Answer to essay-200 words minimum (LD)

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People of African America and Amish Heritage
1.  Discuss the cultural development of the African American and Amish heritage in the United States.
African Americans descend from Africa, whereby they were brought by force to the United States as slaves. The Slave trade era of African people was predominant between 1619 and 1860 which led to the slavery of over 24 million in the United States. The majority of the slave trade originated from the west coast of Africa mainly the Kwa and Bantu speaking people. Most Black Americans settle in the Southern States while others moved to the North and Northeast parts of the United States. The end of the Civil War in 1865, which was followed by the Reconstruction Act, marked the end of slavery and black Americans were allowed to participate in the state government and the right for democracy (Madison County Public Library, 2018). Black Americans pride themselves with both the American and the African heritage.
The Amish people descend from the Anabaptist movement which roots back to Switzerland in 1525 and spread to the German-speaking lands in 1693. The Anabaptists were deprived and deported, and their goods were taken away after they refused to bear arms as civil service and follow the guidelines of the Germany state in matters of religious practice. This led the Amish to suffer from martyrdom and persecution in Europe from Protestants and Catholics. 
In the 17th and 18th century the Amish people immigrated to the United States where they attained religious freedom. In the United States, they settled in over 20 states specifically in rural areas including Ohio, Pennsylvania, Florida, and Indiana (Purnell, & Paulanka, 2008). Ideally, the Amish came to the United States to practice their lifestyle as they wish without limitations and restrictions from the government. The Amish adopted American life slowly and selectively due to their unique beliefs and cultural practices.
2.  What are the cultural beliefs of the African American and Amish heritage related to health care and how they influence the delivery of evidence-based healthcare?
The African Americans portray distrust to outsider healthcare professionals making them only visit a nurse or a doctor when necessary. They believe that there are two forms of illnesses, natural and unnatural. The distrust with a health care professional is as a result of health disparities based on racial discrimination on the quality of health care. The health disparities have led to poor health conditions such as heart diseases, high infant morbidity, and mortality rates, cancer, asthma, and diabetes. African Americans barriers to health care revolve around aspects such as accessibility, affordability, discrimination, and adaptability problems. In line with the cultural believes of African Americans, when there is no pain there is no illness. Additionally, they believe that illness brings the family together and near God.
The Amish people consider health care providers as outsiders and church officials are consulted in healthcare matters. The Amish believe that healthcare knowledge is transferred between and among families by women. They do not pay for health insurance like other communities, but they have an Amid Aid Society. In order for Amish people to access health care professional services, they have to move outside their locality. They have to cross a boundary that delimits their community in terms of cultural geography. In conjunction with this, the Amish have a profound cultural distance which has to be bridged to seek professional health care assistance. The predominant health practices among the Amish people include herbal treatments, individual medication, and they believe in helping the sick. Laying on warm hands and sympathy curing is highly practiced among the Amish population. There is no stigmatization related to a health condition in the Amish population.

References
Madison County Public Library. (2018). Celebrating African American Culture & History. Retrieved from. https://guides.hmcpl.org/AfricanAmericanHistory  
Purnell, L. & Paulanka, B. (2008). Transcultural Health Care: A Culturally competent Approach Third Edition.Delaware. The University of Delaware Publishers.