a variety of federal holidays and other national observances throughout the year. American holidays can be secular, religious, international, or uniquely American. With the wide variety of federal holidays, and the many levels of American government, it can be confusing to determine what public and private facilities are open on or around a given federal holiday. You can usually find such information in the daily newspaper or by calling the office you wish to visit.
The following are American federal holidays and other common national observances. Federal holidays are indicated as such. New Year’s Day is January 1. The celebration of this federal holiday begins the night before, when Americans gather to wish each other a happy and prosperous coming year. Many Americans make New Year’s resolutions. Martin Luther King Day is a federal holiday celebrated on the third Monday in January. The Reverend Martin Luther King, Jr. was an African-American clergyman who is recognized for his tireless efforts to win civil rights for all people through nonviolent means.
Groundhog Day is February 2, and has been celebrated since 1887. On Groundhog Day, crowds gather in Punxsutawney, Pennsylvania, to see if groundhog Punxsutawney Phil sees his shadow after emerging from his burrow, thus predicting six more weeks of winter weather. Valentine’s Day is celebrated on February 14. The day was named after an early Christian martyr, and on Valentine’s Day, Americans give presents like candy or flowers to the ones they love. The first mass-produced valentine cards were sold in the 1840s.

Washington’s Birthday is a federal holiday observed the third Monday of February to honor George Washington, the first President of the United States. This date is commonly called Presidents’ Day and many groups honor the legacy of past presidents on this date. Easter falls on a spring Sunday that varies from year to year. Easter is a Christian holiday celebrating the resurrection of Jesus Christ. For Christians, Easter is a day of religious services and the gathering of family. Many Americans follow old traditions of coloring hard-boiled eggs and giving children baskets of candy.
Earth Day is observed on April 22. First celebrated in 1970 in the United States, it inspired national legislation such as the Clean Air and Clean Water Acts. Earth Day is designed to promote ecology, encourage respect for life on earth, and highlight concern over pollution of the soil, air, and water. National Arbor Day was proclaimed as the last Friday in April by President Richard Nixon in 1970. A number of state Arbor Days are observed at other times to coincide with the best tree planting weather, from January and February in the south to May in the far north.
The observance began in 1872, when Nebraska settlers and homesteaders were urged to plant trees on the largely treeless plains. Mother’s Day celebrates mothers every second Sunday of May. President Woodrow Wilson, who issued a proclamation in 1914, asked Americans to give a public expression of reverence to mothers on this day. Carnations have come to represent Mother’s Day, following President William McKinley’s habit of always wearing a white carnation, his mother’s favorite flower. Memorial Day is a federal holiday observed the last Monday of May.
It originally honored the people killed in the American Civil War, but has become a day on which the American dead of all wars, and the dead generally, are remembered in special programs held in cemeteries, churches, and other public meeting places. The flying of the American flag is widespread. Flag Day, celebrated June 14, has been a presidentially proclaimed observance since 1916. Although Flag Day is not a federal holiday, Americans are encouraged to display the flag outside their homes and businesses on this day to honor the history and heritage the American flag represents.
Father’s Day celebrates fathers every third Sunday of June. Father’s Day began in 1909 in Spokane, Washington, when a daughter requested a special day to honor her father, a Civil War veteran who raised his children after his wife died. The first presidential proclamation honoring fathers was issued in 1966 by President Lyndon Johnson. Independence Day is July 4. This federal holiday honors the nation’s birthday – the adoption of the Declaration of Independence on July 4, 1776. It is a day of picnics and patriotic parades, a night of concerts and fireworks.
The flying of the American flag is widespread. Labor Day is the first Monday of September. This federal holiday honors the nation’s working people, typically with parades. For most Americans it marks the end of the summer vacation season and the start of the school year. Columbus Day is a federal holiday celebrated on the second Monday in October. The day commemorates October 12, 1492, when Italian navigator Christopher Columbus landed in the New World. The holiday was first proclaimed in 1937 by President Franklin D. Roosevelt.
Halloween is celebrated on October 31. On Halloween, American children dress up in funny or scary costumes and go “trick or treating” by knocking on doors in their neighborhood. The neighbors are expected to respond by giving them small gifts of candy or money. Veterans Day is celebrated on November 11. Originally called Armistice Day, this federal holiday was established to honor Americans who had served in World War I, but it now honors veterans of all wars in which the U. S. has fought. Veterans’ organizations hold parades, and the president places a reath on the Tomb of the Unknowns at Arlington National Cemetery in Virginia. Thanksgiving Day is a federal holiday celebrated on the fourth Thursday in November. In the fall of 1621, the Pilgrims held a three-day feast to celebrate a bountiful harvest. Many regard this event as the nation’s first Thanksgiving. The Thanksgiving feast became a national tradition and almost always includes some of the foods served at the first feast: roast turkey, cranberry sauce, potatoes, and pumpkin pie. Pearl Harbor Remembrance Day is December 7.
In 1994, Congress designated this national observance to honor the more than 2,400 military service personnel who died on this date in 1941, during the surprise attack on Pearl Harbor, Hawaii, by Japanese forces. The attack on Pearl Harbor caused the United States to enter World War II. Christmas Day is a federal holiday celebrated on December 25. Christmas is a Christian holiday marking the birth of the Christ Child. Decorating houses and yards with lights, putting up Christmas trees, giving gifts, and sending greeting cards have become holiday traditions even for many non-Christian Americans.

Us Holiday

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Acc 340 Wk 1 Individual

Acc 340 Wk 1 Individual.
The Effects of Technology on the Accounting Profession ACC 340 The Effects of Technology on the Accounting Profession The adage, “Time is money” has never been more true at any point in history than it is today. For the certified public accountant (CPA), the adage holds even more significance as the more time a CPA has to spend in a project, the less valuable that project becomes. It also means less time to devote to the next project. Technology has aided the CPA in numerous ways in recent years. From accounting software to devices with accounting applications, CPAs have a variety of new technology to help save time and money.
In this paper, I will explore some of the technologies available to CPAs. Accounting technology is not new, and has been a part of calculating and tracking numbers throughout time. From Leonardo da Vinci who designed a device he labeled the “Codex Madrid” number machine to Blaise Pascal who invented the first early calculator to William Burroughs who created the first adding machine, those who specialized in numbers have sought ways of making the tasks of their profession or hobby much simpler. As time passed, more creations emerged to help accountants perform their expertise more accurately and faster.
The first computer was built midway through the twentieth century. For the nearly 50 years that followed, huge computers designed to perform the simple task of calculating mathematical equations were eventually scaled down to fit on top of desks in consumers’ homes and offices. The world of accounting went from manually inputting data into a ledger to using electronic spreadsheets that eliminated the need for ledgers, calculators, pencils, and adding machines. Out with the hardcopy and in with the software.

Many years ago California-based Intuit launched a brand of accounting software called QuickBooks patterned after its popular personal accounting brand Quicken (Loter, 2009). From its launch the software has been very popular with business owners who had little to no formal accounting knowledge. Today there are many software titles providing accounting software for small, medium, and larger businesses. Some newer titles include Sage ‘Simply Accounting’ Software, Peachtree Complete Accounting Software, AccountEdge Accounting Software for Windows and Mac to name but a few.
Accounting software has helped CPAs save time and money by allowing accountants to quickly and easily input data onto a spreadsheet, then import or export information within or even between networks. This eliminates the time-consuming method of handwriting information on paper, then physically transporting the finalized document(s) to be batched with similar document(s) from (an) other department(s). Accounting software has not been the only technological advancements for the accounting field. Mobile devices are available that allow accountants and business owners to input and retrieve data while on the go.
Of course, it is the software applications that causes the information ball to begin rolling, but it is such devices as an iPhone or iPad, a Blackberry device, a personal digital assistant (PDA), or an Android smartphone that allow accountants access to information that could accelerate calculations or computations while visiting clients or whenever the person needing information is away from his or her office. A major benefit for the CPA using a device listed above is an application called TimeWerks that allows a CPA to track, invoice, and e-mail billable time through a built-in stopwatch called Task Timer.
The application costs $9. 99 to download. High-powered business calculators called 10BIICalc can be downloaded onto an iPhone for $5. 99, and provides access to stocks, bonds, depreciation, and conversions. A store-bought similar device could cost between $30 and $100. The netbook or mini-notebook PC is another new device o which CPAs are drawn. The DisplaySearch Q3 ’09 Quarterly Notebook PC Shipment and Forecast Report found the mini-note PC-or netbook-market grew 40% quarter over quarter and experienced nearly twice the 22% growth rate of larger notebooks (DisplySearch. com, 2011).
There is no doubt that accountants, business owners, or even the consumer who enjoys tracking his or her spending from his or her home computer appreciate that doing mathematical equations (accounting) no longer requires an abacus or clay tokens. With the advent and evolution of computers and their related software, accountants were better able to track information in real-time and completely eliminated most mistakes. This and the creation of portable devices such as iPhone/iPad has resulted in greater efficiency, accessibility, and accountability, and has altered the way accounting is performed, procured, and secured.
Accounting technology will continue to evolve, and tracking money will become even easier. References DisplaySearch. com. (2011). Mini-Note PC (Netbook) Shipments Grow at Twice the Rate of Notebook PCs in Q2’09. Retrieved May 16, 2011, from http://www. displaysearch. com/cps/rde/xchg/displaysearch/hs. xsl/090831_mini_note_pc_netbook_shipments_grow_at_twice_rate_notebook_pcs_q2_09. asp Loter, D. (2009). History of QuickBooks. Retrieved May 16, 2011, from http://business. intuit. com/directory/article-history-of-quickbooks

Acc 340 Wk 1 Individual

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Nigeria: Health Care System

Nigeria: Health Care System.  
nigeria gained independence from the United Kingdom on October 1, 1960. It is comprised of 36 states and the Federal Capital Territory, Abuja. Nigeria is home to approximately 380 different ethnic groups with 42 percent of the population residing in urban areas. Like the Democratic Republic of Congo, Nigeria experienced a period of civil unrest immediately following its independence.
Health Care System
The public health care system in Nigeria is loosely based on the British system. Shortly after its independence, the Nigerian government began to expand health services and the way in which it is organized: village level, district level, and local government. The National Health Policy and Strategy to Achieve Health for All Nigerians (1988) guaranteed primary health services to all Nigerians. The following goals were established:

Increase health education
Promote proper nutrition
Family planning
Improve maternal and child health services
Increase immunization
Implement prevention programs and control of endemic/epidemic diseases
Accessible treatment for common diseases and injuries

The Nigerian government has not been able to implement the majority of goals outlined in the National Health Policy of 1988 due to lack of financial resources. The government administers the public health care system and trains medical personnel to serve in tertiary and health clinics operating on the state level. Local governments are responsible for the operation of health facilities within their region.
St. Monica’s Health Clinic
St. Monica’s Health Clinic is located in Yakoko, Northern Nigeria. The clinical leader of St. Monica discusses the objectives of the clinic and the importance of the clinic within the community. Note the emphasis on maternal child health in the video (Links to an external site.)Links to an external site.. What are the implications of the clinic potentially losing its funding?
Epidemiology
The leading causes of mortality in Nigeria are infectious, parasitic, and diarrheal diseases. Although diseases such as malaria, measles, and diarrhea continue to account for the majority of deaths, other infectious diseases, like cerebrospinal meningitis, yellow fever, and Lassa fever, have steadily increased (Federal Ministry of Health, 2000). Non-communicable diseases such as heart disease, diabetes, and cancer have become more prevalent within the last decade. HIV/AIDS remains the leading cause of death in Nigeria.

Nigeria: Health Care System

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Recruitment

Bodegas Caballe – an International Recruitment Excersise

Bodegas Caballe – an International Recruitment Excersise.
Case Study 2: Bodegas Caballe – An International Recruitment Exercise Bodegas Caballe – An International Recruitment Exercise Dear Mr. Caballe, Dear Bodegas Caballe Selection Committee, First of all we would like to thank you for putting trustfulness in our work as newcomers in your company Bodegas Caballe. After considering the commissioning letter and the four reports we have analysed them carefully to make a reasonable choice, who is the most suitable applicant.
We established the following criteria to select the best applicant for your company: Nationality, marital status, current employer and position, reason for leaving, expected salary, educational background, language skills, professional background, further information and interview assessment. We have ranked each applicant from 1 to 4 in all criteria. On top of that we have evaluated the importance of each criterion for your company. Based on this we have multiplied the ranking with the quantifier. So in the end the best possible result is 1, while 4 is the worst case.
In the following section you will find the explanations for the weighting of the criteria. We evaluated the nationality and the marital status as least important, because these criteria have no significance about an applicant’s qualities. The criterion “Reason for leaving” has more importance, due to the fact that based on this point general working attitudes can be assessed early and possible problems in business relationships can be foreseen. However this should not be the most decisive factor in comparison to other criteria.

Your company proposes a yearly salary of $45000 – $60000. Therefore we quantified this criterion less important, because no applicant exceeds this limit significantly. The educational background has more relevance because it offers a first sight on the applicant’s knowledge. Hence, this criterion has middle weight importance for the assessment of the applicants. The further given information and the applicants’ interview outcome are of equal importance, because they indicate more information about the applicants’ personalities and characteristics.
The language skills are of crucial importance. In consequence of your expansion to Central Europe and especially Poland, we expect good communication qualities in English and Polish. The current employer and position of the applicant is weighted as a significant factor. With the aid of this information you can tell if the applicants are able to represent the company and if they have sufficient abilities in the fields of coordination and management.
The most essential criterion is “Professional background”. It describes working experience, market knowledge and external relationships that are of high relevance for the applicant’s position at Bodegas Caballe. Ranking chart The chart below shows the above mentioned criteria and their weighting-quantifier. Furthermore you can see the applicants ranking for each criterion in detail. The lowest row “Total result” shows the overall ranking. Criterion |Quantifier |Boleslaw |Maria |Sergei |Stanislaw | |Nationality |2,50% |1 |2 |4 |3 | |Marital status |2,50% |4 |2 |3 |1 | |Employer & position |15,00% |2 |4 |3 |1 | |Reason for leaving |5,00% |4 |2 |3 |1 | |Salary |7,50% |4 |2 |1 |3 | |Education |10,00% |3 |2 |1 |4 | |Language skills 12,50% |1 |2 |3 |4 | |Professional background |25,00% |4 |2 |3 |1 | |Further information |10,00% |3 |2 |4 |1 | |Interview assessment |10,00% |1 |3 |4 |2 | |Total result |100,00% |2,75 |2,4 |2,875 |1,975 | Discussion of applicants The results of our assessment show a great tendency towards Stanislaw Michalski. Maria de la Garriga is ranked second with an average score of 2. 4. The third position is held by Boleslaw Piasecki with a total result of 2. 75. The least qualified applicant with a score of 2. 875 is Sergei Nikitin. In the following sections each applicant will be discussed separately. We have an overall negative impression of Sergei Nikitin. He seems to be very dissatisfied with his current employer and showed unsuitable behaviour during the interview.
Although he has a good educational background and experience as a sales representative that should qualify him to realize the expansion plans in Central Europe, his company does not want him as the manager of the sales team. So there must be a reason in his attitude or work that makes him less suitable for such an important position. He has the lowest expectations of salary with $45000, however his plans to move to the United States and his American working mentality do not fit into your company. Furthermore, his language skills are not optimal for a position in Central Europe and Poland. The third ranked applicant Boleslaw Piasecki has the best language skills among the four applicants and he made a good impression during the interview your company held with him.
His current employer Torum Hotel and Restaurant and his position as the Manager of Catering Services and Purchasing seem to be rather fitting for Bodegas Caballe at first sight. But his rankings in the other criteria are mostly 3s and 4s. His reason for leaving indicates that he has very high expectations of compensations from his company. Therefore he wants to earn $65000 per year, which is above your limit of $60000. On top of that he demands commission, car and expenses from Bodegas Caballe. Especially his previous education and professional background as a priest and Ph. D. in history do not lead to choosing him, because it is rather unusual for the business world. The further information given on Boleslaw shows that he has overbearing manners and irregular working attitude.
Maria de la Garriga is ranked second in almost every criterion, which would be a generally good choice. Her experience and position at the University of Cracow show that she did not work in the sales of wine and spirits for the last 10 years. But during the interview she made clear that she wants move into selling, because she is tired of the academic world. Her nervousness and little signs of arrogance appear as character weaknesses that may result in problems when entering a new market and establishing business relationships. Apart from that she has good qualities in various fields. She is capable of leading projects and has achieved great management skills in her position. For example she provided other universities with training programs.
Her language skills of Spanish, Russian, English and Polish and her degree in Foreign Literature and Languages are suitable for the central European region. She expects a salary of $55000 per year, which is in your proposed range of $45000 – $60000. Moreover, she established good contacts with major retailers during her activities at the University. As stated above our preferred applicant for the position as the Sales Representative is Stanislaw Michalski. Although his educational background (High-school leaving certificate) as well as his language skills are not impressive, he has reached a high position on the career ladder and seems to enjoy a quite good reputation in the market.
He started with merchandising, stocking and ordering, moved into buying as Assistant Buyer and is currently the Head Buyer of alcoholic beverages. This implicates that he has been always loyal towards his company. His reason for leaving Intersection Hypermarkets is perfect for Bodegas Caballe. He wants to move to Poland together with his wife and his four kids, which indicates that family is of high importance for him. His expected salary of $60000 for this position is also your proposed limit, which should definitely not be a reason for refusal. The extended information you provided on Stanislaw makes a great impression of his character and personality.
He is involved into different cultural, ethic and public organisations, which shows that he can take over responsibility and reliability. He has great knowledge of and interest in Poland, so he will have no problems communicating and working in Poland. The evaluations and recommendations stated above should only be regarded as an advice for your final decision. Depending on how the different criteria are weighted, some deviations may occur. Nevertheless we think that either Stanislaw Michalski or Maria de la Garriga are the most suitable applicants for your company and the position offered, because both applicants convince due to their skills and attitude.

Bodegas Caballe – an International Recruitment Excersise

Calculate the Price

Approximately 250 words

Total price (USD) $: 10.99