Strategic Analysis of Burger King

Introduction
The following report is an analysis of case study of Burger King fast food chain till date 2006. It primarily takes into considerations, significant changes over the years. And , also the strategic business decisions that led to, or formed a basis, of these changes. Moreover it helps us to identify the company’s core competencies and the competitive advantage it gained. It also highlights the issues faced by the company. A small comparison with McDonald’s helps to benchmark Burger King’s performance.

Following the critical analysis of case study, it follows necessary recommendations for the Burger King Company in UK market and lastly comparioson with ‘Schools of Strategy’ which are prominent in its history. A personal conclusion that evaluates the case – study and various comparisons throughout the report.
Background
The company of Burger King Corporation was formed by Miami entrepreneurs James McLamore and David Edgerton in 1954. The Burger King Holdings is the parent company of Burger king, however in U.S. it operates as Burger Kings Brands title; whereas internationally as Burger King Corporation. Today (as of year 2006, referring to case study), it is world’s 2nd largest fast food chain based on locations (behind Mcdonalds). The company has presence in more than 70 countries and runs more than 12000 restaurants. Thus, we can see that the brand rules one whopper of whole fast food chain empire.
The company is presently run by Mr. John Chidsey who acts as a CEO and chairman of the parent company. The brand has a $2.54 billion and boasts of handling more than 38000 employees successfully catering to 11.4 million customers.
Burger King – History
Burger king is a predecessor to a company called Insta-Burger King. The Insta –Burger King was founded in 1953 in Jacksonville, Florida by owners named Keith.J .Cramer and Matthew Burns. The found the company after inspired by McDonald’s efficiency, in food preparation, delivery and architectural layout. The company Insta-Burger King was launched on the basis on an equipment known as the Insta – Broiler. The device proved as a very successful oven for cooking burgers.
Changes in Leadership – Burger King History
The Burger King Company saw changes in management from the first year over more than 50 years since its establishment. The names (CEO) and significant decisions of them over the years are as follows:
Year
Name
Former position
Significant change in Burger King
1954-1970James W. McLamore, David EdgertonPresident and chairman – Burger KingFounders, bought Insta-Burger King from Keith G.Cramer (owner of Keith’s Drive-In restaurant)
Introduced an improved version of ‘Insta-Broiler’(which had a capacity of 400 burgers an hour) called ‘flame broiler’
Launched ‘Whopper’ sandwich – the company’s signature product
By 1961, had 45 restaurants in Florida and South-east US; which they increased to 274 restaurants all over the world mainly through franchising.

Year
Name
Former position
Significant change in Burger King
1970-1976Rosewall W. LeslieNot knownFaced problems in company such as
unhealthy relationship with the franchises
confused advertising
stale menus
shabby restaurants
competition to change in customer preferences
1976-1977Pazat W. LeslieNot knownContinued problem facing
1977-1980Donald SmithMcDonald’s executiveIncreased problems between franchises and the management
Introduced a new corporate structure and developed a new management attitude
Solved the inconsistency problem in both food by providing widespread menu and services were managed by greater control over the franchises.
Year
Name
Former position
Significant change in Burger King
1980-1982Lou P. NeebNot knownFollowed former Smith’s directions, the company moved from the third position to the second in the fast food industry by 1982.
1982-1983Norman BrinkerBennigan’s ( part of Pillsbury)Company struggled to re-establish brand image
1983-1985Jaffery J. CampbellCorporate Executive of Burger kingHired different agencies to promote brand but failed and send confused messages about the products.
1989-1989Jerry W. LevinHaagen – DazsCompleted a deal of Pillsbury to Grand Metropolitan PLC (Grand Met) – a British alcoholic beverage manufacturer and distributor
1989-1993Barry J. GibbonsNot knownConcentrated on improving menu and the brand image.
Introduced the BK broiler – a broiler chicken sandwich.
Successfully increased company profits by $75 million during tenure at Burger King.
Year
Name
Former position
Significant change in Burger King
1993-1995James B. AdamsonChairman of Denny’sAttempted to increase the quality of food by introducing ‘value menus’ which consisted of extensive combination from menu under a dollar.
Simplified menu and focussed on burgers and other products
1995-1995David NashNot knownIncreased sales by 6.6% by combination of the right product with the right marketing message.
1995-1997Robert C. LowesChief Executive – European foodsThe company launched a $70 million French Fry Advertising campaign.
1997-1999Dennis N. MalmatinnasNot knownDecrease in market share.
Grand Metropolitan merges with Guinness to form Diageo PLC
2001-2002John H. DasburgCEO – Northwest AirlinesPlanned to revitalise and reorganise the company, mainly through forming a new corporate structure.
2002-2004Bradley BlumHeaded Olive Garden unit of Darden restaurantsThe company faced stiff competition and sales dropped by $0.6 million.
Year
Name
Former position
Significant change in Burger King
2004-2006Gregory BrennemanPresidant and COO of Continental AirlinesCreated ‘a turnaround’ plan named as ‘Go Forward Plan’ which included –
1) Grow profitably,
2) Fire up the customer,
3) Fund the future, and
4) Work together.
Focussed on cutting costs as ‘Drive-thrus’ generated 70% of company’s business.
Secondly, introduced a new set of products to push sales.
2006 till dateJohn ChidseyChairman and CEO of Cendant CorporationThe company faced a situation of state recession in US economy.
Significant Strategic Business decisions in Burger King History
Considering the growth of company over more than 50 years, its significant strategic decisions and success or failure of the same is listed below:
Years
Significance
Business strategy
Measure of strategy
1954
To
1967
Launch of signature product ‘Whopper’ and created brand image as ‘Home of the Whopper’
Growth of company through minimum investment
Expansion
Franchising
Successful
Company had moved from 45 restaurants within US in 1961 to 274 restaurants across the world, by the end of 1967.
1967
To
1977
Company sold to prepared foods giant ‘Pillsbury’
Expansion
Franchising
Failure
Inconsistency in food and service among the franchises
1977
To
1980
New leadership by hiring McDonald’s executive Donald Smith
Company enters UK market
Restructuring
New team management
Control over franchises
Successful
Increase in customer traffic by 15% and increase in ownership by 8 % showing effective and greater control over franchises.
Years
Significance
Business strategy
Measure of strategy
1980
To
1990
1983 – Successful increase in competitive breakfast market
1985 – $100 million to restructure company
1988 – Company plans to market as independent entity and in consequent year 1989 bought by Grand Metropolitan
Hard sell approach
Trade –off or spin –off proposal in late 80’s as an independent entity
Success
Sales up by 19% by $9 million and pre-tax profits up by 9 %

A necessary Evil

I am completely against the proliferation of supermax prisons. Despite the fact that these people who are put in there are put with a reason I still think that this is not a final solution but instead it is a beginning of a bigger problem. The fact that these prisoners will one day be set free and come to join us is actually threatening after looking at the effects these super max prisons have on the victims.

I will want to discuss the effects of these as analyzed in `A Necessary Evil? ` By Vince Beiser

These super max prisons are turning prisoners into mental cases; the set up of these prisons is very different in terms of isolation and activities. Unlike other prisons including Maximum security prisons where inmates can play basketball, work in the laundry room or in the dining room, the super max prison one can hardly take in to any activity, there aren’t any jobs, nothing educational.
You are left alone and there is no human contact! One is locked in a room of 8 – by – 10 foot almost the whole time. One can not even see other prisoners or the prison guards. It is truly a cage of isolation. These places are meant for those prisoners who commit crimes while in prison and therefore can be as ‘prison in prison’
When one is left in such isolation for a long period, a lot of things are likely to happen affecting especially the psychology of the victim. ‘Psychiatrists, activists and some correctional officials say the intense isolation of supermaxes is producing prisoners who are uncontrollably furious and sometimes violently deranged. Most of those Prisoners will one day be set free.
In the past three years, in fact, Nearly 1,000 California SHU inmates at the end of their sentences were moved to less-restrictive prisons for just a few weeks, and then released’. As seen from Dr. Stuart study of effects of solitary confinement for a period longer than two decades, the examination was on more than one hundred super max prisons and his conclusion was: super max can literally drive inmates crazy.
The fact that there are many cases of people who never suffered psychiatric illnesses but once they went through super max prisons they developed such illness. This is enough good prove that these institutions are doing more harm than good. People going through these institutions are expected to come out worse than they were in the beginning.
Dr Terry Kupers, a psychiatrist based in Oakland who has many years of experience in prison work had this to say “I’ve almost never seen self-mutilation among adult males anywhere else, but it’s very common in SHUs.” At the landmark Madrid v. Gomez federal trial in 1995 over conditions at Pelican Bay, even the prison’s senior staff psychologist acknowledged seeing psychiatric deterioration among some SHU prisoners.
There are problems faced and experienced by the prison in the super max prisons such as hypersensitivity to external stimuli, paranoia and sometimes hallucinations. Prisoners some time develop panic attacks, hostile fantasies involving revenge, torture, mutulatuion and outbursts. This at times gets to higher extents and the prisoner can even gorge out their eyes, they can bite chucks of their own flesh…
The speech of one prisoner featured is “Matthew Lowe’ he confesses that in his years at the super max prison he only had a chance to speak to five or six people in the whole period of three years. He says that he just sat there and thought of doing something crazy all the time.
He has known that since then he has become paranoid and jumpy; ‘”So many times I’ve come so close to snapping since I got out,” he says. “One time in a store, someone cut in front of me in line—a 50-year-old guy, I don’t think he even realized it. I had to catch myself, because my first thought was just to smash him.”
An interview conducted to the other prisoners of the regular prisons support the fact that those in the supermax prisons are getting damaged psychologically was by Dr. Grassian. Almost all the inmates interviewed including one correctional officer admiited that other prisoners suffer serious mental deterioration in the SHU; they could be heard screaming, banging on doors cutting themselves.

Styrofoam As Glue

Abstract
Mosquito repellents are essentially required these days. Mosquito coils are one of the cheapest and effective way of avoiding them, but this coils are made up of chemicals which can harm our health. So we thought about making a substitute mosquito coil that is not harmful to our health and that is the Anstor katol a natural and environmental friendly coil.
Introduction

Background of the Study:
We chose this project because a mosquito coil made up from natural mosquito repelling plants will remove the health problems caused by commercial mosquito repellents. oregano and lemongrass are easy to find and very common and also if this project succeed this can be profitable for business and can encourage others to look for other use of our country’s natural resources.
Statement of the problem:
Recent studies showed that the smoke generated from burning mosquito coil is of certain health concerns– a person being exposed to the smoke coming from the coil may suffer severe head ache, nausea and vomiting, the condition will be severe among asthmatic patients. The emission of formaldehyde from one burning coil can be as high as that released from 51 burning cigarettes. This is because of the chemicals found in mosquito coils. Making a mosquito coil out of natural ingredients may remove these problems.
Objectives:
Have an alternative solution to prevent the different kind of diseases that mosquito brings especially dengue fever and not cause another problem. Make use of the natural resources of our country to solve common problems caused by mosquitoes, especially dengue.
Significance of the Study:
The importance of our project is that we’ll be able to make a mosquito coil that is not harmful to our health and to kill mosquitoes that are vector-carriers of dengue.
Scope and Delimitation:
This project tackles on making a mosquito coil that is made up of natural ingredients that is not harmful to human health. Our project also tackles the protection of human beings against mosquito bites that cause diseases.
Review of Related Literature:
Mosquito coil is a Mosquito-repelling incense, it is usually shaped spiral. The coil is usually held at the centre of the spiral, suspending it in the air, or wedged by two pieces of fireproof nettings to allow continuous smouldering. Burning usually begins at the outer end of the spiral and progresses slowly toward the centre of the spiral, producing a mosquito-repellent smoke. A typical mosquito coil can measure around 15 cm in diameter.
Oregano is a medicinal herb known for its antioxidant and anti-microbial, anti-parasitic properties. It is used for the treatment of indigestion problems, muscle pain, insect bites, and menstruation symptoms, bacterial and fungal infections. Dried leaves of oregano are commonly used for the therapeutic purposes it contains iron, vitamins, calcium, magnesium, copper, niacin and thiamine.
Oregano plant has been used for the treatment of various diseases since thousands of years back. Medical researches reveal that oregano contains antioxidants , anti-microbial and anti-parasitic compounds. Considering these medicinal properties, the studies are ongoing to use oregano for the treatment of severe diseases such as cancer, heart disease and muscular degeneration.
An antioxidant nature of oregano is evident from the presence of thymol and rosmarinic acid. These compounds help in scavenging free radicals, thus preventing cell damage and membrane alteration. The amount of antioxidant present in a tablespoon of fresh oregano and a medium-sized apple are the same.
The volatile oil carvacrol present in oregano inhibits the growth of bacteria and other parasitic organisms. Some studies found this medicinal herb to be more effective in killing Giardia than the prescription drugs. Oregano supplements are also used for external and internal fungal infections.
Herbal tea prepared with oregano helps in alleviation of headache, urinary problems, lung disorders, diarrhea, nausea, vomiting and jaundice. Oregano boiled in plain water can be used as a mouthwash. Gargling with this water can help to prevent tooth infection and sore throat. Oregano oil applied directly to the infected tooth helps in combating toothache. Ground oregano leaves soothe artthrisis pain, insect bites and other skin problems. Its bitter taste and strong aroma help in controlling head lice.
Mosquito’s abound in tropical countries like the Philippines. They have been pestering land vertebrates for millions of years. Insecticides are either too harmful to both man and the environment or too expensive for the consumers. The purpose of this study is to create an environment-friendly, safe, effective and cheap mosquito repellant.
Weeping willow leaves, tubang bakod seeds, tubang bakod seed hulls, onion peelings and almaciga sap were collected. The solid ones were pulverized and mixed together in three pans in 1:1:1:2:4 ratio. Two of the pans were given different amounts of the oil extracted from tubang bakod seed while the remaining one was given none. The mixtures were allowed to dry and were tested on mosquitoes for effectivity and on humans for acceptability. The results showed that tubang bakod has a significant repelling effect on mosquitoes.Continue Reading here

internet literacy discussion

 For this discussion, you will need to address all of the questions below and be sure to participate fully by responding to your classmates as well. Citations should be used to support your analysis and references should be included in APA format. Be sure to review the Discussion Question Guidelines before you begin!
For this discussion, you will use Microsoft PowerPoint to advertise yourself. You should have at least nine (9) slides of information plus a title slide for your presentation for a total of ten (10) slides. Follow the directions below.

Create a new PowerPoint presentation and save it with the file name of W5DQ_LastName.pptx.
Choose a slide design that suits you. On your first (title) slide, include a title of your choosing to introduce yourself. In the subheading, include the course number, assignment number, and your name.
Create seven slides where you can share your hobbies, interesting times in your life, or just different things about you. You should not include any personal information such as your address, social security number, student ID, or anything sensitive that you would not share with a stranger. Keep any personal information about yourself, your friends, or your family private. Make sure that whatever you choose to share is classroom-appropriate and does not contain nudity, profanity, vulgarity, obscenity, or anything illegal.
Create one slide that will be an “invitation” to your graduation party. Identify the who, what, when, where, and why of the party details. Include appropriate graphics and text formatting to make your invitation appealing.
You will also include one slide that addresses your computer safety. Include your references in the Notes section.
All slides should be formatted creatively and appropriately.
Use the Notes section to describe the special creative touches you added so you make sure you get credit for them. This is a chance to explore the creative features of the software. Have fun and be creative.

Ways Of Preventing Maternal Death Health And Social Care Essay

A maternal decease is “ the decease of adult females while pregnant or within 42 yearss of expiration of gestation, irrespective of the continuance or site of the gestation, from any cause related to or aggravated by gestation or its direction, but non from inadvertent causes ” . [ 1 ] Many people die from pregnancy-related causes and over 90 % of them occur in developing or under-developed states. Reducing maternal mortality by 75 % by 2015 has been one of the United Nations Millennium ends. [ 2 ] The causes of maternal decease vary from infection to gestational high blood pressure to complications of insecure or unhygienic abortions and many more. Many developing states lack equal wellness attention and household planning. Basic exigency obstetric intercessions, indispensable household planning methods, adequate wellness attention are far from the range of a pregnant adult female in a underdeveloped state. Forty-five per centum of postnatal deceases go on within the first twenty-four hours itself and little more than 60 % occur during the first hebdomad. Of the estimated 211 million gestations, 46 million consequences in induced abortions, more than 50 % of these abortions are insecure and do 68,000 deceases yearly. [ 3 ] The International Safe Motherhood Conference was held in Kenya in 1987. It brought to the attending of the universe communities of the annihilating effects of lifting maternal mortality rates in developing states and officially established the Safe Motherhood Initiative. The primary purpose was to diminish maternal mortality by 50 % by 2000, besides conveying to the attending of the planetary community the quandary of pregnant adult females. In the beginning patrons, United Nations ( UN ) bureaus and authoritiess of states focused on the improvement of prenatal attention, preparation of birth attenders, since these schemes failed, the universe reaffirmed its committedness in 2000 and stipulated a decrease in maternal mortality of 75 % by 2015. [ 2 ] Target 5.A:

Reduce by three quarters, between 1990 and 2015, the maternal mortality ratio
5.1 Maternal mortality ratio 5.2 Proportion of births attended by skilled wellness forces
The lending factors to maternal mortality in most developing states circulate around 3 holds. [ 4 ] The first hold would be that of the female parent, the household or the community who fail to acknowledge an at hand job or life -threatening status. [ 4 ] Many deceases occur within first 24 hour of postpartum. In most rural communities births occur at place with unskilled attenders who do non hold the accomplishment to find and forestall serious results and medical cognition to name and move on their complications. The 2nd hold would is the that in accessing a wellness attention installation. [ 4 ] It can be either due to hapless route conditions, deficiency of equal transit or even due to locations of these installations. The 3rd hold is the health- attention installation itself. [ 4 ] Resource -poor states with their fragile wellness attention systems and installations which do non hold much needed engineering or services necessary to supply critical attention. Due to inefficient intervention, and deficiency of accomplishment and supplies many adult females die each twelvemonth.
CONCEPTS AND PROGRESS
The highest Numberss of births per twelvemonth ( 27 million ) in the universe takes topographic point in India. [ 4 ] It has a maternal mortality of about 300-500 per 100,000 births and about 150000 maternal deceases take topographic point every twelvemonth in India, which is about 20 % of planetary maternal decease. [ 5,6 ] The calamity is these deceases are that they are mostly preventable. Therefore India ‘s proficiency in the decrease of maternal wellness is critical to the planetary accomplishment of Millennium Development Goal 5 ( MDG 5 ) . Based on grounds, intercessions for cut downing maternal mortality should strategically aim the chief causes of maternal decease.
EMERGENCY OBESTERTIC CARE ( EMOC )
EMOC is one of the most cost effectual schemes implemented to cut down maternal deceases. [ 7 ] As it has been found that many maternal deceases occur due to obstetric exigencies that erupt all of a sudden at the oncoming of labour or instantly after. Availability of EMOC services in India is extremely lacking due to miss of focal point and limited direction capacity. EMOC was non successfully implemented and the authorities does non supervise how they function. The official attack is to advance institutional bringings and develop community wellness attention. It is doubted that this scheme will hold any consequence as bulk of bringings in India take topographic point at places in distant small towns. In 1992 India launched its first Child Survival and Safe Motherhood plan followed by Reproductive and Child wellness in 1997. [ 8 ] The former plan aimed at advancing medical aid at bringing, proviso of sterile bringing kits and beef uping referral units that deal with high hazard and obstetric exigencies through Emergency obstetric attention ( EOC ) .The latter plan aimed at direction of unwanted gestations and one of their chief purposes was to supply quality integrated and sustainable primary wellness attention services to adult females of generative age group. [ 8 ] Recently The National Rural Health Mission was launched in 2005 that aimed to specifically make the households populating below the poorness line with much required wellness services. Besides, new reforms which aimed at developing small town wellness attention workers and advancing institutional bringings were to be patronized. [ 9 ] Under the NHRM a new strategy known as `janani express ‘ was launched in a province called Madhya Pradesh to supply nonstop free transit installations to pregnant adult females to wellness attention centres and infirmaries in rural parts thereby guaranting best possible attention when pre and post- bringing exigency conditions would originate both for the female parent and the baby involved. [ 10 ] ANTENATAL, INTRA NATAL AND POSTNATAL CARE
The consensus among international organisations and India is that maternal quality attention is required throughout a adult females ‘s generative life. From planing inducements to increase results during from ante-partum period through intra-partum to postpartum period. Promoting maternal and child wellness has been an built-in of the Government of India.
Safe maternity and Child wellness services were incorporated into the Reproductive and Child wellness plan ( Ministry of wellness and household public assistance 1997,1998b ) .The of import components of these plans include supplying prenatal attention, which includes at least 3 prenatal attention visits, Fe prophylaxis for pregnant and breastfeeding female parents, observing and handling anaemia in female parents, two doses of lockjaw toxoid vaccinum and direction and referral of bad gestations. Encouragement of institutional bringings or place bringings assisted by trained wellness forces was advocated. Supplying postpartum attention including three postpartum visits. Assorted intercessions such as attempts to turn to and handle postnatal bleeding and infections by supplying Pitocins and antibiotics in wellness attention installations have been implemented. Besides manual remotion of placenta, blood transfusion, hysterectomy processs, intervention of eclampsia with antiepileptics have been addressed. [ 11 ] Midwife
In pre independent India, many efforts were made for bettering safe obstetrics accomplishments. From puting up an Advisory commission on Maternal mortality in India to constitutions of a `dai ‘s ” ( obstetrics ) school in Amristar in 1980. However, the focal point on safe maternity and skilled aid shifted when India adopted new policies. In 1960, to supply indispensable maternal and kid wellness services, India created a model of two twelvemonth trained rural accoucheuse ( ANMs ) .Their appellation as “ auxillairy ” unluckily threatened their position and map as accoucheuses though they well fitted the definition of a skilled birth attender. Majority of the ANM ‘s lacked the needed cognition and accomplishments to supply maternal attention and support. Under intense authorities force per unit area, The INC ( Indian nursing council ) revised the ANM preparation class, and the function of ANM changed from a maternal wellness attention worker to household planning and immunisation ( 1966 ) .Abolishment of institution-based accoucheuses and replacing them with general nurse accoucheuses led to annulment of these preparation plans that were entirely set up for obstetrics. These general nurses were alternated between sections of the infirmary and are besides automatically registered as accoucheuses. Since most births in India are domiciliary bringings, the demand to supply skilled birth attending at community degree is high. [ 12 ] Besides, in certain countries such as the province of Tamil Nadu, hard currency inducements were provided in a strategy aiming adult females under poorness line known as the Dr. Muthulakshmi Reddy Scheme to assist adult females back up themselves during gestation period, childbearing and postal natal period through nutrition and equal conveyance. [ 13 ] HEALTH CARE SYSTEM AND POLICIES IN INDIA
Improved health-care system ensures decrease of maternal mortality, thereby bettering the general wellness of a state. Measuring and measuring the advancement a state makes poses a challenge. The authorities of India has been implementing assorted jobs to undertake these issues. In 1997, the Reproductive and Child wellness ( RCH ) plan was launched aimed at universalising immunisation, prenatal attention and skilled attending during bringing. Reduction maternal mortality was an of import end RCH-2 that was launched in 2005. Incentives were given to staff to promote round the clock OBs services at wellness attention installations. [ 11 ] The National Rural wellness mission ( NRHM ) which was formed in 2005 aimed at beef uping wellness attention systems in rural countries. Under NRHM, the Janani Suraksha Yojana ( JSY ) plan, the pregnancy benefit strategy, was introduced in 2005, hard currency aid was provided to adult females who deliver in wellness installations. [ 9 ] NGO ‘s such as SAHAYOG are working to advance maternal wellness through partnerships with other organisations to increase community adult females ‘s entree to maternal wellness services, besides to advance adult females generative rights. To carry through these aims the Maternal Health and Right plans uses human rights-based attacks through instance certification, runs research, monitoring, protagonism and policy shapers, and media. This plan seeks to understand worlds of maternal wellness. They work at province degree with the aid of Women ‘s Health Rights Forum ( Mahila Swasthya Adhikar Manch ) in raising consciousness of maternal wellness services of rural adult females, at the national degree in edifice alliances around interest holders i.e. adult females, wellness service suppliers and policy shapers for bettering maternal wellness and at the international degree by join forcesing among safe maternity and human rights organisations from around the universe. [ 14 ] Target 5.B:
Achieve, by 2015, cosmopolitan entree to reproductive wellness
5.3 Contraceptive prevalence ratey 5.4 Adolescent birth rate 5.5 Antenatal attention coverage ( at least one visit and at least four visits ) 5.6 Unmet demand for household planning
Over the decennaries there has been a significant addition in the demand for consciousness of generative wellness in India to control the of all time turning birth rate. In 1951, The Family Welfare Program was set up with an aim of cut downing birth rate and doing it consistent with the demand of national economic system. Besides to confirm the authorities committedness towards the citizens availing generative wellness attention services. Due to increase in fiscal investings of the authorities, assorted plans covering with immunisation, gestation, bringing and preventative and healing wellness has been provided. In order to cut down the birth rate, rubbers and unwritten preventives pills were provided free or sold at subsidised rates. Intrauterine devices such as CU-T were supplied free of cost to all the provinces. [ 15 ] A strategy known as the Sterilization beds strategy was introduced in 1964 in order to supply installations like tubectomy operations in wellness attention centres when instances such as these could non be admitted due to miss of beds. Besides No-Scalpel Vasectomy Project is being implemented to assist work forces follow male sterilisation and therefore implementing male engagement in the race to restrict of all time turning birth rates. [ 16 ] The Integrated Child Development Scheme ( 1975 ) provides supplement nutrition, wellness attention medical examinations before and after bringing and wellness and nutrition instruction to pregnant adult females and chest eating female parents. [ 17 ] Many strategies were introduced with purposes of puting wellness stations in slums countries and supplying referral services affecting distribution of preventives. The 90 ‘s witnessed a alteration in the quality of household planning services, use of contraceptive method etc. During the fifth five twelvemonth program, the Indian authorities designed schemes to advance and actuate household be aftering methods with the aid of an advertisement bureaus of India which was immense measure in a conservative society like India.
At the start of the millenary, India aimed at cut downing the birthrate rate by presenting inducements such as providing preventives. India claims to be the first state in the universe to establish a countrywide plan by providing prophylactic devices to restrict the population growing. Many ends from bettering poorness, detaining matrimony, honoring Panchayats and Zilla Parshads for their function in universalising the little household norm, advancing literacy plans, accomplishing decrease birth rates were brought approximately. Besides hard currency inducements were provided to female parents who have their first kid after 19 year of age, honoring twosomes who come below the poorness line if they decide to get married after making legal nubile age of 21.
Decision
India has shown singular advancement in cut downing maternal mortality by presenting clever alterations within the bing model of organisational set-up, resources and restraints. Overshadowing political precedence and constitutional policies of province authoritiess to cut down maternal mortality has been a steering force. India is traveling easy towards accomplishing mark of MDG 5, but to accomplish them within the stipulated clip bound, it will necessitate to speed up gait of intercessions, despite stray illustrations of advancement, national and planetary attending to maternal and child wellness.
REFRENCES
[ 1 ] The International Classification of Diseases, Injuries and Causes of Death – 9th alteration ( ICD9 )
[ 2 ] World Health Organization ( WHO ) , authorsyThe World Health Report 2005: Make Every Mother and Child Count.yGeneva, Switzerland: WHO ; 2005. [ Accessed June 25, 2008 ] .http: //www.who.int/whr/2005/whr2005_en.pdf.
[ 3 ] 1.yUnited Nations, authors.yUN Millennium Development Goals Web site.y [ Accessed June 25, 2008 ] .http: //www.un.org/millenniumgoals/
[ 4 ] 3.yMaternal United Nations Population Fund ( UNFPA ) , authorsyMaternal Mortality Update 2002: A Focus on Emergency Obstetric Care.yNew York: UNFPA ; 2003. [ Accessed July 7, 2008 ] .http: //www.unfpa.org/upload/lib_pub_file/201_filename_mmupdate-2002.pdf.
[ 5 ] Maternal mortality in India: 1997-2003. Tendencies, causes and hazard factors. New
Delhi: Registrar General ; 2006.
[ 6 ] National Family Health Survey ( NFHS-2 ) Key Findings. International Institute
for Population Sciences ; 1998-99. p.12.
. [ 7 ] Maine D. Safe maternity plans: options and issues. Columbia
University ; 1993.
[ 8 ] Ved RR, Dua AS. Review of adult females and kids ‘s wellness in India: focal point on safe maternity [ Background paper for “ Burden of Disease in India ” ] . National Commission on Macroeconomics and Health Publication, India ; 2005.
[ 9 ] National Rural Health Mission model for Execution 2005 – 2010. New Delhi: Ministry of Health and Family Welfare, Government of India ; 2005.yy
[ 10 ] Janani Express Yojana: Madhya Pradesh, hypertext transfer protocol: //india.gov.in/citizen/health/viewscheme.php? schemeid=2055
[ 11 ] The National Child Survival and Safe Motherhood Programme. Ministry of Health and Family Welfare, Government of India, 1992.yy yy
[ 12 ] y Mavalankar D, Vora K. Changing function of subsidiary nurse accoucheuse in India.
[ 13 ] World Health Organization Regional Office for South East Asia, 2009. Safer Pregnancy in Tamil Nadu: From vision to Reality 2009
[ 14 ] SAHAYOG, hypertext transfer protocol: //www.sahayogindia.org/
[ 15 ] Family Welfare Programme in India, hypertext transfer protocol: //mohfw.nic.in/dofw % 20website/family % 20welfare % 20programme/intro.htm
[ 16 ] Family Welfare Programme in India, No-Scalpel Vasectomy plan, hypertext transfer protocol: //mohfw.nic.in/dofw % 20website/family % 20welfare % 20programme/nsv/intro.htm
[ 17 ] Integrated Child development Services ( ICSD ) Scheme, hypertext transfer protocol: //wcd.nic.in/icds.htm

Civility in the Workplace

 
Purpose
This week’s graded discussion topic relates to the following Course Outcome (CO).

CO 6: Develop a personal awareness of complex organizational systems, and integrate values and beliefs with organizational mission. (PO 7)

Discussion
Complete the Clark Workplace Civility Index Assessment (Links to an ext
 
After you are finished, read the assigned article:
Lachman, V. D. (2015). Ethical issues in the disruptive behaviors of incivility, bullying, and horizontal/lateral violence. Urologic Nursing, 35(1), 39-42. Retrieved from https://chamberlainuniversity.idm.oclc.org/login?url=http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=c9h&AN=100927729&site=eds-live&scope=site (Links to an exter
 
Next watch the video by clicking on the link below.
Civility in the Workplace
Transcript (Links to an external site.)
 
Reflect on what you observed in the video as you answer the following:

Based on what you observed, what leadership skills should you, as Masaya’s preceptor, model for your fellow coworkers to promote his acceptance into the work-group or team.
Does incivility seem to be an issue in the scenario?
Describe any common themes you discovered among the article, the video and the Civility Index
Do you think delegation played a part in this issue? 

Compare of the Poets Present Emotions in the Poems In Paris With You and Ghazal

In these poems, the poets use a range of techniques to present feelings and emotion from the point of the speaker. Ghazal is in the style of a traditional Persian love poem, which puts forward powerful imagery and metaphors, in an attempt to summarise the emotion of love, while In Paris With You is a playful attempt to woo a previous lover in a more informal, colloquial way. Ghazal, as mentioned before, is written like a love poem. However, one may consider it an example of role reversal- unusually; it is written from the point of view of a woman, not a man.
Although it is not a sonnet, the form of poem is a Ghazal- this is a type of song, of mystical love poetry: we can thus compare it to a sonnet in the way that love is explored as a theme. It is structured in rhyming couplets- these can be described like poems themselves, as they capture the speaker’s strong feeling of attachment. These also contain refrain words, which help to drive in the points being made, such as “me”, which forms part of the weak rhyme scheme.
The love in the poem can be seen in the first stanza- “If I am the grass and you the breeze, blow through me/ If I am the rose and you the bird, then woo me”. These examples of natural imagery mean we can see how the idea of the speaker and the person they address being together is beneficial- in fact, drawing from the imagery, we could go further and say that the idea is a natural (good) thing. Another emotion present is longing. This is the feeling of desperation to be with the other person talked to.

Focusing on the language used, Ghazal makes extensive use of metaphors to explore the relationship between the speaker and the person they feel love for. Many of the metaphors are in the form of pairs of items or objects that complement each other, reflecting the way in which the speaker sees the relationship. For example, “what shape should I take to marry your own, have you- hawk to my shadow, moth to my flame – pursue me? ” showcases the idea that the speaker is willing to transform to suit the other, in “…what shape…”. This could also be a cue to the reader that the writer is perhaps lacking in some confidence..
Another example is “If you are the rhyme and I the refrain don’t hang/ on my lips, come and I’ll come too when you cue me”: using enjambment to keep the poem flowing like a song. Also, the two sides of a relationship are likened to being like the “rhyme” and “refrain”, which suggests a sense of the two people being one unit together. This refrain could be the word “me”: because it appears so frequently in comparison, it could be a representation of the lover showing inferiority to the one she loves, and desperation. In Paris with You is a poem with a theme of longing also.
The speaker is this time a man recounting a relationship he had moved on from. Perhaps this could have been partly due to a certain partiality to drinking alcohol, which we are told about in “And I get tearful/when I’ve had a drink or two”. “I’m on the rebound” shows that it must have been rather long-term, if he is describing a recovery from it. Unlike Ghazal, which is less clear about the outcome, In Paris with You suggests that the relationship is a reality. The poem, unlike Ghazal, is made up of two stanzas of about 5 lines, which deal with the run-up to the situation, and then a longer one in the middle,.
It could be argued that this represents a pause for thought, as then the mood, or tone, of the poem changes, as in the next two stanzas, the speaker focuses on enjoying the present, such as “that crack across the ceiling/ and the hotel walls are peeling/ and I’m in Paris with you”, which shows that the speaker does not care for the surroundings when he is with the woman he loves. Indeed, this could be described as the summary of the poem, or meaning- us being together is far more important than being in traditional romantic and beautiful locations, such as the Notre Dame (more beautiful than romantic), which he promptly tells to “sod off”.
In terms of language, the opening is not like Ghazal’s in the respect that it starts with the negative “but”, to discourage the person he is talking to from “talk(ing) to me of love”. This is an opportunity to recognise the colloquial nature of the poem, such as the use of the phrases “an earful”, and “sod off to sodding Notre-Dame”. This contrasts heavily with the more formal, overwritten tone present in Ghazal. We can also see this as the speaker makes words to carry on his rhyme scheme, such as “wounded/ marooned”, which brings a playful nature.
Similarly, the final stanza draws heavily on the phrase “in Paris with you”, to show the importance of being with the person he wants to be with, and then “am I embarrassing you? ” is used to add to the teasing nature of the tone. Looking to the tone, which we have just looked at, I believe that another emotion brought forward is playfulness, in the way that more orthodox methods of seducing people are turned down in favour of just being with each other, albeit in a way that uses references to “embarrassing” ideas about romance, and love poems.
In conclusion, the two poems Ghazal and In Paris with You deal with the same topics of love and longing, using techniques such as imagery, contrast, and metaphor achieve these pictures, but the latter feels more like a pastiche to the first in the way that its colloquial and abrupt humorous tone is a juxtaposition to the comparatively formal of the first.

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Production Cost Analysis and Estimation Applied Problems
Please complete the following two applied problems:

Problem 1:

William is the owner of a small pizza shop and is thinking of increasing products and lowering costs. William’s pizza shop owns four ovens and the cost of the four ovens is $1,000. Each worker is paid $500 per week.
Workers employed
Qty of pizzas produced per week
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
0
75
180
360
600
900
1140
1260
1360
Show all of your calculations and processes. Describe your answer for each question in complete sentences, whenever it is necessary.

Which inputs are fixed and which are variable in the production function of William’s pizza shop? Over what ranges do there appear to be increasing, constant, and/or diminishing returns to the number of workers employed?
What number of workers appears to be most efficient in terms of pizza product per worker?
What number of workers appears to minimize the marginal cost of pizza production assuming that each pizza worker is paid $500 per week?
Why would marginal productivity decline when you hire more workers in the short run after a certain level?
How would expanding the business affect the economies of scale? When would you have constant returns to scale or diseconomies of scale? Describe your answer.

Problem 2:

The Paradise Shoes Company has estimated its weekly TVC function from data collected over the past several months, as TVC = 3450 + 20Q + 0.008Q2 where TVC represents the total variable cost and Q represents pairs of shoes produced per week. And its demand equation is Q = 4100 – 25P. The company is currently producing 1,000 pairs of shoes weekly and is considering expanding its output to 1,200 pairs of shoes weekly. To do this, it will have to lease another shoe-making machine ($2,000 per week fixed payment until the lease period ends). 

Show all of your calculations and processes. Describe your answer for each item below in complete sentences, whenever it is necessary.

Describe and derive an expression for the marginal cost (MC) curve.
Describe and estimate the incremental costs of the extra 200 pairs per week (from 1,000 pairs to 1,200 pairs of shoes).
What are the profit-maximizing price and output levels for Paradise Shoes? Describe and calculate the profit-maximizing price and output.
Discuss whether or not Paradise Shoes should expand its output further beyond 1,200 pairs per week. State all assumptions and qualifications that underlie your recommendation.

Sociology Investigation

The Sociological Investigation ~ These notes are taken and adapted from Macionis, John J. (2012). Sociology (14th Edition). Boston: Pearson Education Inc. There are two basic requirements for sociological investigation:

Know how to apply the sociological perspective or paradigms or what C. Wright Mills termed as the “sociological imagination. ”

Be curious and ready to ask questions about the world around you. There are three ways to do Sociology. These three ways are considered as research orientations:

A. Positivist Sociology
Positivist sociology studies society by systematically observing social behaviour.

Also known as scientific sociology.
It includes introducing terms like independent variable, dependent variables, correlation, spurious correlation, control, replication, measurement, cause and effect, as well as operationalizing a variable1.
Positivist sociology requires that researcher carefully operationalize variables and ensuring that measurement is both reliable and valid.
It observes how variables are related and tries to establish cause-and-effect relationships. It sees an objective reality “out there. ”
Favours quantitative data (e. g. data in numbers; data from surveys).
Positivist sociology is well-suited to research in a laboratory.
It demands that researchers be objective2 and suspend their personal values and biases as they conduct research.
There are at least FOUR limitations to scientific / positivist sociology.
Positivist sociology is loosely linked to the structural-functional approach / paradigm / perspective.

B. Critical Sociology

Critical sociology uses research to bring about social change. It asks moral and political questions.
It focuses on inequality.

Specifying exactly what is to be measured before assigning a value to a variable (Macionis: 2012, p. 50).
Personal neutrality in conducting research (Macionis: 2012, p. 50)

It rejects the principle of objectivity, claiming that ALL researches are political. Critical sociology corresponds to the social-conflict approach / paradigm / perspective.

C. Interpretive Sociology

Interpretive sociology focuses on the meanings that people attach to their behaviour. It sees reality as constructed by people in the course of their everyday lives.
It favours qualitative data (e. g. data acquired through interviews).
It is well-suited to research in a natural setting.
Interpretive sociology is related to the symbolic-interaction approach / paradigm / perspective. Gender and Research Gender3, involving both researcher and subjects, can affect research in five ways:

Androcentricity (literally, “focus on the male”)
Overgeneralising
Gender blindness
Double standards
Interference Research Ethics

Researchers must consider and do the following things when conducting research:

Protect the privacy of subjects / respondents.
Obtain the informed consent of subjects / respondents.
Indicate all sources of funding.
Submit research to an institutional review board to ensure it does NOT violate ethical standards.
There are global dimensions to research ethics.

Before beginning research in another country, an investigator must become familiar enough with that society to understand what people there are likely to regard as a violation of privacy or a source of personal danger.
Research and the Hawthorne Effect Researchers need to be aware that subjects’ or respondents’ behaviour may change simply because they are getting special attention, as one classic experiment revealed. Refer to Elton Mayo’s investigation into worker productivity in a factory in Hawthorne, near Chicago. 3 The personal traits and social positions that members of a society attach to being female or male (Macionis: 2012, p. 50).
The term Hawthorne Effect is defined as a change in a subject’s behaviour caused simply by the awareness that s/he is being studied. Methods: Strategies for Doing Sociological Research
There are the basic FOUR methods:
A. Experiment

This research method allows researchers to study cause-and-effect relationships between two or more variables in a controlled setting.
Researchers conduct an experiment to test a hypothesis, a statement of a possible relationship between two (or more variables).
This research method collects mostly quantitative data.
Example of an experiment: Philip Zimbardo’s “Stanford County Prison. ”

o Advantages Provides the greatest opportunity to specify cause-and-effect relationships. Replication of research is relatively / quite easy. Limitations Laboratory settings have an artificial quality to it. Unless the lab environment is carefully controlled, results may be biased too.
B. Survey and/or Interview

This research method uses questionnaires or interviews to gather subjects’ / respondents’ responses to a series of questions.
Surveys usually yield or produce descriptive findings, painting a picture of people’s views on some issues.
This research method collects mostly qualitative data.
Example of a survey: Lois Benjamin’s research on the effects of racism on African American men and women.

She chose to interview subjects / respondents rather than distribute a questionnaire. o Advantages Sampling, using questionnaires, allows researchers to conduct surveys of large populations or a large number of people. Interviews provide in-depth responses. o Limitations Questionnaires must be carefully prepared so that the questions and instructions are clear and not confusing. Questionnaires may yield low response / return rate from the target respondents. Interviews are expensive and time-consuming.
C. Participant observation
Through participant observation, researchers join with people in a social setting for an extended period of time.

Researchers also play two roles, as a participant (overt role) and as an observer (covert role).
This method allows researchers an “inside look” at a social setting.
This research method is also called fieldwork.
Since researchers are not attempting to test a specific hypothesis, their research is exploratory and descriptive.
This participant observation research method collects qualitative data.
Example of participant observation: William Foote Whyte’s “Street Corner Society. o Advantages It allows for the study of “natural” behaviour. Usually inexpensive. o Limitations Time-consuming. Replication of research is difficult. Researcher must balance role of participant and observer.

D. Existing or Secondary sources

Researchers analyse existing sources, data which had been collected by others.
This research method is also called library research or archive research.
By using existing or secondary sources, especially the widely available data by government agencies, researchers can save time and money.
Existing sources are the basis of historical research. Example of using existing sources:

E. Digby
Baltzell’s award-winning study “Puritan Boston and Quaker Philadelphia. ” How could it be, Baltzell wondered, during a chance visit to Bowdein College in Maine, USA, that this small college had graduated more famous people in a single year than his own, much bigger University of Pennsylvania had graduated in its entire history? o Advantages Saves time, money and effort of data collection. Makes historical research possible. o Limitations Researcher has no control over possible biases in data. Data may only partially fit current research needs.

Self-esteem and gender

The purpose of this finding is to understand the relations between gender and self- esteem using the method of convenience sample survey Coopersmith Self-Esteem Inventory. This survey included 6 male and 21 female college students, total n=27 to predict self-esteem levels of each gender. In this study, the PV= gender, the OD= self- report and demographic, the CV= self-esteem, and another OD= score on survey.
Researchers will use data collected to analyze self-esteem levels in both male and female college students. In relation to past studies, the hypothesis for this research s that male college students have higher self-esteem than female college students. However, survey results showed no relations between scores in self-esteem and gender. We cannot predict self-esteem levels based on gender because it is not the main factor. One implication for this study is to have larger representative sample to obtain stronger validity and rule out sampling bias.
Keywords: self-esteem, gender role, Coopersmith Self-Esteem Inventory, predictor variable (PV), operational definition (OD), criterion variable (CV) Introduction Past researches have shown that self-esteem plays an important role in etermining the academic achievement and health levels of both genders. Researchers predicted that there is a relation between gender role and self-esteem. Therefore, many studies have been done to predict the possible outcome of the above hypothesis.

When we try to find out if gender really does play an important role in one’s academic achievement and levels of health, we can try to develop new ways to improve these conditions for both genders. Self-esteem creates huge impacts in each individual living standards and performance, for learning to compare self-esteem level in both genders will help researchers to acquire knowledge about ach gender behavior. Researchers could then apply alternative ways to analyze these behaviors and conduct further psychological studies which will benefit the learning of people’s behaviors in general.
In The Relationship between Gender Type of Sport, Body Dissatisfaction Self- esteem and Disordered Eating behaviors in Division I Athletes (Milligan & Pritchard, 2006), it is shown that women with eating disorders behaviors have body dissatisfaction, and low self-esteem where as men with disorders eating behaviors only have body dissatisfaction. This shows gender is a factor that proves women do not have strong coping skills as men.
Next, the article Linking self-differentiation and mental health in lower grade college students with different genders: Moderating role ot selt-esteem (Yao & explores the association between the selt- differentiation and mental health in both genders, and the results indicate that male students have higher levels of self-esteem than female students. Female students are at higher risk to not seek help for their mental health problems. However, one source disconfirmed these researchers’ earlier hypothesis.
From the Gender differences in domain- specific self-esteem: A meta-analysis (Gentile et, al. 2009) hich examines gender differences in ten specific- domain of self-esteem across one hundred and fifteen studies, there was no relationship in gender differences in academic, social acceptance, family and affect self-esteem. These results rejected our current hypothesis in terms that gender is not a factor in determining individual’s self-esteem levels which cause better achievement in academic and in health. To conclude, gender role has no relationship with self-esteem.
Discussion Our group research finding hypothesis was not supported because we predicted that there is a relation between gender role and self-esteem. After we calculated our onvenience survey Coppersmith Self-esteem Inventory results taken from twenty seven students, both male and females college students at the age of eighteen to thirty five, here are our results: gender, OD = self-report and demographic, CV= self-esteem, OD = CSEI score on survey. Our r value is . 054, df is 25. The critical value for r at a significance level of . 05 (middle column, two-tailed on page 411) is . 3809.
Our r value of . 054 is less than the above r value of . 3809. Our r value is not significant and is very close to zero. This means that there was no relation between our variables, for our results were not significant. Therefore, we found no relation between gender and self-esteem; we cannot predict participants’ self-esteem based on their gender roles. The only source that would support our result finding was the last article in Gender differences in domain- specific self-esteem: A meta- analysis (Gentile et, al. 2009), which we thought it would disconfirm with our earlier hypothesis.
As a result, our prediction was incorrect, for this article supported our current finding. This article indicates gender is not valid predictor variable that can be used to manipulate/calculate the criterion variable, which in this case is a tudent’s self-esteem level. Therefore, gender differences have no impacts on students’ academic, social acceptance, family relationship and affect self-esteem. Since we had a small sample of participants, it was hard to generalize our finding because there was not much to analyze and we also thought this factor affected our results.
Besides, participants’ agreement with the CSEI questionnaires did not guarantee their truthful emotions at the time they were taking the inventory because they had a handful of surveys to complete. The likelihood for participants to have responsive bias in this survey is high. For future studies, we would definitely try to get larger and equal number of participants whom would actually be a representative sample that represent both gender populations. This will help us to obtain stronger validity for the study and rule out sampling bias.
In sum, we feel that understanding self-esteem levels in each individual is very important because it will help us to develop better ways to improve our conditions and adopt new ways to cope with our obstacles. As we learn how self-esteem affects our behaviors, we will have more awareness and perception of our own selves and between both genders. It is significant to note that self-esteem has no relationship with gender because this will help people to eliminate stereotypical views tor botn genders in determining their success in academic, mental health, and physical satisfaction.