When using the free-cash flow model, cash flows are discounted at the weighted average cost of capital (WACC) and when using the dividend discount model, dividends are discounted at….
A discussion of threat modeling using the Elevation of Privilege game.
Example of classmates done this assignment just for your reference to understand what’s need to be done.
Elevation of Privilege (EOP) GameCOLLAPSE
Threat Modeling Is a Core Element of the Microsoft Security Development Life cycle (SDL). As part of the design phase of the SDL, threat modeling allows software architects to identify and mitigate potential security issues early, when they are relatively easy and cost-effective to resolve.
1)Communicate about the security design of their systems
2)Analyze those designs for potential security issues using a proven methodology
3)Suggest and manage mitigations for security issues
Elevation of Privilege (EoP) Card Game:-Elevation of Privilege (EoP) is the easy way to get started threat modeling, which is a core component of the design phase in the Microsoft Security Development Life cycle(SDL). TheEoP card game helps clarify the details of threat modeling and examines possible threats to software and computer systems.The EoP game focuses on the following threats:
Denial of Service
Elevation of Privilege
EoP uses a simple point system that allows you to challenge other developers and become your opponent’s biggest threat.
1)Spoofing (S):-SpooFng (S) is the First suit of threats in the STRIDE threat enumeration.Spoofing describes any threat that allows an attacker (or accidentally causes a user) to pretend to be someone or something else. Accordingly, the characters on the cards are masked individuals wearing crowns – unknown attackers, pretending to be royalty.
2)Tampering (T):-Tampering is the second suit of threats in the STRIDE threat enumeration. Tampering describes any threat that allows an attacker (or accidentally causes a user) to alter or destroy data which the application has not allowed them to. Accordingly, the characters on the cards are green gremlins whose open mouths and sharp teeth could indicate either shouting or a desire to eat.
3)Repudiation (R):- Repudiation Users may dispute transactions if there is insufficient auditing or record keeping of their activity. For example, if a user says, “But I didn’t transfer any money to this external account!”, and you cannot track his/her activities through the application, then it is extremely likely that the transaction will have to be written off as a loss.
4)Information Disclosure (I):- Users are rightfully wary of submitting private details to a system. If it is possible for an attacker to publicly reveal user data at large, whether anonymously or as an authorized user, there will be an immediate loss of confidence and a substantial period of reputation loss. Therefore, applications must include strong controls to prevent user ID tampering and abuse, particularly if they use a single context to run the entire application.
5)Denial of Service (D):- Application designers should be aware that their applications may be subject to a denial of service attack. Therefore, the use of expensive resources such as large files, complex calculations, heavy-duty searches, or long queries should be reserved for authenticated and authorized users, and not available to anonymous users.
6)Elevation of Privilege (E):- If an application provides distinct user and administrative roles, then it is vital to ensure that the user cannot elevate his/her role to a higher privilege one. In particular, simply not displaying privileged role links is insufficient. Instead, all actions should be gated through an authorization matrix, to ensure that only the permitted roles can access privileged functionality.
The Game consists of 84 Cards, 6suits, each based on letter of STRIDE:2-10, ACE, KING, QUEEN, JACK. High Card takes the trick unless someone has EOP cardEOP Cards trump all suits and takes the trick. I have selected the card ‘Q’ from spoofing. Card ‘Q’ is an attacker could go after the way credentials are updated or recovered (account recovery doesn’t require disclosing the old password). Elevation of Privilege act as proofs that there is interesting work to be done in helping non-experts approach security.