CHAPTER 2 REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE AND STUDIES FOREIGN STUDIES In its broadest sense, impeachment is the process by which public officials may be removed from office on the basis….
A STUDY ON THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK AND REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE
The model presented in Fig. 1 below, provides the anchor by which constructs of this survey flow. The mark respondents are the chemical science instructors of Sarangani Division. The survey will measure their public presentation degree and learning competency in position of the undermentioned parametric quantities: cognition of the different chemical science content in a diagnostic trial in relation to their self-assessment in the NCBTS-TSNA Toolkit under sphere 4 – course of study and their over-all instruction competency as described in all other spheres of the NCBTS-TSNA Toolkit.
An intercession plan by manner of instructors ‘ preparation shall be prepared by the research worker based on the identified least erudite competences and least scored points in the NCBTS-TSNA Toolkit, capable to the acceptableness of the respondents. The proposed preparation plan will enable chemical science instructors to eliminate or at least minimise some misconceptions in chemical science and derive better apprehension of some hard constructs in chemical science. Likewise, the proposed preparation plan shall incorporate diverse instruction accomplishments and schemes to turn to the demands of different types of scholars.
B. Review of Related Literature
Related articles and findings from other surveies are included herein to give the research worker penetrations therefore, supplying a stronger footing by which to prosecute this probe.
B.1 Repertoire of Knowledge and Skills for Effective Teaching
Khine, Lourdsamy, Lang and Wong ( 2005 ) province that heightening cognition of ego as a instructor can be achieved through figure of attacks as presented below:
Knowledge of Self
Knowledge is increasing quickly. How adequately a instructor shows betterment is a step of learning quality. A instructor must put in womb-to-tomb acquisition through preparations, accomplishments development and personal upgrading. Mr. Goh Chok Tong ( 1998 ) , former Prime Minister of Singapore said:
“ We must do larning a national civilization… We must put up comprehensive mechanisms to continually retrain our work force and promote every person to prosecute in acquisition as a affair of necessity… instructors and principals will invariably look out for new thoughts and patterns, and continually review their ain cognition. Teaching will itself be a learning profession like any other knowledge-based profession of the hereafter ” .
Self-evaluation and re-evaluation with respects to a instructor ‘s over-all growing and dignity is an of import tool in cognizing oneself. Believing in one ‘s value, endowments and dignity will gain self-pride, which in bend enables a instructor to associate with others. A instructor must besides sporadically assess his/her ain attitude which can impact his/her perceptual experiences in associating with others. Peers and pupils appraisal can besides supply some objectiveness to complement one ‘s appraisal of ego.
The mentor-mentee strategy can assist to heighten ego. A wise man provides the line of life to new instructors “ tossed in disruptive H2O ” of an unsure environment. Mentors provide non judgemental feedback and the “ modelling consequence ” .
Knowledge of procedures
A instructor must be a brooding practician. In reflecting, the instructor expression inwards to measure ain learning behavior, discover new thoughts and see how certain patterns can interpret into ain instruction to better public presentation. Knowledge on job resolution is besides of import as the school environment invariably presents jobs to be solved. Knowing the job work outing procedure will bring forth alternate solutions. Research on the other manus, provides sound principle to a scope of options of the best instruction patterns. The cognition of hunt procedures will link the instructor to the most current stuffs to the best usage of the scholars.
Knowledge of Content
Content is indispensable and a dynamic cognition. For a instructor to learn the topic good he or she needs to hold an apprehension of an extended and updated cognition, be able to ground the cognition with mundane application and be prepared to reply all sorts of inquiries relevant to what he or she teaches.
Delivery of the coveted content and accomplishments in scientific discipline to the scholars greatly depend on how much a peculiar scientific discipline instructor have in shop for them, e.g. educational background, major country of specialisation, related preparations and learning experience. Though, the set of coveted larning competences provide instructors with way, it is wide in range and can be interpreted in different ways depending on the instructor ‘s background and experience. A instructor must hold the right cognition of the different contents and accomplishments in the BEC competence before he/she can precisely interpret it to the scholars. The broad range of scientific discipline demands that instructors must possess the specific cognition and accomplishments of a peculiar subdivision of scientific discipline and non from related background and experience. Physicss, Chemistry and Biology instructors should non merely be one page in front of their pupils ; nevertheless, they should be experts, because that is what the scholars expect them to be.
Knowledge of Teaching Pedagogy
Teaching for better acquisition is about how to learn efficaciously. The procedure is associated with footings like, instructional schemes, learning cognition, learning schemes, learning methods, learning rules or learning theoretical accounts.
Teaching for thought is a determination doing procedure of doing significances. The thought procedure is associated with the undermentioned footings: analytical thought, analogical thought, brooding thought, critical thought, originative thought, inductive thought and sidelong thought. Though, there are different footings for believing but there is a common yarn through them ; it is a procedure with three components- operations, cognition, and temperaments.
Knowledge of Students and Their acquisition Manners
An facet of individualism crucial to pedagogical determinations is “ learning manners ” or penchants. It sets accent on how pupils learn and non on what they learn. Prior to instruction, the instructor must happen out how pupils learn through interviews, insouciant interactions, pupils ‘ personal profile and learning manner diagnosing.
Lack of Qualified Chemistry Teachers
Science and Technology III ( Chemistry ) , in the visible radiation of 2002 Basic Education Curriculum aims to assist the Filipino scholars ‘ addition a functional apprehension of scientific constructs and rules linked with existent life state of affairss and get scientific accomplishments, attitudes, and values necessary to analyse and work out day-to-day jobs.
The aims of the scientific discipline plan focal point on conceptual apprehension, acquisition of scientific discipline procedures or believing accomplishments, peculiarly critical and originative thought accomplishments and development of scientific values and attitudes. Therefore, scientific discipline instructors must every bit posses the same conceptual apprehension and competency because it is through them that the ends and aims of the section instruction are being carried out. They are the ultimate agencies to recognize the visions of instruction. Nevertheless, based on the latest survey ( DOST-SEI, 2005 ) and ( DEPED, 2006 ) the Numberss of instructors learning scientific discipline and mathematics with no background have exceeded the figure of those with background by 14,153 ( Ogena, Ester, 2006 ) . This survey shows excessively many unqualified scientific discipline instructors in the section of instruction.
Therefore, consequences of the National Diagnostic Test administered to high school pupils in 2002 and 2003 are no surprising. It shows that merely 10 % of pupils in scientific discipline passed the competence degree. Likewise the consequences of the Trends in Mathematics and Science Study ( TIMSS, 2003 ) show that the national Mathematics and Science average tonss in 1999 and 2003 were really much lower than the international mean mark ( bottom 25 % of pupils ) ; and, one of the recommended solutions given by TIMSS was teacher preparation.
Harmonizing to Ibe and Ogena ( 1998 ) , teacher instruction does non pull the best or the extremely intellectually capable high school alumnuss. It is the least expensive plan that is accessible to the center and low income households that desires higher instruction for their kids. This generalisation resulted from a survey conducted by Ibe ( 1979 ) , that more pupils from the lower 30 percentiles expressed penchant for teacher instruction. This is because, instruction plan particularly for non scientific discipline big leagues are least expensive and requires less laboratory fees. However, when they will fall in the instruction profession, these instructors will be forced to learn scientific discipline when there is no available scientific discipline instructor to learn the topic.
Proficiency in the English linguistic communication is another larning barrier on the portion of pupils every bit good as instructors. Science text editions are written in English, category instructions are made in English, yet instructors possibly fluid English talkers but doing usage of the native speech pattern. In 1925, one important happening made by the Philippine Education System was that, Filipino kids were two and a half old ages behind than American kids in reading accomplishments. This spread is merely apprehensible because, to the Americans English is their native linguistic communication while for the Filipinos, it is their 2nd linguistic communication ( Gonzales, 2004 ) . English linguistic communication is taught by Filipino instructors who every bit good are non self-generated English talkers. Using right American speech pattern affairs because the significance of the word differs with how it is being pronounced.
Smithers and Robinsons ( 2005 ) said that rich states like USA and Canada are besides sing great trouble in pulling their ain race to acquire into chemical science and natural philosophies learning. They besides experience serious deficit of competent chemical science and natural philosophies instructors and because of this ; they recruit instructors from the Philippines offering attractive wages and other benefits ; and who can decline this really luring offer? Hence, best instructors in chemical science and natural philosophies are traveling out of the state in seek for greener grazing land.
What is the deduction of all these studies to the educational system of the state? This leaves no pick for the section of instruction than to let misfits to learn chemical science and natural philosophies particularly in far flung countries.
The BEC Learning Competences
The prescribed acquisition competences present the set of coveted learning ends peculiarly in chemical science by which instructors shall stay and construction their lessons consequently. Chemistry is a wide topic and encompasses different countries of specialisations. Below are two sets of competences in Chemistry- BEC and the CEM competences by which their diagnostic scrutiny shall be based. Both competences designed for high school chemical science are classified as General Chemistry. Therefore, they include basic subjects appropriate for the degree of apprehension of high school pupils that will fix them for third instruction.
BEC Learning Competency
The 2002 Basic Education Curriculum ( BEC ) of the Department of Education lays down the undermentioned coveted larning ends:
Introduction to chemistry – scholars are expected to appreciate the importance of chemical science, appreciate the accomplishments of Filipino and foreign chemists, appreciate and understand the usage of different research lab setup and demonstrate apprehension on the mathematical constructs of chemical science.
Classifying Matter – the scholars are expected to show accomplishments in placing chemical systems demonstrate understanding on the elements and compounds present in day-to-day life and show cognition of simple techniques in preparing, dividing and sublimating affair.
Solutions – pupils shall be able to understand the solution procedure and its relation to energy alterations and molecular interaction, place types of solutions, relate colligative belongingss of solutions, be able to work out jobs in relation to concentration of solutions and associate solutions to the natural environment.
Colloids- Students are expected to show apprehension on the belongingss and utilizations of colloids and its importance in day-to-day life.
Gases- Learners shall show apprehension on the belongingss and behavior of gases in relation to different gas Torahs and equations, show job work outing accomplishments utilizing mathematical equations and associate gas Torahs and rules involved in some engineerings.
Inside the Atom – this chapter speaks about the parts of early scientists in the development of the atomic theory, demonstrate understanding on the construction of the atom and appreciate how these subatomic atoms and radiation are used in engineering peculiarly in medical specialty.
Order Among Elementss – the scholars are expected to show apprehension of the belongingss of elements in relation to their places or locations in the periodic tabular array, and appreciate the importance of cognizing the elements and how they are used in engineering.
Neckties That Chemically Bind – pupils shall be able to understand how atoms combine, place the types of chemical bond and associate the belongingss and utilizations of compounds with the type of chemical bond.
Changes In Matter – appreciate the practical of phase/chemical alterations, demonstrate apprehension of the Torahs regulating alterations, and show the ability to utilize symbols, expressions and chemical equations in explicating chemical reactions.
Change, Energy and Time – demonstrate apprehension of how chemical reactions occur and appreciate the importance of commanding rates of reactions in engineering.
The CEM Learning Competences
A A The competences designed by the Center for Educational Measurement contains precisely the same in footings of content with the BEC version but in different agreement. For chemical science, the undermentioned competences are enumerated below:
Introduction to Chemistry: Demonstrates knowledge and apprehension of constructs: discusses scientific method ; determines figure of important figures ; makes temperature transitions ; enumerates safety safeguards in the lab ; distinguishes: substances/mixtures, homogeneous/heterogeneous systems, physical/chemical alterations, exothermic/endothermic reactions, and heat/temperature.
Symbols, Formulas, and Equations: Demonstrates cognition, apprehension, and application of constructs: writes chemical symbols ; balances chemical equations ; translates verbal statements to chemical equations ; uses mole construct to execute mole-mole, mass-mass computations ; solves jobs affecting molar mass/ per centum composing by weight/number of moles given the expression of a substance.
Phases of Matter: Demonstrates cognition, apprehension, and application of constructs: describes/compares the belongingss of the provinces of affair ; states the Kinetic Molecular Theory, composing of the ambiance, and the map of a calorimeter ; solves jobs affecting the gas Torahs ; describes the relationship between temperature and vapor force per unit area.
The Atom: Demonstrates cognition, apprehension, and application of constructs: observes electrical nature of affair ; infers the footing of agreement of elements in the periodic tabular array ; predicts the group figure of elements utilizing figure of valency negatrons ; determines electronic constellations ; interprets from a tabular array the relationship between atomic mass and comparative copiousness of isotopes.
Chemical Bonding: Demonstrates cognition, apprehension, and application of constructs: provinces and explains formation of covalent, ionic, and metallic bonds ; determines oxidation figure of elements in a compound ; relates molecular form, mutual opposition, intermolecular forces of attractive force, and boiling points of molecules to each other.
Types of Chemical Chemical reactions: Demonstrates cognition and apprehension of constructs: names/identifies four general types of chemical reactions ; identifies reactants and merchandises of a reaction ; uses the activity series of elements to find whether a individual supplanting reaction will continue as written.
The Chemistry of Solutions: Demonstrates cognition and apprehension of the constructs: describes the nature/types of solutions ; identifies solute and solvent ; identifies saturated, unsaturated, and supersaturated solutions ; calculates solution concentrations ; defines/explains solubility and the factors impacting it ; states colligative belongingss of solutions.
Chemical Kinetics and Chemical Equilibrium: Demonstrates cognition and apprehension of the constructs: defines dynamicss and rates of chemical reactions, identifies and explains factors impacting rates of reactions ; differentiates organic and inorganic accelerators ; explains how a chemical reaction occurs ; defines and explains chemical equilibrium and what a reversible reaction is.
Ions and Equilibrium: Acids and Bases: Demonstrates cognition and apprehension of constructs: defines and gives illustrations of acids and bases ; explains how pH is related to the sourness of a solution ; explains buffers and buffer solutions and describes maps and restrictions of acid-base indexs.
Electrochemistry: Demonstrates cognition, apprehension, and application of constructs: explains oxidization and decrease reactions in footings of addition or loss of negatrons ; describes ways of preventing/controlling redox reactions ; describes and explains electrolytic reactions and applies Faraday ‘s Law of Electrolysis to find provinces of metal/metal ions produced.
Carbon and Compounds: Demonstrates knowledge and apprehension of basic constructs: identifies categories of organic compounds with their illustrations ; describes biological procedures for the organic structure to utilize energy from saccharides, fats, and proteins. ( http: //www.cem-inc.org.ph ) .
Comparing between two sets of competences – BEC and CEM, both contains precisely the same subjects as of the first seven competences but the latter become more advanced in the following four subjects. Nevertheless, a specialist chemical science instructor is expected to be more knowing than his or her scholars. These advanced chemical science content countries will supply background information for the instructor as he or she must understand the constructs good so that he or she can efficaciously leave these constructs to the scholars.
B.2 National Competency-Based Teacher ‘s Standard ( NCBTS )
The National Competency-Based Teacher Standard ( NCBTS ) is an incorporate theoretical model that defines the different dimensions of effectual instruction in all facets of a instructor ‘s professional life and in all stages of instructor development. This is an outgrowth of the Basic Reform Agenda ( BESRA ) of the Department of Education, under Key Reform Thrust 2- Training and Development. BESRA, is a reform enterprise of the section to supply basic competences to everyone to accomplish functional literacy for all Filipinos, in support to EFA which means, “ Education For All ” ; a planetary motion led by UNESCO to achieve functional literacy by 2015.
The NCBTS -TSNA Toolkit is a revised version of the NCBTS which will enable instructors to find their strengths and failings in relation to the set of criterions that defines the general competency of a instructor. This toolkit is composed of 270 cognition, accomplishments, and attitudes ( KSA ) points, under 80 indexs, 3 strands and seven NCBTS spheres. Therefore, the instructor will sporadically measure his learning public presentation thru this toolkit in order to continuously better and raise his/her learning competency towards criterion. Least scored points in the toolkit shall besides function as footing of the Department of Education to include these points in their INSET. Thus, the undermentioned spheres wholly describe an effectual and efficient instructor in the section of instruction, as follows:
Sphere 1 – Social Regard for Learning
This is composed of two bases and five indexs of cognition, accomplishments and attitudes depicting the instructor as function theoretical account to the scholars. Thus the instructor demonstrates the undermentioned indexs: attachment to school policies and ordinances, promptness, appropriate visual aspect and behavior.
Sphere 2 – Learning Environment
This is consist of 5 strands and 17 indexs that describes the ability of the instructor to make a favourable physical and societal environment where pupils are respected, irrespective of gender, faith, socio-economic background, ethnicity, and where pupils are safe and acquisition is contributing given the physical environment. It besides describes the ability of the instructor to make a societal clime where pupils actively engage in larning activities without bias and fright.
Sphere 3 – Diverseness of Learners
This sphere is described by the instructor ‘s ability to determines, understands,
and accepts the scholars ‘ diverse background and experiences. This entails his or capableness to choose larning activities suited to the different types of scholars.
Sphere 4 – Course of study
Sphere 4 is focused on command of content and learning teaching method. Therefore, the instructor is expected to present accurate and updated content cognition to the scholars with appropriate methodological analysiss, attacks and schemes suited to the different types and intelligences of scholars. The instructor is besides viewed to posses ‘ linguistic communication literacy accomplishments, pass oning clearly to the apprehensible degree of scholars. Similarly, this besides refers to the instructor ‘s ability to make and utilize teaching stuffs peculiarly in the usage of information and communicating engineering in learning and acquisition.
Sphere 5 – Planning, Assessing and Reporting
This sphere measures the capacity of the instructor to develop and implement instructional programs, the usage of a assortment of appropriate appraisal schemes to better the teaching-learning procedure.
Domain 6 -Community Linkages
The instructor is able to do lessons and teaching-learning activities relevant to the experiences, values, and aspirations of the community. The instructor demonstrates involvement in community projects that promote acquisition.
Sphere 7 – Personal Growth and Professional Development
This is the last sphere which speaks about the self-respect of the instruction profession and his or her professional growing and development. The instructor should continue the self-respect of the learning profession by puting the highest criterion of ethical and moral values and ever seeks uninterrupted betterment in his or her teaching calling ( NCBTS-TSNA Toolkit, Department of Education, TEDP, TWG ) .
B.3 Teaching Competence thru NCBTS and Performance thru Diagnostic Test
The National Competency-Based Teachers Standard ( NCBTS ) is the instructor ‘s development usher towards personal and professional growing. It is a self-assessment usher that helps instructors place their professional and developing demands every bit good as their single strengths in line with the seven spheres of the National Competency-Based Teachers Standard ( NCBTS ) and as summarized in the Teacher Strengths and Needs ( TSNA ) Toolkit. This NCBTS-TSNA Toolkit is a modified version of the National Competency-Based Teacher ‘s Standard initiated by Project BEAM which is more localised, comprehendible to the degree of instructors, and most of all, quantitative. This modified toolkit is designed to assist instructors find their professional development and preparation demands. However, the informations derived from this toolkit shall non be used to rate them ; instead, they will give accurate information about the instructor ‘s competences in the undermentioned spheres and strands so that, appropriate intercessions on the portion of the instructor and the direction shall be effected to assist instructors in their professional growing and development.
However, instructors may hold the inclination to over rate themselves in some of the points because of adult male ‘s unconditioned inclination to “ self-preservation ” ( Freud Sigmund, 1910 ) . The term self-preservation in its simplest term describes both the set of behaviours by which persons attempt to continue their ain being and the physical procedures that set up these behaviours. Hence, the inclination of non seeing their failings can besides be supported by the cognitive-psychological trial created by Joseph Luft and Harry Ingham in 1995 in the United States. This is known as the “ Johari Window ” . In this theory, it is said that there are unsighted musca volitanss in some countries of adult male ‘s life that is non known to self but are known to others.
To sum it all, the NCBTS-TSNA toolkit may non be an effectual tool towards instructors ‘ personal and professional development if it is left entirely to the instructor to see his or her ain strengths and failings. As most instructors tend to rate themselves maximum in footings of content and teaching method, but their existent public presentation in an administered and standardised trial will state the truth about their content competence peculiarly for chemical science instructors in the division of Sarangani Province.
Therefore, this survey will be best achieved if consequences of the instructors ‘ diagnostic trial will be correlated with their NCBTS-TSNA tonss particularly in content and teaching method.
B.4 Training Program
In-Service Trainings ( INSET ) are frequently given to instructors before the gap of categories to fix instructors for the coming school twelvemonth. However, most in-service preparations are done in mass, non capable specific but instead a combination of learning schemes and managerial or supervisory attacks.
Therefore, a good preparation plan to reply specific jobs re- chemical science content and teaching method may cover the undermentioned countries:
Misconceptions in some hard constructs are the most common mistake committed by non specialist chemical science instructors or if non, escaped by some.
Teaching teaching method involves the schemes or methodological analysiss of learning and how instructors deliver the goods to the scholars. Thus, some of the subjects may include the undermentioned: oppugning technique, trial building, and synergistic acquisition activities.
The Art of Questioning
Effective instructors are able to carry on direction that keeps pupils actively involved in the lesson. The best instructors are skilled in oppugning, in assisting pupils come to a clear apprehension of the content, and in supervising apprehension ( Cruickshank, Jenkins, Metcaff, 2006 ) .
The most effectual instructors set up and keep extremely synergistic classrooms- schoolrooms characterized by student-student and teacher-student duologue instead than merely, teacher talk ( Feden, 1994 ; Lock and Priggue, 2002 ; Marzano, 2002 ) .
Bellon, Bellon, and Black ( 1992 ) province that oppugning is the instructional procedure that is cardinal to verbal interaction in the schoolroom. The inquiry instructors ask service as the interface between instructor ‘s outlooks and pupils ‘ response. This interface in synergistic instruction is critical because it shifts the focal point from the instructor to the pupils.
Effective inquiries require pupils to actively process information and compose an reply. Good inquiries addition pupils battles, raise the degree of ideas, aid pupils form their ideas, guide pupils more successfully through academic undertakings and let instructor to supervise understanding and provide feedback. In spite the obvious value of good inquiries, it appears that instructors rarely use inquiries every bit efficaciously as they could ( Alexander, Jetton, & A ; Kulikowich, 1994 ; Orstein and Lastery, 2000 ) .
Most instructors ‘ oppugning spiels includes giving information that unneeded or confusing, presenting more than one inquiry at a clip, or neglecting to stipulate the nature of the expected reply ( Sigel, 1990 ; Traver, 1998 ) .
Good and Brophy ( 2000 ) reviewed research on oppugning and concluded that pupils learn more when instructors ask frequent inquiries and include a assortment of inquiries in their lessons.
Wilen and Clegy ( 1986 ) besides reported that instructor inquiring is besides related to increase accomplishments among pupils. Further, research on oppugning suggests that instructor ‘s usage of higher order inquiries promotes higher order believing accomplishments.
Good and Effective Questions
If instructors want their inquiring to be effectual, they must be certain to give voice their inquiries clearly and briefly. Too frequently, instructors ask inquiries that are about impossible for pupils to reply accurately.
Tayko and Sunga ( 2004 ) said that, for inquiries to be effectual, clear inquiries use natural, unambiguous linguistic communication appropriate to the degree of pupils. They are besides concise, including merely the words, footings and information, pupils used in order to reply the inquiry. They describe the specific points should go to to, but they do non include unneeded words or parenthetical looks. Finally, they are directed towards academic content, or the aims of the lesson.
“ Do you learn to the trial? ” This was the debut made by an unknown writer in the stuff, “ Developing Higher degree Teacher-Made Trials ” . The monitoring and rating group during the pilot execution of the 2002 Basic Education Curriculum ( BEC ) found out that instructors were found, so, to “ learn to the trial ” , and the pupils “ survey to the trial ” . This refers to how instructors constructed their trial inquiries. The studies showed that inquiries like simple callback and acknowledgment which are low degree inquiries are still prevailing. These are types of traditional trials that do non heighten the higher order believing accomplishments of pupils. Higher flat inquiries like analysis, synthesis and rating are hard to build because it requires clip and intelligence to build the inquiry logically. Multiple Choice, though it is among the traditional type of trials, is highly versatile- can mensurate the higher metal procedures. Nevertheless, building plausible options is a hard thing to make. BEC besides urged instructors to utilize alternate signifiers of appraisal like free response or open ended inquiries, group work, research lab and field observations and many others.
The recent tendencies in appraisal do non propose the traditional appraisal technique that instructors had been utilizing through old ages should finally be changed. In fact, these types of trials are normally adopted and are appropriate in periodic and accomplishments trials. Surely, decently constructed multiple pick trials are first-class for expeditiously and objectively measuring cognition of a big content of sphere. What is needed is a balanced attack to assessment, in which appropriate techniques are administered and used in a believable manner for the instructor ‘s determination devising. Just because the appraisal focuses on complex thought accomplishments or uses portfolios does non intend it is better or more believable. The appraisal technique must be matched to aim and must be conducted harmonizing to quality criterions ( McMillan 1997 ) .
Hanna and Peggy ( 2004 ) province that, the major ground for blemished trial building pattern is that the sorts of trial inquiries that are easiest to write- be they objectives or essay- step rote cognition, non deep processing. It is natural to take the easy route and to “ zigzag out ” points that “ flow easy ” . However, if busy instructors do non prosecute in thoughtful preliminary planning refering balance between recall type inquiries and points that tap complex thought, a trial is likely to give more accent than wanted on memory and less on such things as apprehension, thought, and using acquisition to other state of affairss.
Teacher as the Facilitator of Learning
In the teaching-learning procedure, two critical factors come into play- doctrine of instruction and psychological science of larning that a instructor must subscribe to. The three doctrines of instruction as presented by Beach and Reinhartz, are essentialism, progressivism and existential philosophy.
The 2002 Basic Education Curriculum espouses progressivism as its doctrine and adopts the positions of the constructivist theory of larning. The major theoretical point of the constructivist theory of acquisition is that, single scholars generate their ain apprehension. Learners construct sets of outlooks or beliefs about a scope of natural phenomena in the attempt to do sense of their mundane experiences. These beliefs are based on old acquisition and past experiences. From the constructivist position, scientific discipline acquisition means a alteration in thoughts instead than taking in a new thought as a separate, stray entity. When a scholar receives information, he tries to understand it by suiting it into his bing cognitive structure.. ( Josefina L. Pabellon, NISMED, 2002 )
Whole Brain Literacy Approach ( WBL )
WBL or Whole Brain Literacy is an attack to larning proposed by Rizalina Tayko and Corazon Letz, which they described it as the 3rd literacy. It stems from the findings of Dudley Lynch on how the encephalon plants. They defined WBL, which they besides called, “ Plus Competency ” , as a reader/learner ‘s ability to use the module of whole encephalon operation in treating information. The encephalon has its parts and specialised maps. When the four quarter-circles of the encephalon connect, interrelate and interact, the encephalon is its functional best. ( Perla Rizalina M. Tayko, et.al, 2005 ) .
How does WBL precisely work to heighten the competence of instructors? How would the attack better the competence of the scholars? WBL explores and expands believing larning procedure by utilizing the four quarter-circles of the encephalon in every measure of learning and larning procedure. The aims, the types and degrees of activities of the lesson, the types and degrees of rating and at the terminal of the lesson- all these must embrace the four operation parts so that scholars would be challenge to utilize their whole encephalon module.
The envisioned holistic acquisition in the Revised Basic Education Curriculum of the Department of Education, says Tayko in her book, “ Learning to Read, Reading to Learn ” , can be facilitated utilizing the WBL scheme.