I am reviewing literature that relates to my research topic of how the Information genealogy affects the employment rate in the logistics field. I have assembled 16 individual books, articles, and or sources that will support me in my research of my hypothesis. My goal of this review is to properly order and summarize the data have accumulated, and to determine areas in which further research and focus is required (Crewel, 2014). The first article that is going to be absolutely critical to my research is the Bureau of Labor Statistics (2015) Occupational employment statistics estimates.
This isn’t an article but more specifically a database of information collected by U. S. Overpayment organizations in order to calculate nationwide employment rates. The data is collected on a monthly basis by the U. S. Census Bureau and from a sampling Of sixty thousand households. The employment databases goes back to 1942, however for purposes of my study I will just use recent information from the last 10-15 years. While this data is subjective, it offers strong set of supporting historical employment trends in logistics career fields, and is the current standard in U. S. Employment information (Bureau of Labor Statistics, 2015). In a research article by (Anderson, German, & Scrum, 1 997), the authors look to provide empirical research into the impacts of downsizing or reducing the amount of employees on logistics performance. Two main conclusions are reached; companies that have reduced their logistics workforce have a perception of improved logistics performance but in reality they have the same indicators as firms that have not reduced their workforce. The other conclusion is the reduction of workforce contributes greatly to the lack of loyalty, decreased moral, and vastly increased stress levels.
This article provides interesting argument that tit firms striving to reduce employee number totals; reduction equally increases negative aspects as well. The article (Jackson, 2001 ) clarifies the beginning of the Internet age and details what and when it came into existence, as we know it today. The development of the Internet was a collaborative team research effort created in U. S. Governmental agencies around 1960. The Internet was not a viable option for civilian society until 1990. This article will allow me to accurately focus on the proper time frame of Internet availability to the logistics community.
I will not rely solely on the information in this article and back up the findings of this article with the data in a similar Internet origin articles. Additionally this article makes clear that the many supporting technologies and infrastructure developments positively contributed to the advent of the Internet. In the article by (Laser, 2004), he explores the ways and methods that the Internet, computers, and software with communications affect logistics and specifically transportation. This study confirms the vast importance of technology in revolutionize modern logistics areas.
One important aspect of this particular article is the mint that no matter the technological innovation, location still drives transportation speed, timeliness and efficacy. I can utilize this important realization with other aspects of research and technology application and ensure my internal bias is reduced. The key takeaway I came away with is that no matter how much information or data is improved the location and distance of transporting goods and materials will always persist. The article One on One by (Roberts, 2004) is an interview with the vice president of the company Oracle, Greg Tennyson.
This interview captures the strategies ND leveraging of technologies in order to increase profitability of logistics operations within the realm of shipping raw materials globally. Specifically useful to my research is the discussion of “offspring” logistics operations. “Offspring” is described as transitioning logistics operations from the L] . S. To overseas markets, which offer vastly cheaper labor and trade restrictions. India is a primary market utilized by Oracle in this article. I believe that the perspective of cheaper overseas labor cannot be mistaken for the advances in informational technologies.
This article will further reduction of y bias by tempering it with different empirical data supporting a theory that labor reductions in logistics may be due to cheaper labor in different regions of the globe. Despite the increase of offspring, the article still reiterates the central importance of communications technologies in order to synchronize the complex and intricate global transactions. The article from (Atkinson, 1 999) discusses the usage of communications and web-based technologies in order to develop logistics cost savings.
The specific technology discussed in this article is Collaborative, Planning, Forecasting and Replenishment (CUFF). CUFF is the Internet based communications business solution utilized by many fortune 500 companies today including Wall-Mart. The article details the successes of this technology from a cost savings perspective. The key point of this study in relation to my research is the importance of communications, not only externally to a logistics company, but internal as well. Communication enables timely delivery of information and ensures needs are forecasted and met.
Technology and automation coupled with advanced communications technology is integral with the future Of logistics. In another article from (Atkinson, 1999), the author cuisses the expansion of the Internet in the logistics sector and the development and maturation of E-commerce. E-commerce is commerce that takes place between two or more organizations electronically. Early on in the inception of the Internet, many logistics companies were reticent to employ Internet based technologies in fear of security issues.
Those companies that mastered the web-based technologies were rewarded by reduction in costs and labor efficiencies. The main learning point of this article is the fact that it correlates using technology and the Internet with reducing labor forces and Ewing more productive with less people employed. With the article by (McGovern, 1998), it is undeniable that the Internet is a crucial area for growth in logistics sectors. The only argument about the Internet as it pertains to the logistics industry is how to apply and utilize it in the best manner possible.
The main issue with this article in regards to my research is the fact that it pertains mainly to visibility and communication and does not include hard data with employment statistics. While can use the perspective and insight provided additional support with numerical data will be more relevant to use in my study. I can always use and improve upon the information provided in this study. The article is quite old (1998) in reference to the subject of my research.
I will be able to use all information here as either pre or post Internet and in that way even older articles can provide much-needed context. With infill article by (Williams, 2001) he provides additional support to the origins of the Internet. This article analyzes three components of logistics, inventory control, order processing and transportation. The Internet impacts all three areas in positive ways in the article. One area this article could be of more assistance to my research reports is again more usage of empirical data and numerical figures on employment and how that relates to performance.
In conclusion the articles summarized together present a consistent gap of research in regards to how informational technologies impact the employment of logistics employees. I believe can utilize the data surveys from the Bureau of Labor Statistics and incorporate supporting documentation to identify that informational technologies did and continue to reduce employment opportunities within the united States of America. Can continue to refine my literature or more clearly define the scope of my research question in order o synchronize the availability of research available at this time.