How does Shakespeare use the theme of love to create a comedy?

“Twelfth Night” is a romantic comedy with true love at its heart. The play does have occasional dark undertones but generally the genuine love and the misunderstanding make it a comic play. It was written originally for the Twelfth Night celebrations after Christmas in 1602. These celebrations were light hearted and a time for revelry. It was sometimes known as the “Feast of Fools” and normal behaviour and sensible acts were suspended at this time. Authority was turned up side down. In most universities, private houses and the law schools, a Lord of Misrule was elected. Usually a servant became Master of the Household for a short period of time. He organised dances, masques and make-believe activities. Everything was allowed; pranks, deception, etc., ruled this period between 25th December and 6th January. Afterwards, everything goes back to normal and the original hierarchy is once more obeyed.

Love Poem


Even though comedy is a large part of the play, love is most definitely the main theme. There are love triangles, love based on disguise and true love al involved in the lives of the characters. The play transforms one type of love for another, for example, selfish self-love is transformed to genuine love. This aspect shows that true love wins through in the end. Shakespeare uses all of the different types of love to create comedy towards the audience. For example, the self-love is so masochistic that the audience looks on with humour with the over-exaggeration. Unrequited love also makes quite a big romantic impact because the character is seen making a fool of themselves. Twelfth Night is a mixture of all emotions; an audience will laugh, cry and fume at the characters that Shakespeare creates.

There are three characters at the heart of the play involved in a love triangle. Orsino is the first that we are introduced to. Shakespeare represents Orsino as a parody of the romantic lover, in love with the idea of love. He is comic at times because of his obsession and the exaggerated language he uses to talk about love:
QUOTE: ACT 1, SCENE 1
“If music be the food of love, play on
Give me the excess of it, that surfeiting
The appetite may sicken and so die”
This quotation shows how melodramatic Shakespeare makes Orsino. It is so exaggerated that the audience would find him comical as he is portrayed as thinking that no other experience is as good as his intense feeling for love. He is obsessed by Olivia and is comical because of his obsessive nature. He also frequently seems quite fickle in his feelings which adds to his comic nature:
QUOTE: ACT 1, SCENE 1
“Enough; no more.
‘Tis not so sweet now as it was before”
This quotation is an example of how Orsino changes his feelings in an instant.
Later Orsino is talking to Viola/Cesario about men and women in love. He claims to be the model lover, talking about his love for Olivia:
QUOTE: ACT 2, SCENE 4
“For such as I am, all true loves are
Unstaid and skittish in all motions else”
His lines are made particularly funny and he seems unperceptive because the audience is aware that Cesario is of course a woman and that despite what Orsino says about women having less capacity for love than men, Viola/Cesario in fact loves him a lot and much more constantly than he loves Olivia. This is a good example of dramatic irony. Shakespeare satirises Orsino’s exaggerated obsessive form of love.
The second character involved in the love triangle is Olivia. Orsino and Olivia are quite similar in a number of ways but their main similarity is in their characters. They both provide comedy in the play because of their obsessive love and their fickleness. Examples of this for Olivia are her obsessive love for her dead brother and Cesario and how she changes from seven years mourning to loving Cesario and then changing from Cesario to Sebastian. A quotation for her obsessive nature is:
QUOTE: ACT 3, SCENE 1
“Have you not set mine honour at the stake
And baited it all with th’unmuzzled thoughts
That tyrannous heart can think”
Here, Olivia is openly expressing her love for Cesario which ends up being comical because it is unrequited. She pours her heart out which adds to the nature of the scene. Olivia criticises Orsino’s stereotypical view of love because it doesn’t sound real to her. Her actions towards love are actually much the same but she does not realise this, making her hypocritical and therefore criticising her own way of thinking. Also, she claims that she will never love again but that all changes when Cesario comes into the picture. Shakespeare creates her character to be an unrealistic and vain, top-class person which shows through in her language. Orsino praises her for her looks, not for her as a person and this once more accentuates their similarities and comic personal lives. This act depicts how shallow Orsino is.
One of the most comical parts of the play to do with Olivia is when she falls in love with Cesario, or who the audience knows is Cesario. This is highly amusing for the audience as they know the truth and they watch Olivia make a fool of herself. Shakespeare uses love from Olivia to Viola to create a high point of comedy throughout the play. He uses over-exaggerated language once more to really highlight the shallow feelings of Olivia:
QUOTE: ACT 1, SCENE 5
“Let him send no more
Unless (perchance) you come to me again
To tell me now he takes it”
This quotation is Olivia talking seductively to Cesario, once more openly expressing her feelings for “him”. Again, comical to the audience, for seeing a woman flirt with another was a very amusing but unheard of thing at the time when this play was performed. When Sebastian appears on stage a comical effect takes place because we can imagine the blank looks on the characters’ faces as an identical twin becomes part of the plot. Sebastian becomes a love interest to the fickle Olivia, once more creating comedy because of her changeability. By making Olivia so fickle and over-exaggerated Shakespeare creates a large amount of comedy based around her and the people she is involved with.
The third and final part of the love triangle is Viola. She disguises herself as a man and serves Orsino which is comic first-off because of how she changes herself. The audience sees the change and therefore can compare the different reactions and feelings between the characters of Viola and Cesario. The audience would be used to this kind of dramatic behaviour, as a long tradition of plays at this time had these kind of comic complications. They would find it excessively funny seeing a beautiful woman able to disguise herself as a man yet no other characters able to notice. This is dramatic irony for the audience is let in on the secret but still can watch everyone not in the know create a jolly and comic atmosphere.
Viola is sometimes witty and is involved in a range of comic situations most of them involved with the love complications in the play. The funniest single scene involving Viola has to be her comic duel with Sir Andrew which is set up by Sir Toby because both men are rivals for Olivia though of course neither does actually love her. There are several comic moments involving Viola where she gets herself caught up in situations that accentuate the comic nature of the play.
Ironically Orsino fails to realise that his wonderful new servant is actually a woman despite the hinting conversations they have:
QUOTE: ACT 1, SCENE 4
“Thy small pipe is as the maiden’s organ”
Here Orsino is speaking and commenting on Viola’s unnatural high, shrill female voice yet he still does not catch on that she is actually a woman. This also has a slightly bawdy tone to it which was very popular at that time and would definitely have made the audience laugh. At the end of the scene the audience realises the romantic comedy is underway as Viola reveals her true feelings for Orsino:
QUOTE: ACT X, SCENE X
“I’ll so my best to woo your lady
(Aside) Yet a barful strife
Whoe’er I woo myself would be his wife”
The language here is romantic and wistful for Viola has to assist someone else, who she perceives not worthy of his love, to love Orsino although underneath she has true romantic feelings for him. Then Orsino sends Cesario to woo Olivia who falls in love with Viola! This is ironic and what starts off the love triangle. Shakespeare writes a speech for Viola to say to Olivia which is romantic, lyrical and paints vivid romantic pictures. It is also quite comical for the audience as they realise Olivia is in love with Viola.
Viola can actually be quite witty and we can see this in her conversation with Maria:
QUOTE: ACT 1, SCENE 5
“Some mollification for your giant
Sweet lady”
Viola is being rude and sarcastic to Maria referring to her as a “giant”, therefore commenting on her lack of height. This is a small indication of what the real Viola is like underneath her male costume. By the end of the Act, Viola realises that Olivia has fallen in love with her, creating yet more amusement among the audience.
Comedy is also involved when Orsino fails to realise Viola’s feelings despite some heavy hints:
QUOTE: ACT 2, SCENE 4
“Of your completion…..About your years, my Lord”
These are just two of the lines or hints that Viola says when she is in Orsino’s company. Viola says a long speech about the sincerity of her love. Shakespeare really goes all-out on the imagery in this section which reflects how Viola is feeling. It is a powerful insight into her life and feelings which is then cast into a shadow by Orsino’s weak and misunderstood response.
QUOTE: ACT 2, SCENE 4
“But died thy sister of his love, my boy?”
This is comic because even though Viola is her heart out for him, he is too bound up in his love affairs to notice.
The duel is a very comic moment because Viola and Sir Andrew are both terrified of each other thanks to of the crafty ways of Sir Toby. He also urges them both on to the fight. Viola’s aside line would make the audience laugh:
QUOTE: ACT 3, SCENE 4
“Pray God defend me! A little thing would
make me tell them how much I love of a man”
This would be very comical for the audience for it reveals Viola’s fright and nervousness towards the fight. Also she is supposed to be a man but everyone thinks that her slightly feeble attitude towards the fight is cowardly, and they would probably also doubt her masculinity therefore resulting it into and ironic and comic situation.
In the final scene there is a mounting sense of comic confusion, particularly when Olivia thinks she has married Viola then Sebastian himself enters. You could see what confusion this would amount to on stage – everyone looking from Viola to Sebastian and back again. Shakespeare creates a huge amount of confusion with Viola because of her mistaken identity. Comically, everything turns out more or less well for her and Shakespeare successfully uses love to create comedy.
Shakespeare creates characters primarily for comic effect in this play and each of them are in some way involved in the theme of love. Sir Andrew is one of these. He is a figure of fun, but can also be seen as a sad person. The audience feels sympathy for him while laughing at his antics. He has been tricked by Sir Toby into believing he is in love with Olivia, which shows how easily he can be manipulated. Therefore he is constructed as a comic character. Sir Toby tells him to do stupid things like dance wildly, his appearance is comical to the audience (long, lanky figure, rather dim expression) and most comical of all he repeats Sir Toby’s words but misunderstands them:
QUOTE: ACT 1, SCENE 3
“Good Mistress Accost
I desire better acquaintance”
He gets confused with what people say and this puts a very comical and stupid air about his character. Shakespeare always portrays him as foolish. But he also has speeches which make you feel slightly sorry for him:
QUOTE: ACT 2, SCENE 5
“I knew t’was I for many do call me fool”
Even Sir Andrew is aware that people call him a fool which is a funny, yet heartfelt feeling put across by Shakespeare. Another poignant yet comic line is:
QUOTE: ACT 2, SCENE 3
“I was adored once too”
A famous line for you can tell his sorrow at being unloved yet you can laugh at his pathetic view on love. The main comic scene for Sir Andrew is the duel in Act 3, Scene 4. Shakespeare uses Sir Andrew for a key element of plot development in Act 4after fighting. Sir Andrew is terrified at the prospect of fighting someone and proceeds to do cowardly actions and act pathetically. This would seem hilarious to the audience because of how Shakespeare portrays Sir Andrew leading up to the fight and during it. Sir Andrew is left unhappy and alone at the end for everyone is married and have a happy ending. He does not but still his false love and stupidity casts him to be an important part of the play.
Malvolio is another character who Shakespeare uses to create comedy in relation to love. He is a Puritan, satirised by Shakespeare, and filled to the brim with self love. Malvolio is not a sincere Puritan because of the letter plot in the box tree scene. This cleverly arranged plot reveals what a hypocrite Malvolio is about lusting after Olivia, as he frowned upon Sir Toby and Maria before, but when it relates to him he doesn’t care. This scene is the first comic element of Malvolio; the letter tricks him into smiling inappropriately and wearing awful clothes to impress Olivia, obviously all of this failing dismally in winning her affections, dramatically increasing the comedy of Malvolios character. In Act 3, Scene 4, the trick is revealed and Malvolio appears very ridiculous as he realises what a fool he has been. Sir Toby is very rude and cruel to him which makes him realise how unhappy his life is and how much disrespect people have for him. These elements do put a damper on the comic play but Malvolio does contribute with his comedy and love based antics.
Although Shakespeare uses the theme of love primarily to create the comedy, the play also has much darker undertones. Feste is an ironic commentator on human nature and on the way in which people behave when they are in love. He has a very different perspective on love to the aristocratic figures in the play. Shakespeare ends the comedy with an epilogue from Feste, telling some very bitter thoughts about human nature, love and life. It ends with:
QUOTE: ACT 5 SCENE 1
“But that’s all one, our play is done
And we’ll strive to please you every day
This is an acceptance of the sad conditions of life. A very unexpected end to a comedy. Feste is philosophical in all of his bitter songs and they all have poignant lines in them:
QUOTE: ACT 2 SCENE 3
“Youth’s a stuff will not endure
This is a saying that youth, love and beauty will not last forever. Another sad line is:
QUOTE: ACT 2 SCENE 4
“Sad true lover, never find my grave
This tells us about how people hide away and die for love. Feste provides us with comedy about love but his main role in this play is to make the audience come back to their senses and realise the reality of life.
Overall, this play has many ways to show how love and comedy combine to make a
story of passion and heartbreak, love and unhappiness. Every character I have analysed here contributes towards the intense tone of the play, giving comedy and love to the audience. Yes, there are a few who reveal the darker undertones but these characters are essential in making the play as provoking, passionate and realistic that it is.
QUOTE: ACT 5 SCENE 4
“A great while ago the world begun
With hey, ho the wind and the rain
But that’s all one, our play is done,
And we’ll strive to please you every day”

Rapid Urbanization Upsurge Noncommunicable Diseases Health And Social Care Essay

Rapid urbanisation, modernisation and population growing in developing states has led to an rush of non-communicable diseases which are associated with important morbidity and mortality. Metabolic Syndrome besides described as “ Deadly Quartet ” and X syndrome ( 2, 3 ) is one of these disease entities defined by bunch of cardiovascular hazard factors which to a greater extent is influenced by ethnicity/race. This encompasses atherogenic dyslipidemia, high blood pressure, dysglycemia and splanchnic fleshiness and pro coagulator province. Apart from increasing prevalence, the age of oncoming is besides worsening among South Asiatic ( SA ) population due to familial sensitivity, ingestion of easy available energy dense nutrients from an early age. This tendency has got major wellness deductions since South Asians constitute one fifth of population all over the universe ( 4 ) and the wellness attention system is non really fit to cover with this medical crisis. Evidence suggests that it non merely amplifies the hazard of coronary bosom disease ( 5 ) but besides gives rise to cerebrovascular diseases.
Five diagnostic standards have been put frontward since the origin of this syndrome which has created perplexity among practicians. In 1998, World Health Organization ( WHO ) ab initio proposed a definition for metabolic syndrome ( 6 ) with chief accent on gluco-centricity. In 1999, the European Group for the survey of Insulin Resistance ( EGIR ) recommended more or less similar standards with lower cut offs for high blood pressure ( 7 ) .
Thereafter in 2001, National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III ( NCEP ATP III ) proposed another definition for the diagnosing of metabolic syndrome with less focal point on insulin opposition as compared to WHO standards but non turn toing separate cut off points of waist perimeter for Asiatic population ab initio ( 8 ) . In 2003, American Association of Clinical Endocrinologist ( AACE ) proposed another set of standards for the diagnosing of metabolic syndrome. The chief restriction of the above mentioned standards is that the diagnosing is based on clinical judgement alternatively of presence of specific figure of hazard factors ( 9 ) .

Sing that SA have a higher per centum of organic structure fat chiefly in the signifier of abdominal adiposeness at a lower BMI in comparing with other population, International Diabetes Federation ( IDF ) in 2005 suggested separate cutoff points of waist perimeter for Asiatic population and defined cardinal fleshiness as waist perimeter of more than 80 centimeter for adult females and 90 centimeter in work forces based on local statistics from the corresponding country ( 10 ) . The revised NCEP ATPIII modified for South Asiatic population incorporated the same cut off points for Asiatic population as given by IDF ( Table 1 ) . Apart from the cut off differences, NCEP ATP III gives equal weight to each constituent of metabolic syndrome as compared to IDF for which abdominal fleshiness remains a requirement for the diagnosing ( 10 ) . Furthermore, microalbuminuria which is a controversial variable of WHO criteria is non included in other definitions. Among these definitions, WHO, NCEP ATPIII & A ; IDF have been the chief 1s which are used most widely ( Table 1 ) .
Type 2 diabetes is besides emerging as a planetary epidemic with increasing prevalence in developing states. Pakistan is among top 10 states estimated to hold the highest figure of diabetics busying 6th place on the diabetes prevalence naming presently ( 11 ) and it is estimated that prevalence would be doubled by 2025. Metabolic syndrome in combination with diabetes increases the hazard of both macro vascular, micro vascular complications and coronary artery disease patterned advance due to associated high blood pressure, lipoprotein abnormalcies and splanchnic fleshiness ( 12 ) .
There are surveies that have looked into the differences in most widely used definitions of metabolic syndrome in general ( 13-17 ) , but merely few surveies have compared these definitions in the diabetic population ( 18-20 ) . Therefore we decided to find the frequence of metabolic syndrome in Type 2 diabetics harmonizing to NCEP ATPIII, IDF and WHO definitions and so to compare and contrast these traits within Pakistani population.
Methods:
This survey was conducted at the out-patient clinics of one of the big third attention infirmaries at Karachi, Pakistan. Data was collected retrospectively of type 2 diabetic patients sing clinics between June till November 2008 by utilizing a questionnaire which included demographic features and single constituents of metabolic syndrome i.e. weight, tallness, waist perimeter and BMI etc. Both hip and waist perimeter were recorded in centimetres and waist/hip perimeter was calculated ( WHR ) . BMI was calculated as a ratio of weight in kilogram to height in metres squared.
Lab checks:
All the research lab trials which are routinely done for patients with type 2 diabetes including triglycerides and high denseness lipoprotein ( HDL-C ) were recorded. Patients already on anti hypertensive and anti lipid medicines specifically in the signifier of fibric acid derived functions and nicotinic acids were taken as instances of high blood pressure and hypertriglyceridimia severally irrespective of their blood force per unit area and lipid degrees. Since all the patients in the survey were diabetics, insulin degrees were non taken into history.
Statistical Analysis:
The information was analyzed individually harmonizing to NCEP ATP III, IDF and WHO definitions and the consequences were so compared. The frequence of Metabolic syndrome was calculated with 95 % CI based on three different standards ‘s. The informations were presented as the mean A± SD or per centum ; uninterrupted variables were compared by agencies of independent sample t-test and categorical variables were compared by chi-square. All analyses were conducted by utilizing the statistical bundle for societal scientific disciplines SPSS 14. A kappa trial was done to find the concurrency between three definitions. In univariate analyses, comparing between metabolic syndrome and without metabolic syndrome was done for each variable of involvement. Multivariable logistic arrested development analysis was conducted to place the factors associated with metabolic syndrome. All P values were two tailed and considered statistically important ifA a‰¤ 0.05.
Out of entire 210 type 2 diabetic patients, 112 ( 53.3 % ) were males and 98 ( 46.7 % ) were females. Their average age ( standard divergence ) was 53.35 A± 11.46 old ages. The mean ( SD ) continuance of diabetes mellitus was 8.48 A± 7.18 old ages. One hundred and ninety three ( 91.9 % ) were found to hold metabolic syndrome harmonizing to NCEP ATP III in comparing to 182 ( 86.7 % ) based on IDF standards. Lower frequence was documented with WHO standards of 171 ( 81.4 % ) . The frequence increased to 179 ( 85.2 % ) by WHO by utilizing the new cut offs for specifying corpulence ( BMI of 23 vs. 30 ) .
The grade of understanding ( kappa statistic ) between WHO and ATP III and WHO and IDF definitions were 0.436 95 % CI 0.26-0.60 and 0.417 95 % CI 0.25-0.57respectively. In contrast kappa statistic between IDF and ATP III definitions was found to be 0.728 95 % CI 0.57-0.87.The overall understanding between three definitions was 0.37 ( 95 % CI 0.26-0.51 ) .The cardinal fleshiness was present in 162 patients ( 77 % ) by WHO followed by 197 ( 90.5 % ) based on IDF & A ; NCEP ATP III. Hypertension was found in 116 patients ( 55.2 % ) harmonizing to WHO in comparing to 147 ( 70 % ) by NCEP & A ; IDF cut off of blood force per unit area. Presence of low HDL cholesterin once more differed being present in 77 ( 36.7 % ) when WHO definition was applied and 144 ( 68.6 % ) by ATP III and IDF.
Furthermore, gender wise dislocation of frequence of metabolic syndrome by WHO showed that 84 ( 85.7 % ) of females suffered from metabolic syndrome as compared to 87 ( 77.7 % ) in males a difference non statistically
important ( p=0.13 ) . However, by all other standards metabolic syndrome was significantly more common among females as compared to males, 95.9 % vs. 88.4 % ( p=0.04 ) by ATP III & A ; 95.9 % vs. 78.6 % ( p & lt ; 0.001 ) by IDF.
For prevalence of hypertriglyceridemia, no statistically important difference between both genders was found. However, for low HDL cholesterin, prevalence was higher in males 44 ( 57.14 % ) than in females 33 ( 43 % ) by WHO standards ( P & lt ; 0.001 ) . In contrast on the footing of ATP III and IDF definitions, prevalence of low HDL cholesterin degrees was higher ( p=0.009 ) in females 77 ( 57.46 % ) than in males 57 ( 42.53 % ) . Likewise, cardinal fleshiness was found to be more common among female patients based on IDF & A ; NCEP ( ATPIII ) cutoffs 64.8 % females vs. 35.2 % ( & lt ; 0.001 ) but demoing rearward form with WHO criteria,57.14 % males vs. 43 % females ( p-value & lt ; 0.001 ) .
Discussion:
Our survey showed a high frequence of metabolic syndrome in type 2 diabetics based on NECP ( ATPIII ) and IDF standards. This frequence was rather high ( 91.9 % ) as compared to 46 % found in another infirmary based survey from Pakistan ( 21 ) . This difference could non be merely attributed to the different waist cutoffs used based on modified NCEP ( ATPIII ) in our survey because even comparing with WHO categorization revealed important difference between two surveies from the same part. This difference in frequence is really interesting maintaining in position that both of these surveies were done in the same part but different vicinities. The disparity could be due to low frequence of fleshiness found in the old survey ( 30 % ) in comparing to our survey ( 90.5 % ) . It is speculated that this intra regional difference could be due to the fact that certain communities have high inclination to develop fleshiness and metabolic syndrome despite of belonging to the same state due to differences in life manner, eating wonts and degree of physical activity. On the other manus, another infirmary based survey another metropolis revealed comparable frequence of metabolic syndrome harmonizing to NCEP standards ( 22 ) .
In infirmary based survey from Iran the prevalence in type 2 diabetics on footing of NCEP ( ATPIII ) standards utilizing BMI alternatively of waist perimeter was found to be 65 % ( 23 ) .This difference highlights the importance of abdominal adiposeness which is a better marker of metabolic syndrome as compared to BMI. A multicenter infirmary based survey in Brazil showed instead close frequence ( 85 % ) in type 2 diabetics ( 24 ) although the survey population was rather different being white people of European descent. Likewise, in Finnish survey prevalence was found to be 91.5 % in diabetic work forces and 82.7 % in adult females ( 25 ) . Our information was besides consistent with Indian survey demoing prevalence of 91.1 % ( 16 ) utilizing the same NCEP ( ATPIII ) definition. However, separate constituents of metabolic syndrome were found to be more common in our population as compared to South Indians ( 16 ) . The higher frequence of metabolic syndrome in diabetic population found in our survey is a beginning of major concern since diabetes itself is an of import hazard factor for atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease ( ASCVD ) and presence of metabolic syndrome in combination plants as a two border blade.
Evidence suggests that combination of the constituents of the metabolic syndrome is associated with both micro and macro vascular complications and distal neuropathy in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus ( 24 ) . In position of the high frequence, type 2 diabetic patients should non merely be screened for this deathly syndrome but besides offered intensive direction in order to avoid complications.
Similarly highly high frequence of cardinal fleshiness ( 90.5 % ) in our diabetic population is besides unreassuring since there is ample grounds associating cardinal fleshiness with coronary bosom disease ( 26 ) and insulin opposition is besides significantly associated with waist girth ( 27 ) .
The higher frequence of metabolic syndrome in adult females harmonizing to all standards besides consistent with other surveies from South Asiatic states ( 28 ) could be attributed to less physical activity in adult females due to cultural and cultural limitations on out-of-door activities. This besides highlights the importance of instruction of our adult females in footings of bar of the development of metabolic syndrome with life manner intercession which would indirectly act upon life manner and eating wonts of whole household.
The presence of multiple definitions of metabolic syndrome has been really confusing and argument ever exist which standards should be used in footings of diagnosing of metabolic syndrome particularly in diabetic patients.
The somewhat higher prevalence of metabolic syndrome by ATP III definition in comparing to IDF ( 91.9 % vs. 86.7 % ) was likely due to the comparative flexibleness of the ATP III definition in footings of non taking abdominal fleshiness as a requirement for the diagnosing.
Except for this difference the ATP III and IDF definitions are basically indistinguishable reflected in the grade of understanding ( kappa statistic ) between the two definitions which was in a good scope at 0.728. Harmonizing to this, NCEP ( ATPIII ) and IDF are the most dependable standards ‘s for naming metabolic syndrome in type 2 diabetic patients, with NECP capturing more patients in comparing with IDF definition. In contrast WHO showed lower frequence of metabolic syndrome due to different cutoffs used for HDL degrees and fleshiness. This difference remained important even after seting it with BMI cutoffs for Asiatic population of 23 vs.30 endorsed by WHO expert audience every bit good ( 29, 30 ) pointing towards the fact that waist perimeter or cardinal fleshiness is more valuable tool for sensing of metabolic syndrome in Asiatic population.
Decision:
On the footing of these findings NCEP ( ATPIII ) modified standards should be sooner used in Pakistani population since doing waist perimeter as an obligatory standard would still lose out 5.2 % of the instances of metabolic syndrome harmonizing to our survey. But to farther validate these recommendations we need surveies to gauge the prognostic power for micro vascular and macro vascular complications to set up the most appropriate definition of metabolic syndrome to be used in South Asiatic population with a diagnosing of type 2 diabetes. The alarmingly high frequence of metabolic syndrome in type 2 diabetes found in our survey points towards the fact that our wellness attention system needs to take emergent stairss in bar of this syndrome through life manner intercession plans.

respond 13

 
My school for thought about higher learning was that there was no immediate or even residual benefit unless you had a full ride scholarship to earn a law degree or PHD.  My thoughts around higher learning has since changed due to life experiences.
Previously, my thoughts were shallow, and it was due to ignorance.  Growing up in my household, it was made known that everyone needed to graduate from high school and get a job immediately after or go into the arm forces.  Going to college was considered an elective but it was our responsibility and obligation to pay to attend.  Being naïve and living in a neighborhood where most people did not go to college, I thought this was normal.  After graduating from high school, I was employed by reputable companies, and my pay was reasonable for a high school graduate.
I’ve always been a hard worker.  I can get a job and had advancement opportunities but there was still something missing.  Through the years, I noticed a trend that I’ve always had to take large pay cuts when starting a new job and accept entry level positions because I did not have a bachelor’s degree. 
After going through a life changing event, I did some self-reflecting and realized that I’ve been missing something in my life and professionally I was not where I wanted to be in my career.  I knew I needed to change something, and, on that day, I had that eureka moment realizing that I needed to invest in myself by getting a college degree.
 Making the decision to go back to school has been the best decision I’ve made especially since I’m very close to graduating.  Technology has been a major part in this decision because I’ve been able to take all my classes online.   As I get closer to finishing, I ask myself if I would have done this if online classes were not available.  I honestly don’t know but now, I’m satisfied with my decision and my school of thought has changed tremendously.

Recruiting or Retaining

CASE: WHICH IS MORE IMPORTANT a€“ RECRUITING OR RETAINING? G. K Electronics Ltd. , is a pioneering and internationally reputed firm in the Electronics industry. It is one of the largest firms in the country. It attracted employees from internationally reputed institutes and industries by offering high salaries, perks etc. It has advertised for the position of an Electronics Engineer recently. Nearly 150 candidates working in various electronics firms applied for the job. Mr.
Sashidhar, an Electronics Engineering Graduate from IIT with 5 years working experience in a small electronics firm was selected from among the 130 candidates who took tests and interview. The interview board recommended an enhancement in his salary by Rs. 500 per month more than his present salary at his request. Mr. Sashidhar was very happy to achieve this and he was congratulated by a number of people including his previous employer for his brilliant interview performance and good luck. Mr. Sashidhar joined G. K. Electronics Ltd. on 21st January, 1996 with a great enthusiasm. He also found his job to be quite comfortable and challenging one and he felt it was highly prestigious to work with this company during the formative years of his career. He found his superiors as well as subordinates to be friendly and cooperative. But this climate did not live long. After one year of his service, he slowly learnt about a number of unpleasant stories about the company, management, the superior-subordinate relations, rate of employee turnover, especially at higher level.
But he decided to stay on as he promised several things to the management in the interview. He wanted to please and change the attitude of management through diligent performance, firm commitment and dedication. He started maximizing his contributions and management got the impression that Mr. Sashidhar has settled down and will remain in the company. After sometime, the superiors started riding over Mr. Sashidhar. He was overloaded with multifarious jobs. His freedom in deciding and executing was cut down to size.

He was ill-treated on a number of occasions before his subordinates. His colleagues also started assigning their responsibilities to Mr. Sashidhar. Consequently there were imbalances in his family life, social life and organization life. But he seemed to be calm and contented. Management felt that Mr. Sashidhar had the potential to hear with many more organization responsibilities. It was quite surprising to the General Manager to see the resignation letter of Mr. Sashidhar along with a check equivalent to a montha€™s salary one fine morning on 18th January, 1998.
The General Manager failed to convince Mr. Sashidhar to withdraw his resignation. The General Manager relieved him on 25th January, 1998. The General Manager wanted to appoint a committee to go into the matter immediately, but dropped the idea later. The inference from the above is very clear. The management had no strategy of retaining capable employees by giving them proper treatment and responsibilities. They also have not laid out any HR policy of defining area of responsibility for executives or staff.
It appears any body in the firm can pass any work to their colleagues and even management is also not bothered about over loading a capable person willing to undertake challenging tasks with responsibility. If the above defects can be corrected by the management and senior managers they can retain capable managers or executives and the manpower turnover may come down and the companya€™s reputation with regards to human resources will go up. The firm can attract more and more capable personnel.

Impact of Caregiving Burden on Caregiver Health

  
Caregiver burden is a multidimensional response that results from taking care of an ill individual. More specifically, caregiver burden refers to the stress and disruption in lifestyle, health, and quality of life experienced by those who provide informal care to patients with chronic and terminal illnesses.
There has been a shift in the caregiving paradigm in the United States, with increased dependence on informal caregivers instead of experienced medical professionals. Caregiver burden can have a significant impact on the psychological, emotional, physical, and functional health of those providing care to loved ones. Physicians, nurses, and social workers have traditionally directed services to patients. Given the impact of caregiver burden on well-being, it is important to focus on the specific needs of caregivers. Supportive services and community resources are commonly offered to caregivers as a means of lessening their stress and improving quality of life.
To prepare for this Discussion:
Think about a chronic, serious, or debilitating illness. Consider the burden experienced by a family or friend providing care for an individual diagnosed with the illness.
For Discussion 
Post a description of the care needed for the illness you selected. Explain the nature of caregiver burden experienced by caregivers of patients with this illness. Describe illness-related factors (e.g., access to care, illness complexity, chronicity, outcomes) that might contribute to caregiver burden. Explain specific interventions that you as a medical social worker might implement to relieve caregiver burden. Identify at least three resources in your local area (Chatham County) or state (Georgia) that you might use to address caregiver burden for the chosen illness. Explain how these resources might adequately address caregiver burden.
Be sure to support your postings with specific references to the resources and the current literature (Resources are attached)

Foundations of Mythology

What are the consequences of behaving ND not behaving in such ways? (Purpose and Definitions) The word myth means to me that there are things that are not true without proof. In the academic circle the word is use to explain things that is true or false to us all. There are so many mythical stories all across different cultures such as Let’s look at all the heroes that are being portrayed on screen like Spider-man who got bitten by an radioactive spider who gave him the powers of speed, strength and powers of a spider. Wonder woman knows as Princess Diana of the immortal amazons from Greek mythology . Ho has superhero rowers, the lasso of truth along with her also the lasso of truth.. “Tarzan the son of an English nobleman raised by apes in the African jungle. “Like the heroes of ancient myths, modern superheroes have extraordinary powers. The most famous superhero is Superman, created by American cartoonist Jerry Siegel and Joseph Shutter in 1938. In comics and on radio, television, and movie screens, he fights for ‘truth, justice, and the American way,” using his powers of flight and incredible strength, powers he possesses because he is from another planet.
Like most modern superheroes, Superman keeps his identity a secret and pretends to be an ordinary man. Such myths suggest that anyone can have unsuspected potential for heroism. ” Drachma Abram Stokers the legends of Oval the impulse’s in human behavior may have contributed to an associated of Drachma with vampires, corpses that rise from the grave during the night to drink the blood Of mythology) All of these stories were made up by people with wild Imagination, which in fact a lot of us believe in.
Knowledge is information that has truth, facts, stories that it contains. Belief has information that does not have proof or evidence to back it up. Myth is an untrue story about a fictional hero or an event. “Religion is a social institution consisting of a number of beliefs and practices concerning the cause, nature and purpose of the universe, especially when considered as the creation of a superhuman agency of agencies, usually involving myths. ” Bob Beechen Mythology and religion have a personal connection with each other and each of us as humans.

Functional Transition Assessment

Functional Transition Assessment attempts to integrate the student into the work force while the student is still in high school. It provides a temporary bridge or support structure for the student making the transition from an educational to a vocational environment. Although all students can benefit from such support, for students with disabilities such a program can prove especially critical. Also by incorporating vocational education early on to the student’s high school career, Functional Transitional Assessment can instill a sense of responsibility in the student and confirm the practicality of the student’s education. Thus, in can act as motivational tool to succeed in the classroom and in workforce.
In your opinion, how important is self-determination for the Exceptional Student Education student in accomplishing his/her educational goals?
The Exceptional Student Education student may often feel that he or she has been denied the ability to exercise much autonomy and control over his or her daily life, even when under the guidance of well-meaning parents and educators. It is critical that students, to function effectively in the workforce and in society, achieve a sense of autonomy and independence through reasonable, self-determined actions and choices throughout the educational process.

Why do you think occupational guidance has become progressively and increasingly more prominent in high schools?
The workplace has grown more competitive, technical and specialized in nature, thus there is more pressure upon students to specialize earlier and earlier in their educational careers. The price of a college education has also escalated, causing many students to turn to specifically vocational and technical schools after high school. Students may also wish to seek internships and part-time jobs to fund their educations that convey relevant skills and knowledge to their future full-time careers.
Personal-Social Skills. In your opinion, how important is it for a student’s future success in the transition to the work force?
Emotional Intelligence, or the ability to work well with others, and to be sensitive to other persons’ needs is a critical aspect of vocational success. It is not enough to know how to perform a task. One must know how to perform to one’s best ability in an organizational context.

Determinants of Earnings

Determinants of Earnings Improving someone’s success in the labour market is a main objective of both family and policy makers, especially those with low earning in recent years. In the classic view of labour earning, we assume that the skills of individuals are the dominant factor to determine the earnings’ level. However, the recent year study manifests multiple factors have been weighed more than before.
To illustrate this new situation, it believes that individuals’ successes in labour market are quite differentiated from one’s family background support, capacities to contribute to production or service, genetics, the education level, and the working experience in the labour market. Specifically, the low earning individuals’ situation can be well-persuasive proof for it. An individual might hold various earnings at the same time such as the interest of saving, stock, fund of dividend income and property of real estate of individual.
The developed labour market economy directs that an individual’s earning is equal to the number of production factors sold by the individual times the price of various elements. Personal income is equal to market income and transfer payment. A majority of market income comes from wages and salaries. Few of market income come from property rights. The transfer payment of the government is mainly for those old men’s social security. In standard of earning equation for individuals of the same race and sex in Canada, between two thirds and four fifth of the variance of the natural logarithm of wages or of annual earning is unexplained by the above variables. ” This statement is said by Bowles (2001). A few of the variance is contributed by the unstable factor of earnings and response error. For example, from the more detailed Employers’ Manpower and Skills Practices Survey of 1693 British employers reported in Green, Machin and Wilkenson (1998).

Of the somewhat more than a third of the establishments reporting the “skill shortage”, personnel managers identified the recruitment problem as “lack of technical skills” in 43 percent of the cases. However, “poor attitude, motivation, or personality” in a remarkable 62 percent of the cases. Poor attitude was by far the most important reason for the recruitment difficulty given. The importance of motivation relative to technical skill was even greater among the full sample. Such a model, however, is readily provided, even within a fully competitive framework.
If disequilibrium rents arising from technological or other shocks are persistent and if labor services are not subject to enforceable contracts, individual behavioral traits unrelated to productive capacities may bear a positive price. For example, aspects of an individual’s personality such as fatalism or impatience may reduce the likelihood of capturing disequilibrium rents and dampen the employee’s response to common employer strategies aimed at eliciting high levels of labor effort.
Furthermore, the behavioral traits that contributed to high income in some works might have the negative effects. For instance, an individual who prefer not to subordinate himself to others will be highly successful in some works, but abject failures in others. “Understanding why individual characteristics that are not skills may be rewarded in a competitive labor market may enhance the explanatory power and policy relevance of the human capital model by shedding some light on how schooling and other human investments raise individual earnings. ” Bowles mentioned in 2001.

Business Ethics?

 
This assignment involves relating ethical behaviors in high-profile events, as well as examining regulatory and sustainability market approaches to business’s environmental responsibilities. Read each of the following questions before answering each one within a Word document.

Based on the response to Hurricane Katrina, what is the relationship between inefficiency and ethical behavior for leaders? How could the response to the Hurricane Katrina disaster have been more effective, and thus more ethical? Your response must be at least 200 words.
In considering the BP Oil Spill, what circumstances would ethically justify a government or private company in restricting information made available to the public during a disaster? At what point might other companies have an ethical right to intervene regarding environmental disasters? Your response must be at least 200 words.

In the Word document, list your answers one after the other. Use Times New Roman, 12-point font, and double-spacing. There is no need to include a title page nor a references page. You are not required to perform research for this assignment; however, if you choose to perform research to answer these questions, use APA style to format your in-text and reference citations.

Amerindian Legacies in the Caribbean

Topic: “The Amerindians have left a legacy that forms part of the Caribbean Civilization. ” Discuss. The Amerindians have left a legacy that forms part of the Caribbean Civilization. The Amerindians were two groups of people having completely different personalities. One group was the Arawaks or Taino which occupied the Greater Antilles and the other was the Caribs or Kalinago which occupied the Lesser Antilles. The Arawaks were a very peaceful group of people; slim and short, but firmly built. The Caribs on the other hand were very aggressive people and were taller and had a bigger built han the Arawaks.
The Caribs were also cannibals and some people assume that is why they were bigger than the Arawaks. Despite their differences in personalities, they had a similar way of living. They were both excellent fishermen, craftsmen, farmers, handymen and doctors. Since they were naturalists and believed in the environment, they made use of the natural resources they had in order to survive. After the Europeans settled on Amerindian territories, they raped their females, killed and overworked their men and ate their produce.
Disease and famine resulted in a rapid decrease in the Amerindian population. Hundreds of years after, Caribbean people still benefit and utilize the legacy of the Amerindians such as place names/ words, food/cuisine, architecture and handmade materials. Long before Christopher Columbus arrived in the Caribbean Sea, the Caribbean was still relatively “new’. This allowed the early settlers; the Amerindians, to give names to countries, places inside those countries, animals, food and other objects for the first time. Some of these names are still utilized.

The Amerindians called Barbados “Ichirouganaim”, St. Vlncent “Hairoun”, Dominica “Waitukubuli”, Jamaica “Xaymaca” and named a lot of other Caribbean territories. They gave names to places in Venezuela, such as Tacarigua, and in Trinidad such as Piarco and Tunapuna. They still have their names. The names of some of our fruits, vegetables and other words were derived from the Amerindian words. Some of these words were maize, from “mahis”, barbeque, from “barbakoa”, guava from “guayaba” and hammock from “hamaca”. In some countries like Dominica and St.
Vincent, animals named by the Amerindians still survive. The agouti (rat), manacou(opossum), touloulou(crab) and iguana are some of the animals that still have their Amerindian names. There are plenty more words that we use derived from the Amerindian languages. This contributed to us not being limited to the more “formal” languages of empire (Spanish, Dutch, English and French) and having our own varieties of Creole between Caribbean countries. The Amerindians were excellent farmers and cooks. They left us a lot of crops and some of their ooking techniques.
Both Arawaks and Caribs had diets of meat and vegetables, but the Arawaks had a more vegetable based diet and cultivated a lot more than the Caribs. They cultivated cassava (yuca), sweet potatoes (batata), corn (maize), squash, peanuts, pineapples, beans and peppers. Most of these are indigenous to the Americas but continued to grow thousands of years after in the Caribbean. The Amerindians ground the roots of the Cassava (yucca) into a powder in which they baked cassava bread. The Amerindians snowed us now to cook; bake, boil, stew and arbeque (cook slowly over open fire).
They also taught us how to remove the poison from the cassava roots so it can be made edible. Another thing they did was cook or roast the corn and eat it from the cob. They also grew tobacco and cotton in which they wove hammocks and made clothes and cigarettes. The Amerindians were their own doctors as they used the leaves, roots and barks of certain herbs to heal certain illnesses and diseases. Sage, sweet grass, bitter root and others were used to help the unhealthy regain their energy and wellbeing.
Information of these herbs has been passed down to us, and that is why our grandparents believe we should drink these teas to remain healthy and clean. The Amerindians used to build a lot of things from stone, bone, shell and wood; metal was not familiar to them. They carved the wood from tree trunks to make canoes for fishing, used clay to make pottery, straw to make baskets and calabashes from the opo squash tree. They also left petroglyphs that when read, showed us certain practices that we continue to use today.
The anoes are used mainly in the Caribbean countries with rivers to fish, the clay make plates and flat trays for baking, while the calabashes stored food, molasses and drinking water. The Amerindians made Jewelry by hammering gold nuggets into artistic pieces and connecting bones andor shells of small animals and wearing them on various parts of the body. They made their own houses from wood and/or straw with their original gable designs. Even after thousands of years, the people of the Caribbean make use of the legacies passed down to us from the indigenous people; Taino and Kalinago.