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Analysis Of Noun Phrase In English And Vietnamese Education Essay
Noun phrases every bit good as other phrases play an of import function in get the hanging any linguistic communication. Without noun phrase, there would hold no agents, no patients, and no receivers. Additionally, no affair how broad our vocabulary may be, a individual word is frequently deficient in showing our thought.. A incompatible analysis between English and Vietnamese is necessary and interesting for learning and analyzing. Almost every linguistic communication has noun phrases, nevertheless, despite holding the same basic construction, they have some differences..This survey aims to research internal and external construction of English and Vietnamese noun phrases so make a comparing between two sorts of NP every bit good as suggest some teaching deductions. I hope through this assignment, both I and the readers will larn something helpful which can use to English instruction and acquisition.
Noun phrase in English
Le ( 2002 ) defined noun phrase ( NP ) as a group of words get downing with a noun and working appositional. This NP frequently goes right earlier or right after the noun it expresses.
Ex-husband: A victim of war, he hated the sight of soldiers. ( A victim of war = he )
Harmonizing to L.H.Nguyen ( 2004 ) , a NP is a group of words with a noun or pronoun as the chief portion ( the caput ) . In his book “ Analyzing English ” , Jackson added some more deal about the caput which is “ the minimum demand for the happening of a noun phrase ” . Despite the NP is in simple signifier such as “ pupils ” or in complex signifier such as “ the narrative about the miss who used to populate at that place ” , it must hold a noun or pronoun showing the chief thought.
Basically, a noun phrase consists of 3 chief parts: Pre – Alteration, Head, Post – Alteration. But in some complex NPs, we can see that the Pre – Alteration may incorporate other elements. Based on the theory of NP in the book “ Analyzing English ” by Howard Jackson, we have a elaborate expression of NP as followers:
Pre – Alteration
Post – Alteration
Pre – clincher
( A )
( B )
( C )
( D )
( Tocopherol )
( F )
Relative clauses, infinite clause, prepositional phrase, adjectives, adverbs.
( G )
Table 1: The construction of a NP in English
Now, we will travel into inside informations of the construction of a NP.
Pre – Alteration
This portion fundamentally has 5 elements as shown in the above tabular array. The first component is pre-determiners. They are a little group of words which may happen before the identifier in a NP. They besides have quantifier mention ( all, both, half, aˆ¦ ) ; fraction numbers ( one-third, aˆ¦ ) .
Following component is identifiers. This component includes articles ( a, an, the ) ; demonstrative ( this, that, these, those ) ; genitives ( my, your, his, aˆ¦ ) . But there is one thing we should pay attending. In any NP, merely merely one identifier may happen, it means that articles, demonstrative and genitives are reciprocally sole. We ca n’t state “ that my house ” but if we use “ of-phrase ” with the genitive pronoun, we can show that NP in another manner “ that book of mine ” .
In some NPs such as “ five cats ” , “ several books ” , the pre – alteration here is numerical ( five ) or quantifier ( several ) . Besides, sometimes, we can see the combination of these two elements in some NPs. The frequent sequences are ordinal numerical ( particularly “ first ” and “ last ” ) + indefinite quantifier ( eg “ the first few hours ” ) , ordinal + cardinal ( eg “ the 2nd five yearss ” ) , indefinite quantifier + central numerical, particularly circular figure ( eg “ several thousand people ” ) ( Nguyen, 2004, p. 44 ) .
To magnify the caput noun in some manner, the following component, adjectives, come after the identifier and numerals/quantifiers. However, in instance that several adjectives co-occur in a NP, there is a regulation for their order.
unit of ammunition
composing tabular array
Table 2: The adjectival order
The last component is noun qualifiers which come between the adjectives and the caput noun. As we can see, nouns may work non merely as caputs of NP but besides qualifiers in NP. For illustration, in NP “ a kids book ” , “ kids ” modifies “ book ” and “ a kids book ” means a book for kids.
Beside 5 basic elements mentioned supra, there is one farther sort of pre-modification that is NP in possessive instance. This sort is marked by an ‘s added to the its concluding word ( eg my friend ‘s bike ) .
The most usual sort of caput of NP is noun, but in some NPs such as “ She is my best friend ” , the caput may be a pronoun of some sort, normally a personal pronoun ( he, she, youaˆ¦ ) . Similarly, Jacobs ( 1995 ) stated that many NPs in English are individual signifiers dwelling possibly merely of a noun or a pronoun. When the caput is a pronoun, it does n’t necessitate any alteration, particularly the pre-modification.
Kinds of pronoun operation as the caput
He, she, you, they, we, aˆ¦ .
Person, something, cipher, aˆ¦ …
His, her, your, their, aˆ¦
This, that, aˆ¦
Table 3: Kinds of pronoun operation as the caput of NP
This portion is most often followed by phrases or clauses. Three sorts of phrasal/clausal post-modification we frequently see is: comparative clauses, infinite clauses, and prepositional phrases, sometimes we besides see an adjective or an adverb operation as a post-modifier in NP ( Jackson, p.15 ) .
A comparative clause consists of a comparative pronoun ( who, whom, which, that, whose, aˆ¦ ) as a caput, which mentions back to the caput noun of NP. If the comparative pronoun ‘s map is object in the comparative clause, we can exclude that comparative pronoun.
Infinite clause is clause normally without topics introduced by a infinite signifier of the verb. That sort of clause include 3 sorts: space clause, present participial clause, past participial.
In a NP, prepositional phrase occurs most often working as post-modifier.
All the schools in town
A B F G ( prepositional phrase )
The last few yearss
B C C F
Dong Bang Shin Ki, my favorite music set.
F G ( appositional NP )
My noisy 4-year-old white Thai cat
B name age coloring material F
This arch revenue enhancement aggregator ‘s grabbing manus
NP Genitive D F
The Korea history which has merely been published.
B D F G ( comparative clause )
Something of import to make
F ( indefinite pro ) G ( adjectives ) G ( infinite clause )
The miss behind you
B F G ( adverb )
Two Equus caballuss eating grass.
A F G ( infinite clause: present participial )
A subject vocal composed by Lee So Man
B E F G ( infinite clause: past participial )
One-third of the population
A B F
Noun phrase in Vietnamese
Mai, Vu and Hoang ( 2006 ) defined NP ( danh nga»? ) is a phrase in which the noun map as the chief portion.
Besides, NP in the theory of Doan, Nguyen, Pham ( 2001 ) is a “ free combination of a noun karyon and one or more than one subsidiary elements “ which can be front elements standing before the nucleus noun or can be end elements standing after the nucleus noun.
As a phrase, NP in Vietnamese besides has three chief parts: Pre-Modification ( Front Element ) , Head ( Nucleus ) , Post-Modification ( End Element ) . More elaborate, harmonizing to Mai et Al. ‘s theory ( pp. 276-280 ) , the construction of NP in Vietnamese can be described as followers:
( -3 )
( -2 )
( -1 )
Head noun ( 0 )
( 1 )
( 2 )
Table 4: The construction of a NP in Vietnamese
As we can see from the tabular array, the elements in the place ( -3 ) , ( -2 ) and ( -1 ) are called front elements, while the elements standing after the karyon ( 1 ) and ( 2 ) are called end elements. Those elements are placed in a stable manner as shown in the above tabular array.
In footings of the front elements, we have three sorts. In the place ( -1 ) , quantifiers such as “ ta??t ca?? ” , “ ta??t tha??y ” , “ ha??t tha??y ” , “ ha??t ca?? ” , “ ca?? ” , aˆ¦.are used. Those words can happen before:
definite numbers: ma»™t, hai, Ba, ba»‘n, aˆ¦
Ex-husband: ta??t ca?? ba»‘n m?°??i sinh vien ( 1 )
corporate nouns: A‘an, lA© , bo , ba»™ , na??m, aˆ¦ .
Ex-husband: ca?? lA© con trai
general nouns: qua?§n, ao, binh, linh, xe ca»™ , may moc, aˆ¦
Ex-husband: ha??t tha??y may moc
Let ‘s pay attending to the quantifiers such as “ ta??t ca?? ” , “ ta??t tha??y ” , “ ha??t tha??y ” , “ ha??t ca?? ” , “ ca?? ” , aˆ¦.From the illustrations above, we can see that such those quantifiers occur before the caput noun. Now, taking the first illustration, is it right if we say it in such a manner “ ba»‘n m?°??i sinh vien ta??t ca?? ” ? Actually, in footings of grammar, it is right but the significance is different. The NP “ ta??t ca?? ba»‘n m?°??i sinh vien ” means that no pupils are left, but in “ ba»‘n m?°??i sinh vien ta??t ca?? ” , there are some pupils left. So, we can reason that “ ta??t ca?? ” can stand before and after the caput noun depending on the talker ‘s attending.
Diep Quang Ban ( 2000 ) stated that place ( -2 ) is the topographic point taken by word category as followers:
Definite numeral/ central figure ( ta»« cha»‰ sa»‘ l?°a»?ng xac A‘a»‹nh/sa»‘ ta»« )
Ma»™t, hai, Ba, ba»‘n, m?°a»?i, trA?m aˆ¦..
M?°a»?i con meo
Estimate quantifier ( ta»« cha»‰ sa»‘ pha»?ng A‘a»‹nh )
Vai, vai Ba, dA?m, m?°??i, aˆ¦
vai Ba khach hang
Allocating words ( ta»« ham y phan pha»‘i )
Ma»-i, ma»™t, ta»«ng, aˆ¦
Ma»-i cong dan
Articles ( quan ta»« )
Nha»?ng, cac, ma»™t, ..
Nha»?ng bac sA©
Word “ ma??y ”
Ma??y con ga nay
Table 5: the place ( -2 ) in a NP in Vietnamese
However, we should pay attending that such elements as “ vai, vai Ba, dA?m, aˆ¦ ” can non co-exist with the quantifiers such as “ ta??t ca?? ” , “ ta??t tha??y ” , “ ha??t tha??y ” , “ ha??t ca?? ” , “ ca?? ” in the place ( -3 ) .
In footings of the place ( -1 ) , Diep Quang Ban ( 2000 ) stated that it is taken by the deictic word “ cai ” ( ta»« cha»‰ xua??t ) in order to stress things mentioned in the caput noun. However, sometimes, “ cai ” is replaced by another deictic word such as “ con ” in NP “ con ng?°a»?i a??y ” . In Vietnamese NP, “ cai ” occurs before the caput noun and can step in between a numerical ( if there is one ) and the classifier or a step phrase. It may be preceded by other pre-noun qualifiers such as quantifiers, numbers, and articles. It must ever coincide with a classifier as in “ ba cai cua»™n len kia “ or “ ba cai thung n?°a»›c nay ” . Besides, “ cai ” is sometimes mistaken with the homonymic classifier “ cai ” , but it ‘s different from classifier cai every bit good as other classifiers in term of distribution and map. When “ cai ” precedes a count noun, the usage of a classifier is obligatory, as shown in ( a ) . However, “ cai ” can non be used before the homonymic classifier as shown in ( B )
Ba cai cua»™n len ( correct )
Ba cai cai chen ( incorrect )
Normally, with the presence of the deictic word, the noun is demonstrative like “ nay ” , “ kia ” , “ a??y ” , aˆ¦ . ( eg: cai tha?±ng nhoc nay ) . But, in spoken linguistic communication, we frequently see that the demonstratives are omitted, like “ cai tha?±ng nhoc ” .
The karyon ( head noun ) :
Harmonizing to Dinh Dien ( n.d ) , the karyon ( place ( 0 ) ) may be a noun ( boy, teacher, cat, houseaˆ¦ ) or a combination between a classifier ( danh ta»« cha»‰ loa??i ) and the caput noun such as “ con ng?°a»?i ” , “ quya»?n sach ” , “ may sa??y ” . Otherwise, the caput noun may be a classifier followed by a descriptive free word bunch ( ta»• ha»?p ta»« ta»± do mieu ta?? ) such as “ hai ng?°a»?i A‘ang nga»“i noi chuya»‡n A‘a?±ng kia ” , “ nha»?ng via»‡c ban hom ba»?a ” Additionally, words which are non nouns can besides be the caput due to the talking wont of Vietnamese. For illustration, we can shorten the NP “ hai ca»‘c ca phe A‘en ” into the NP “ hai A‘en ” .
Some Vietnamese classifiers are normally used:
caiA : used for most inanimate objects ( cai ban, cai gha?? , .. )
con: normally for animate beings and kids ( con be ) , but can be used to depict some inanimate objects ( con dao, con A‘?°a»?ng )
bai: used for composings like vocals, drawings, verse forms, essays, etc ( bai th?? , bai hat, .. )
cay: used for stick-like objects ( cay ph?°a»?ng, cay sung, aˆ¦ )
toa: edifices of authorization: tribunals, halls, “ tusk towers ” ( toa nha , .. )
qua??/trai: used for ball-shaped objects ( qua?? chua»‘i, trai A‘a??t, .. )
quya»?n/cua»‘n: used for book-like objects ( cua»‘n sach, quya»?n ta??p chi , .. )
ta»? : sheets and other thin objects made of paper ( ta»? gia??y, ta»? bao, .. )
la : smaller sheets of paper ( la th?? , la bai, aˆ¦ )
via»‡c: an event or an on-going procedure ( via»‡c kinh doanh, via»‡c ha»?c, aˆ¦ )
Doan et Al. classified the terminal elements in footings of portion of address, construction, manner of connexion, order of some elements.
c.1 ) In footings of portion of address:
la»›p ngoa??i nga»?
la»›p giao tia??p
noun of topographic point
la»›p tren la?§u
noun of clip
la»›p bua»•i ta»‘i
la»›p ca»§a toi
Table 6: The terminal elements in Vietnamese NP in footings of portion of address
c.2 ) In footings of construction:
A chief – accessary phrase: sach vA?n ha»?c Ma»?
A co-ordinated phrase: sach nghe va noi
A S-V phrase: sach ma?? toi va»«a mua
c.3 ) In footings of manner of connexion:
Direct ways ( eg: tinh tha?§n thep, ma??t ba»“ cauaˆ¦ )
Indirect ways ( eg: ba»™ phim ma anh thich, bai via??t ma toi va»«a hoan thanh )
c.4 ) In footings of the undermentioned order:
The nucleus i? A i? B ( a, B, degree Celsius, vitamin D ) i? C
goes with the karyon to organize a phrase ( a compound noun )
describes the features of the object that the karyon mentioned
Ex-husband: phong khach ra»™ng, ban lam via»‡c American ginseng tra»?ng, aˆ¦ .
demonstrative pronouns such as “ nay, a??y, A‘o ” aˆ¦
a noun, a verb or an adjectival
“ va»? + noun ” or “ ba?±ng + noun ”
“ ca»§a + noun ” or “ a»Y + noun ”
Table 6: The terminal elements in Vietnamese NP in footings of some elements ‘ order.
Something about demonstratives may do you misconstruing if we arrange them in different order. For illustration, compare two NPs “ via»‡c a??y ca»§a anh ” and “ via»‡c ca»§a anh a??y ” , we can see the difference in significance here due to our talking modulation. In the first NP, if we speak with a level modulation, we can understand it as “ his work ” , whereas, if we speak with a raising modulation at “ a??y ” in the 2nd NP, it can be understood that “ it ‘s your work, non others ‘ work ” .
Ta??t ca?? nha»?ng cai vay A‘en ba?±ng denims a»Y store Cass ma ca?u
( -1 ) ( -2 ) ( -3 ) ( 0 ) ( 1 ) ( ai? bi? ci? vitamin D )
th?°a»?ng tha??y A‘o
( 2 )
B ) A??°a»?ng A‘ua sa»‘ 2 a»Y tr?°a»›c ma?·t ( Diep, 2000, p. 60 )
( 0 ) ( 1 ) ( central numberi? degree Celsius )
degree Celsius ) Nha»?ng tha?±ng nhoc ngha»‹ch nga»?m a??y
( -2 ) ( 0 ) ( 1 ) ( adjectival ) ( 2 )
vitamin D ) San nha qi ma»›i lau
( 0 ) ( 1 ) ( S-V phrase )
vitamin E ) Cai cua»‘n ta??p chi a»Y tren ka»‡ A‘o
( -1 ) ( 0 ) ( 1 ) ( degree Celsius ) ( 2 )
A comparing of English NP and Vietnamese NP
From what we discuss above about the NP in English and Vietnamese, we can see that both of them have a basic construction: pre-modification, caput, post-modification. . However, there are still some differences between them. We will discourse some singular similarities and differences in the places of pre-modification and post-modification in English and Vietnamese NP.
First, in both English and Vietnamese NP, quantifier, numbers, fractions stand before the caput noun.
( a ) All those old chairs
Quantifier caput noun
( B ) Several thousand people
numerical caput noun
( degree Celsius ) One-third of my pupils
fraction caput noun
( a ) Ta??t ca?? nha»?ng cai gha?? cA© A‘o
quantifier caput noun adjectival
( B ) Vai ngan ng?°a»?i
numerical caput noun
( degree Celsius ) Ma»™t pha?§n Ba sa»‘ ha»?c sinh ca»§a toi
fraction caput noun
Second, demonstrative, ordinal Numberss, genitives come before the caput noun in English but after the caput noun in Vietnamese.
That big brick house
demonstrative caput noun
The 2nd circuit to Korea
ordinal figure caput noun
My favorite spicy nutrient
genitive caput noun
( a ) Ngoi nha ba?±ng ga??ch to la»›n A‘o
caput noun demonstrative
( B ) Chuya??n du la»‹ch tha»© hai A‘a??n Han Qua»‘c
caput noun ordinal figure
( degree Celsius ) Tha»©c A?n key yeu thich ca»§a toi
caput noun genitive
Third, in footings of adjectives, we put them in forepart of the caput noun in English NP but in Vietnamese, we put them after the caput noun.
Ex-husband: cai ban mau nau lam ba?±ng ga»- xoai
caput noun. adjectives
A brown oaken tabular array.
adjectives head noun.
However, in some instances, adjectives come after the caput noun in English NP such as “ something unusual ” , “ person brave ” , aˆ¦ Additionally, the order of adjectives qualifiers in English is instead fixed ( name, size, form, age, coloring material, beginning, substance, present participial ) whereas that in Vietnamese NP may be exchanged, based on the talker ‘s attending. For illustration, in English, we merely have merely one order “ a reasonably bluish skirt ” but when we say in Vietnamese, there are 2 ways “ ma»™t chia??c vay mau xanh district attorney tra»?i xinh xa??n ” and “ ma»™t chia??c vay xinh xa??n mau xanh district attorney tra»?i ” .
Furthermore, in English NP, the happening of nouns and clinchers is obligatory but optional in Vietnamese NP. So, if we translate the phrase “ cua»‘n sach tren ban ” into Vietnamese, it will be “ book on tabular array ” . Is it right? As you see, the true phrase should be “ the book on the tabular array ” .
In Vietnamese, classifiers are by and large obligatory in numerated NP whereas in English, we do n’t usually utilize classifiers before nouns, except some particular words “ a brace of places ” , “ a loaf of staff of life ” aˆ¦ .
Ex-husband: In English, we say “ two books ” but in Vietnamese, we say “ hai cua»‘n sach ” .
The following difference I want to advert is the place of noun qualifiers. In English NP, they come before a caput noun but in Vietnamese, they come after the caput noun. Nevertheless, in some instances in Vietnamese, noun qualifiers precedes the caput noun ( eg ma»™t thi nhan, ma»™t ca»? tha»§ , .. )
A concert dance category
A bundle circuit
A summer run
( a ) Ma»™t la»›p Ba le
( B ) Chuya??n du la»‹ch tra»?n goi
( degree Celsius ) chia??n da»‹ch mua he
Last but non least, sometimes there are some equivocal constructions that cause us baffled. In Vietnamese, what comes into people ‘s head foremost is spoken foremost is the common regulation, which is besides a natural order of people ‘s thought ( Dinh, n.d, p. 11 ) . Let ‘s take a NP as an illustration. How many ways you can state the English NP “ a new Korean leather coat ” ? We have “ ma»™t cai ao khoac ma»›i ba?±ng long thu ca»§a Han Qua»‘c ” or “ ma»™t cai ao khoac Han Qua»‘c ba?±ng long thu ma»›i ” and “ ma»™t cai ao khoac ba?±ng long thu Han Qua»‘c ma»›i ” .
It seems that in the English NP, the place of pre-modifiers and post-premodifiers are non so free and flexible as that in Vietnamese NP
Deduction in English instruction and acquisition
Learners of English may hold some troubles such as how to interpret from
English into Vietnamese and frailty versa due to the differences in the place of pre-modifiers and post-modifiers we have merely mentioned above ( for illustration: ma»™t quya»?n sach hay – a book good or a book interesting. They may besides be in problem with the order of the adjectives in a instead long noun phrase with many adjectives. Which adjective come foremost? Which one will come next? Where should we set those adjectives. Vietnamese pupils may happen it hard to retrieve all the places due to the wont of puting the adjectives after the caput noun and utilizing them flexibly.
Knowing clearly about English NP and Vietnamese NP, particularly the differences every bit good as the common errors that Vietnamese scholars frequently meet will assist the instructors guide their pupils right. In other words, scholars can cognize their errors from the beginning so that they can happen it easy to larn English subsequently, particularly grammar. Based on the cognition of English NP and Vietnamese NP, the instructors besides design the undertakings for pupils to consolidate and pattern cognition of phrases and sentences in both two linguistic communications.
In decision, although NP in English and Vietnamese has the same basic construction ( pre-modification, caput, post-modification ) , they are non the same in the word order of pre-modification and post-modification. These differences are caused by the unsimilarity in thought and talking wont of English and Vietnamese. As a pupil every bit good as a teacher-to-be, this research helps me a batch. When making this assignment, I have a opportunity to consolidate my cognition of both English and Vietnamese and cognize something new and helpful. With what I learn from this research, I will use to my survey and learning calling.