Irrational and Rational Decision Making

What is irrational and rational decision making? Well first to understand what each on is individually, I believe that you should know what each word means separately. So according to meriam-webster. com, rational means, “having reason or understanding” (Rational, 2009) while irrational means, “not endowed with reason or understanding. ” (Irrational, 2009). Lastly but not least, from the Encarta. msn. com/dictionary, decision making, is “the process of making choices or reaching conclusions, especially on important political or business matters. ” So what do all those definitions mean to you?
To me, by these definitions, rational decision making is when a person has reason or understanding in reaching a certain conclusion and just the opposite of that is irrational decision making, when a person is not able to come to a conclusion without reason or understanding. The differences are clearly stated, such as not having any reasons. versus having a reason for a conclusion For example, if the tiles are muddy, the most rational thing to do is to mop the tiles. Your reason is that the tiles are muddy. I think that an irrational thing for a person to do is to sweep the tiles.
If there is mud on tiles, it’s not the same as having sand on the tiles. The mud is wet therefore you would use a mop instead of a broom. With the broom, you could pick up dry particles such as sand. It would just make more sense, rather than using a broom to sweep mud when all you will be doing is pushing around something that is wet. Decision that was Once Reviewed to be “Rational” but Now is “Irrational” Back in the early 1700 and 1800’s, arranged marriages were part of the traditional and cultural beliefs that many families went through.

Though arranged marriages happened in the United States, it was most likely to take place in the Southern States. Now, in the present day, though arranged marriages still happen in some cultures around the world, it is an irrational decision. (Decision, 2008) Explanation why it Would be Considered “Irrational” Today It was considered to be rational back then because it “was the thought to keep the blood lineage of an aristocratic family line to stay pure. ” In order to make marriage agreements, there is sometimes certain business arrangements that were involved.
Things such as, land, money, property, and or social status were used in order to make a marriage, other than what we presently do, which is to fall in love with a person. Now, in the present, most have the ability to choose the person they want to marry. (Arranged, n. d. ) Decision Theory Used I think the decision theory that was used in the original decision making is Satisficing. “The theory postulates that decision makers compare these calculations and choose the course of action that maximizes expected utility. (Plous, 1993).
In the earlier years, parents of children, made the decision to arrange their future marriages in hopes of receiving or being able to make a deal with another family. They chose a path in their lives which would then satisfy their needs and wants. When doing so, their choice is far from being actually favorable. Instead of being able to marry someone you love and of your choice, back then, there were no opinions whether or not a person wanted to marry another. It was like you were born in order for the option of your parents to be able to make a deal with another family, just to get something out of having a child.
Because arranged marriage is what was ideal for certain cultures, it turned into a custom that children soon taught their children and so on. Just because you were taught and brought up learning something, doesn’t necessarily mean that it’s always favorable for both you and your parents. To your parents, it could mean getting money, or being richer in a way, and to you, it could mean having nothing at all, no option. You are just put in a situation where you, as a child had no say in. References Arranged Marriage. (n. d. ). Retrieved February 18, 2009, from http://www. youth information. com/Templates/Internal. sp? NodeID=90221 Decision Making. (2008). Retrieved February 18, 2009, from http://encarta. msn. com/ dictionary_1861688906/decision-making. html Irrational. (2009). Retrieved February 18, 2009, from http://www. merriamwebster. com/dictionary/irrational Rational. (2009). Retrieved February 18, 2009, from http://www. merriamwebster. com/dictionary /rational Plous, S. (1993). The psychology of judgment & decision making, New York, McGraw Hill The History of Arranged Marriages in America. (2008). Retrieved February 18, 2009, from http://www. associatedcontent. com/article/787875/the_history_of_arranged

History of immigration

Your huddled masses yearning to breathe free, the wretched refuse of your teeming shore. Send these, the homeless, tempest-tots to me, I lift my lamp beside the golden door! ” Do our immigration policies still honor the words written by Emma Lazarus in 1883 on the base of the Statue of Liberty, and if so, what impact do they have on our economy?
The issue of whether our economy is impacted negativity or positively by undocumented workers and what should be done about It Is a widely debated topic in this country right now and reported about on every form of media (news, print, social) available on a dally basis. The Issue of undocumented Immigration Is Important; It concerns fundamental, moral and economic questions about how we deal with Immigration In our country. Various arguments have been presented about this issue.
We will consider the argument from people who feel the undocumented workers negatively affect the economy, why those views are flawed, review the evolution of immigration along with immigration policies and what are in effect presently, what policies would promote change regarding immigration, as well as how we can build a bridge between the two arguments. I will then put forward suggestions for the introduction of ways in which we can begin the changes in policy to best suit both sides of the argument. It has been argued that undocumented workers drain the economy and Just benefit a few businesses at the expense of Americans citizens.

An article written by Steven Amalgam, published in the City Journal summer 2006, supports the belief : “unskilled, undocumented workers benefit a handful of Industries by getting low cost labor, and the taxpayers foot the bill. ” In other words, undocumented workers and their illegal families are a drain on our economy. It is claimed that they send every penny they earn to their country of origin, use public services they are not entitled to, perform menial labor, do not pay taxes and their children abuse the right to public services and education.
However, as the pamphlet by Neighborhood center states: ” in fact there is no question as to the importance of the buying power of undocumented immigrants. The real predictor of wage disparity is not whether someone is an immigrant (regardless of status), it is lack of education. Foreign-born entrepreneurs with startups businesses have been behind 25 percent of these businesses in this country. Three quarters of the undocumented Immigrants pay payroll taxes and they contribute \$7 billion In Social Security funds annually without the ability to collect Social Security.
While the majority of the children of undocumented Immigrants are born here legally and are eligible to public services and education, their parents for fear of deportation are negative impact on the economy is Just a myth; there is a net benefit to the nation’s total economic output raising it by a reported \$21. 5 billion per year (USA Today). In addition, according to a study by the investment research company, Standard & Poor’s, “the cost of providing services to undocumented workers is largely offset by the economic benefits they generate. We can see why if you look at the economic effect on the country without researching your views toughly, on the surface you may be able to put together a shaky argument, but after researching the facts you do see that undocumented workers actually boost our economy, as we see in Gordon H. Hansom’s, The Economics and Policy report of illegal immigration in the United States; “the current regime of illegal immigration, despite its faults, has been efficiently beneficial to US employers that they are doubtful about the capacity of Congress to improve the situation and therefore unwilling to take the political risk of supporting reform.
The collected taxes impact our economy now while baby boomers are starting to collect their Social Security benefits they boost the system by the unconvertible funds of undocumented workers. ” Before we can understand how we arrived at the present immigration policies here in America, we must look back at the evolution of immigration and immigration policy from the 1600 to present time. Our long economic history in America has been shaped by the groups of immigrants that have settled here, what contributions to the economy they brought with them and how the immigration policy changed in response to the influx of each group of immigrants.
We will start our review looking at a few immigration groups, the changes made to our immigration policies starting with the English Settlers with traders and their contributions to the economy to present day influx of Middle Eastern and Latin origin immigrants benefiting our economy with access to low cost and back breaking labor. In the 1600 hundreds the traders that were brought by the English settlers not only brought the spices and hard goods to trade, they brought slave labor for trading as well.
This group, African slaves would grow quickly to 20 percent of the population providing cheap labor, and since they were considered property, they were not allowed to be naturalized till 1870. Many different groups came and made contributions to the economy of cheap labor with their meat processing skills, work ethic and willingness to take on highly dangerous back breaking Jobs. With each new group the policy changed; the first immigration law enacted in 1790 (after nearly a century of unregulated immigration and massive economic growth) began defining and restricting citizenship to the United States.
The act of 1790 was revised, further restricting and adding requirements for obtaining citizenship. The Asian immigrants experienced a similar exclusionary period as did the Africans; they were allowed to live in the US but were not allowed to become citizens until 1943 when the Chinese Exclusion Act of 1882 was repealed. President Ronald Reagan was instrumental in bringing forth the Immigration Reform and Control Act of 1986.
Many revisions have been made to the immigration laws, but t was never as publicized as after September 1 1, 2001 when fear of Terrorism brought the need for reform so we can exclude individuals suspected to be terrorists. Presently the immigration laws are not an easy path to becoming legal and are not family friendly because they separate parents from their American born children Just life. “America’s immigration system is outdated, unsuited to the needs of our economy and to the values of our country.
We should not be content with laws that punish hardworking people and deny businesses willing workers and invite chaos at our borders. ” George W. Bush, February 2, 2005. George w. Bush and Barack Obama did not agree on many things, but “They share a belief that the high levels of illegal immigration are an indication of the current policy being broken, and that immigrants by and large make a positive contribution to America. “We need immigration reform that will secure our borders, and….. That finally brings 12 million people who are here illegally out of the shadows…
We must assert our values and reconcile our principles as a nation of immigrants and a nation of laws. ” Barack Obama, June 28, 2008. Two Presidents, from two different political parties, with very efferent political views share the same view that our immigration system is broken. What changes should be made to the immigration policy here in America? How will those changes affect the economy? What is the moral impact on families? These are questions which divide many; philosophers, labor unions, political parties, the people within political parties, the people in nail salons and Americans in general.
Peter Brooklime (1999), a political philosopher, a ND supporter of placing restrictions on immigration that would all but end immigration to this country, believes the current immigration policies second guess the American people and Jeopardize our nation. Brimless beliefs historically were supported by Labor unions and their leaders, yet even these groups are realizing that the number of immigrant union members has been rapidly increasing (Migration Policy institute 2004) and if they do not begin to embrace the immigrants a large number of their membership base will disappear and possibly their existence as well.
To the other extreme, Walter Block argues “like tariffs and exchange controls, migration barriers of whatever type are egregious locations of laissez-flare capitalism” (Block 1998; 168). The Democratic Party says they support “immigration reform” and point fingers at the Republican Party for not having it done yet. Ironically, a Republican President supported and pushed for the most encompassing reform possible “Amnesty in 1996”. We need to arrive at a compromise of the two schools of thought.
Yes we do have to protect ourselves from terrorists and criminals, but not at the cost of our crops not being picked or produce being too high to purchase, our manicures and pedicures getting out of control price sis or our restaurants having to raise prices so high only the rich could afford to eat out. We need to also morally take into consideration families. Why should I, a second generation American( paternal side of my family) and a multi generation American( on the maternal side of my family), with children who are first generation Americans be denied my late mother in law to visit and stay with us as long as is mutually agreed upon.
The Consulate in Ecuador at first denied us a visa for my Mother in Law. I had to fight for my rights as an American to bring her home with me. They only gave her a 3 month visa. I also had to close my eyes after the three month visa expired to her being illegally in America. So America’s immigration policy made this grandmother a criminal. While we ponder on what to do about immigration we must control ourselves from falling subject to xenophobia, misconceptions and political rhetoric.
We do need to continue with researching the brings forth in their applications to come to America or that are here presently “illegally’. The paperwork involved should not be so difficult that we only further the economy by creating further Jobs in the immigration law field. If you have family here already and have been contributing to our economy through your hard work, contributing to our economy through your spending power and good civic behavior, why should you have a difficult path to legalization?
Simplify paperwork, intensify background checks of those applying and their family members here and in their country of origin, require medical examination and community service components in the legalization path. Allow those that are here to pay a nominal fee, submit simple applications to change their immigration status from illegal to in process of globalization and come out of the shadows. This will really protect our borders by knowing who is here amongst us.
Willingness to do good works for the many non- profit organizations that exist should be much more important than your financial resources in your country of origin in any path to legalization. Policy should be put in place allowing immigrants here to move from “illegal” to citizen in a reasonable amount of time with the before mentioned components built in so we can weed out the criminals not willing to live by our laws and contribute to our society and support he growth of our country, while rewarding the immigrants that with their diversity and civic responsibility add to the strength of our country.
These policies would improve the type of applicant, reduce need for expense of immigration lawyers, and reduce the need to spend on expensive man power in INS offices, and embassies, move the emphases on skilled, community minded, productive, family oriented immigrants willing to pay their taxes and contribute to diversity and economic growth of our wonderful country. We need to build a bridge between the main two arguments of public safety nickering terrorists and Jeopardizing our economy, as well as moral fiber with policies that will have protections of the many while also representing the fiber that made our country what it is.
Allowing the right wing to impose restrictions on immigration based on fear is not in the best interest of our country. In conclusion, we are a nation of immigrants. The only Americans that truly belong here is those with Native American Indian ancestry. The rest of the American population is either descendents of immigrants or immigrants themselves; some by choice and others forced to migrate due to refugee, slavery etc. Our Country was made by immigrants, and this is a supporting case point to continue allowing immigration at a fairly high level.

Research paper on Uganda.

Write in APA format and make sure to include the name of the country and the names of all group members. Copy the map from the country’s page on the website and state the income level (shown upper left). Then, give the values and short definitions of the following indicators, including the year for each:

GDP (current US\$)
Population, total
GDP per capita (current US\$)
FDI Inflows
FDI Outflows
Balance of Payments
Imports
Exports
Exchange Rates and System
Industry Ratios, Intra-industry, etc.
Quotas and Tariffs
Poverty headcount ratio at \$1.25 a day (PPP) (% of population)
One additional indicator of your choice. Give a brief explanation why the group finds this indicator interesting.

Important Information that should be included:

Background on country and recent trade agreements;
Progressive discussion of trade agreements, international economic expansion, and formation over time;
Discussion of economic data listed above;
Current status of the country within an international economic framework;
Current trade policy instituted by the government and central bank;
Monetary policies;
Fiscal policies;
Future of the country; and
You may include other relevant information in the project. The first eight points are only a guide to help you set up your paper and presentation.

Note: Not all indicators are available for all countries. If a particular indicator is not available for your chosen country, just write not available. Maximum word count: 4500 words does not include tables, charts, graphs, or reference page.

NOTE: Collect information about the country from the Countries and Economies (Links to an external site.)Links to an external site. page on the World Bank website and select a country (another good source is sOECD Statistics (Links to an external site.)Links to an external site.)

Week 1 Paper: US GAAP Versus IFRS

Write a 1,050- to 1,400-word paper that addresses the following scenario and questions:

Your aunt recently received the annual report for a company in which she has invested. The report notes that the statements have been prepared in accordance with “generally accepted accounting principles.” She has also heard that certain terms have special meanings in accounting relative to everyday use. She would like you to explain the meaning of terms she has come across related to accounting.

Go to the FASB website and access the FASB Concepts Statements and use the IASB website to respond to the following items. (Provide paragraph citations.) When you have accessed the documents, you can use the search tool in your Internet browser.

Explain how “materiality” is defined by both FASB and IASB.
The concepts statements provide several examples in which specific quantitative materiality guidelines are provided to firms. Identity at least two of these examples. Do you think the materiality guidelines should be quantified? Why or why not?
The concepts statements discuss the concept of “articulation” between financial statement elements. Briefly summarize the meaning of this term and how it relates to an entity’s financial statements.

Universal Healthcare: The Pros and Cons

Universal Healthcare: The Pros and Cons On March 23, 2010 the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act was signed by President Obama, raising the question for many of whether this new law was going to be more helpful or hurtful. With universal healthcare, healthcare coverage would be increased tremendously, costs would be reduced, Jobs would be created, and consumers would be protected. Conversely, it will also raise taxes and wait times, lead to a smaller number of doctors, and infringe on some employers’ 1st amendment rights.
Presenting both arguments for and against the Patient Protection nd Affordable Care Act allows one to draw a conclusion on whether the new program will benefit or hinder the citizens of the United States. The Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act, or PPACA, will extend coverage to virtually every US citizen. It is estimated that approximately 45 million Americans are uninsured, and 45,000 of those citizens are dying each year simply because they do not have health care (Ireland). Once this new act takes effect, 32 of those 45 million citizens will receive coverage.
Citizens whose ages range from 19 to 25 will be able to stay on their parent’s insurance plans when normally they would have been forced ff the plan. Young adults who are not on their parent’s insurance plans and who normally wouldn’t be able to afford coverage will now be able to pay for their own health insurance. Currently, patients with pre-existing conditions can be denied coverage. However, with the PPACA, insurance companies will no longer be able to deny coverage or stop coverage when a member becomes ill.

Women will also be granted additional coverage, such as receive access to women’s health services, and these new benefits are also required to have no out of pocket fees. Also, the availability of contraception, such as abortion, will be expanded (“The Patient Protection”). The cost of health care will be greatly reduced by the PPACA, and this will have a chain reaction on big businesses and employees. With almost 95 percent of citizens paying for health insurance, costs for health care will decrease (Poe).
Once the cost for health care declines, it will cost less for big businesses to hire employees. It is estimated that 4 million Jobs will be created over the next 10 years. The PPACA also affects the economy in another way; it will reduce the national deficit. Contrary to popular belief, the passing of this law will reduce the national debt by 210 billion ollars within the next decade. If it were repealed, the national debt would be raised by \$230 billion (Poe). The PPACA also offers various other benefits to citizens.
Catherine Poe states that once the law is passed, there will be ” no more Freddie the Freeloaders allowed”; if a citizen can afford health insurance and does not purchase it, he or she will pay a fee of one percent of his or her household income. This fee will increase to 2. 5 percent by 2017. This will prevent citizens from not paying for health insurance and Just continuing to live off of the tax dollars of other citizens who do pay for their health nsurance. Also, the PPACA will protect consumers from the overcharging by health insurance providers.
It will torce the providers to spend 80 percent ot their income on rebates or expenses, such as health and marketing expenses (“Obamacare”). While the PPACA will benefit citizens greatly, it also has its negative side effects. As previously discussed, the PPACA will lower healthcare costs and the national debt, but it will also hurt the economy as well. The cost of drugs is expected to rise due to pharmaceutical companies paying an additional 84. 8 billion dollars over the next decade (“The Patient Protection”).
Taxes will also be raised in order to cover the additional costs brought on by the new program. The additional taxes will be charged to individuals making over \$200,000 and couples making over \$250,000. Additionally, families will only be able to deduct medical costs that surpass 10 percent of their annual income, compared to the 7. 5 percent that is currently allowed. It was stated earlier in this paper that big businesses would benefit from this law; however, the exact opposite is true for small businesses.
Businesses will be forced to provide healthcare for their employees or pay a fine, something they may not be able to fford. This may result in employees’ hours being cut or even the termination of the employee (“Obamacare”). The PPACA will also have a direct negative impact on the medical field as a whole. By 2025 there is expected to be a shortage of nearly 52,000 physicians. This, coupled with the number of office visits increasing over 100 million times, will put incredible strain on the healthcare system (“The Patient Protection”).
This will cause wait times for medical treatment to be greatly increased. Patients will be more likely to go to the emergency room for minor treatments, such as coughs due to colds, thus causing atients with real emergencies to wait even longer. Also, there will be no competition for patients. This competition is what encourages health care workers to excel in their specialties and to become better. This may even cause fewer people to choose to pursue a career in the medical profession (Ireland).
One of the more controversial arguments against universal healthcare is the effect it will have on known religious-based businesses. As stated earlier, with the PPACA businesses will be required to provide health insurance for their employees that would include contraceptive services for women. The result is that religious based businesses, such as Hobby Lobby, which is owned by evangelical Christians, will be forced to essentially pay for their employees to receive contraceptives, something that goes against their religion.
If a business decides to follow its religious beliefs and not provide the health insurance it will be issued a fine, thus hurting the business for practicing their religion. This has led the government to define what religion is and what qualifies a business as a religious employer. This aspect of the PPACA goes against the 1st amendment protection of the freedom of religion, herefore making it unconstitutional (“A Case”). Weighing both sides of the universal healthcare argument, it can be concluded that the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act is truly more hurtful than it is helpful.
It will cost citizens greatly, through increased tax dollars and being forced to pay for their healthcare. Small businesses contribute immensely to the countrys economy, and they will be hurt significantly by this program. Also, the effects it will have on the healthcare system are immeasurable. There is already a considerable shortage of doctors, and this will only increase remarkably once the PPACA takes tect Lack ot competition within the medical protession is something that cannot be overlooked either.

Boston Massacre Propaganda

The events of March 5, 1770, dubbed as “The Boston Massacre”, was a tragedy in which 5 Bostonian civilians lost their lives at the hands of British Redcoats. Although the Redcoats, terribly at fault, shot into the masses, the rebellious Bostonians played a role in the shooting as well. Although they were quite justified in doing so, the townspeople of Boston severely over exaggerated the events of that day in order to gain public sympathy and pit more colonists against the British regime. Within three weeks of the event in March 1770, an engraving by Paul Revere began circulating throughout the colony.
His depiction of the shooting contained not a clash of brawlers, but instead innocent citizens, whom the British had no foreseeable reason to shoot at. Revere’s intention was to convince viewers of the indisputable justice of the colonial cause. The public, enraged over the killings, began joining the Separatist cause, and revolts became very frequent. Revere’s engraving, however, was mere propaganda used to oppose the British, for his depiction did not correctly display the unfolding of events.
The British shot, not at innocent civilians posing no threat, but at rebellious colonists, many of whom were taunting the soldiers and throwing snowballs and rocks in their vicinity. Although the outrageous behavior of the Bostonians bore no reason for the Redcoats to open fire, it certainly changes the complexity of the situation. Both sides were in some degree to blame for the mass shooting. In an interview printed by the Nova Scotia Chronicle following the shooting, an anonymous Bostonian recounted the events of the aforesaid day.

His account of the situation, while correct in many senses, was aimed to gain public sympathy for the townspeople of Boston. He claims that “the [British] soldiery aimed to draw and provoke the townsmen” in order to “make use of… weapons” (Nova Scotia Chronicle 1). The colonist essentially claims that the Redcoats are guilty of premeditated murder, contradicting previous reports of the event. Multiple sources, from either side of the conflict, reported that the townspeople, many of whom were drunken, wielded clubs, and some even went as far as to attack sentry towers in the area.
Angered over the recent death of a ten-year-old boy, shot during a protest against a merchant who had defied the colonial boycott of British goods, colonists felt that the Redcoats were to blame and that they deserved this treatment. The soldiers, uneasy and provoked by the mob, heard someone yell “fire”, and believing the voice to be that of their commander, shot into the jeering crowd. The article depicts the colonists affected by this event as harmless and innocent, displaying the article’s inability to print the entire story.
In this regard, the colonists used The Boston Massacre to encourage the spread of outrage among the colonies against the British. The Boston Massacre still stands today as one of the most tragic events in United States history. However, in the subsequent weeks and months, reports and depictions of the event were, for the most part, one-sided, in favor of the colonists. The colonists used The Boston Massacre in a multitude of ways to gain public sympathy and spread anger directed toward the British all across the American colonies.

Gender and Technology

Traditionally, technology has been associated with rationality,  objectivity and structure; traits oft considered “masculine” in the  traditional societal definition of gender roles. While some technologies  have largely been male-dominated, throughout history, women have had an  often unrecognized presence in making significant contributions to  these technological advancements. One such technology would be the  digital computer. While its development is generally viewed as a product  of male logic and rationality, much of the progress in this area has  required an intuitive, interactive and generally less structured  “feminine” approach. These culturally appropriated gender  characteristics as well as historic gender roles have had a significant  influence in consumerism and technological development. In this  activity, you will explore technologies that may be gender-specific and  evaluate technological innovations that have shaped current society.
After reading “His and Hers: Gender, Consumption, and Technology”, perform an internet search on technologies that may be “gendered”. Then respond to the following:

Briefly discuss the history and association of gender and  technology. How has gender mattered in the historical development and  marketing of technology?
Provide at least two examples of technologies that are traditionally  considered “masculine” and “feminine”. On what basis are you making the  distinctions?
How is technology helping to reshape traditional gender roles and  gender identities in the 21st century? Provide real world examples.
What is the driving force behind this breakdown of gender barriers?

Leveraging Human Capital

Details:

Throughout this course, you analyzed your current work environment to identify their acquiring, developing, and training practices. Employees are the biggest asset and contribute to the culture and overall performance of the organization. The final part of this project requires you to determine how to leverage on the human capital within your organization. Use the research you have complied throughout this course to determine how to appropriately develop and motivate your employees.
Develop a final written proposal (1,250-1,500 words), discussing performance indicators, rewards and incentives, and a plan for motivating employees. Your proposal must include the following:

An evaluation of the current employee status. Describe tasks and performance indicators that contribute to the overall performance on the job.
Develop strategies to encourage employees. How will you reward them for their performance and support them during difficulty?
Describe strategies to leverage on employee assets. How will you identify their strengths and use them to better the performance and skills of individual employees?
Describe a vision for the overall culture you aspire to develop in your organization.
How will you integrate rewards and incentives to remain competitive in your market and appeal to your employees?

Prepare this assignment according to the guidelines found in the APA Style Guide, located in the Student Success Center. An abstract is not required.
This assignment uses a rubric. Please review the rubric prior to beginning the assignment to become familiar with the expectations for successful completion

Discounting is reducing the selling price of goods. Many retail stores use this method to try to sell more products and gain more profits. The advantages and disadvantages of discounting have brought a drastic debate. Some supporters believe that it has noticeable benefits, while others suggest that it perhaps does more harm than good. In this essay, I will review both the comments for and against discounting goods to boost sales.
The advocators encourage discounting goods to attract more consumers and make more profits for the stores. For example, Black Friday is the day after Thanksgiving in the United States. It is the time when retail stores give the most discounts in a year [1]. On evidence of research conducted by Miller [2], “nearly 20% of annual retail sales occur in November and December.” By presenting and offering excessive discounts, the customers’ willingness to participate in this shopping feast is drastically encouraged. Since Black Friday leads the Christmas shopping season which is right before the end of the year, most of the retailers view this discounting holiday as an important opportunity to push for a profitable year and break the sales records. To accomplish their goals, retail stores may sell out a blouse which is originally \$40 USD for \$5 USD [3], and a big number of shoppers are likely to be motivated by the low price to do the purchase so that the margin of the retail stores can be increased.
However, some researchers indicate that discounting goods has effects that are less beneficial. Because of the large number of consumers, safety problems may occur. A stampede happened on November 29th, 2008 and caused one death and four injuries [4]. In addition, three people were killed and more than thirty injured at the supermarket Carrefour in Chongqing, when the shop was offering 20% discounts on cooking oil [5]. Customers may have a high expectation for the low price [6], so many shoppers stand in the queue waiting for the store to open since midnight in order to get the discounted goods at the first time. Therefore, those who have waited for several hours cannot wait to enter the store when it opens. Stampedes are likely to happen while the impatient and frustrated crowd is pushing forward, especially in countries with high population density. Safety problem is usually a potential risk when there is a chaos.

Despite having the risk of causing safety problems, some researchers believe that giving discounts can give a short-time boost in the economy [6]. The growth in profit of the retail stores is advantageous to the economy. For example, Black Friday attracts numerous customers to spend a massive amount of money over the entire course of the Christmas shopping season following up. Data submitted by Ridgway [7] showed that “Americans spent over \$11 billion in 2011 on the Friday following Thanksgiving”. The influx of money seems to improve the economy swiftly. Not only is there a rapid increase in GDP, but these stores hire part-time employees during the busy shopping season to meet the soaring demand for workers. Therefore, there will be an overall improvement in the economy. According to Davidson [8], it is essentially to have discounts because they bestow economic stimuli and create jobs.
Nevertheless, these positive consequences may happen, but not regular. Discounting goods may contribute to the growth of profits of large retail stores, but may put these small family enterprises out of business. Brennan and Lundsten [10] noted that the volume of customers had seemingly dropped since large discount retail stores opened in town. These discount stores, such as Wal-Mart and Metro, can be overwhelmingly more favourable than tiny grocery stores in price and force them to bankruptcy. Therefore, the number of small shops will decrease and citizens will have to get to the suburban district where large retail stores centralize. It is especially inconvenient for the old and families without private cars. In addition, this phenomenon may result in monopoly that is against the law and cause a lack of substitute goods. In the long term, discounting goods may possibly spark off monetary disorder.
Obviously, there are both advantages and disadvantages of discounting goods. It enables retail stores to attract more customers as well as make more profits. In addition, it stimulates consumption and gives a boost to the economy. However, these benefits cannot suppress its deleterious effects. There may be safety problems, and small shops are likely to be weeded out by large discount stores and cause inconvenience to the citizens.
Taking these arguments into account, discounting goods to boost sales has both positive and negative effects. It has been the necessity because both individuals including retailers and shoppers and the overall economy may get short-term benefits. In the long term, however, it may cause some troubles. Therefore, the degree of discounting should be reasonable so that it will not result in the rat race. Retailers should decide the proper price to avoid a possible scenario that the sales volume rises but the profit drops. In addition, retail stores should strive to avoid public disorder and minimize the risk of having safety problems. By handling these potential threats appropriately, discounting goods can be an effective approach to boost sales.
References
1. L. Simpson, L. Taylor, K. O’Rourke and K. Shaw, “An Analysis of Consumer Behabior on Black Friday,” American International Journal of Contemporary Research, vol. 1, no. 1, pp. 1-5, 2011. 2. Richard K. Miller ; Associates, “Christmas Holiday Shopping,” in The 2006 Retail Market Research Yearbook. Loganville: Richard K. Miller ; Associates, 2005, pp. 101-102. 3. J. B. Thomas and C. Peters, “An exploratory investigation of Black Friday consumption rituals,” International Journal of Retail ; Distribution Management, vol. 39, no. 7, pp. 522-537, 2011. 4. J. Gould, C. Trapasso and R. Schapiro, Worker dies at Long Island Wal-Mart after being trampled in Black Friday stampede, 2008. [Online] Available: http://articles.nydailynews.com /2008-11-28/local/17910475_1_wal-mart-worker-long-island-wal-mart-jdimytai-damour [Accessed November 23, 2012]. 5. BBC, Three die in China sale stampede, 2007. [Online] Available: http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi /asia-pacific/7088718.stm [Accessed November 27, 2012].
6. B. Milavec, An Analysis of Consumer Misbehavior on Black Friday. Newark: University of Delaware, 2012. 7. S. Newell, The Emergence of Black Friday as an American Retail Holiday. Apopka: University of Florida, 2012. 8. N. Ridgway, Black Friday Sales Hit Record, 2011. [Online] Available: http://money.cnn.com /2011/11/26/pf/black_friday_sales/index.htm [Accessed

1. Discuss why Operations Research (Decision Sciences, Quantitative Analysis, etc.) is an important area of study for future managers/leaders.
2. Discuss the steps in the problem solving process.
3. Discuss the basic assumptions of linear programming models.
4. Explain the difference between a feasible solution and an optimal solution.
5. Graphically, what is the difference between maximization and a minimization problem?
6. Discuss the usefulness of linear programming in three (3) business applications.
7. Discuss the importance of sensitivity analysis in solving linear programming problems.
8. What is a shadow price?
9. Briefly describe how to balance transportation problems that are unbalanced.
10. Discuss the computational difficulties associated with solving integer linear programming problems.
11. What is the difference between an objective function and a goal?
12. Is there an optimum solution to a goal programming or multiple objective linear programming problem.
13. Discuss the main differences between linear programming and non-linear programming problems.
14. What would you do to find the global optimal solution to a difficult non-linear programming problem?