The Design and Construction Phases of the Guggenheim Museum in Bilbao

5.“The thing I personally look for is an architectural thought that stands a nice opportunity of lasting the planning system, clients demands, value technology and all the other hurdlings that it will face”Francis Golding
Research an illustration of an architectural undertaking where you consider the thought has survived the hurdlings faced in its development. Explain some of the challenges faced during the design and building procedure. See the functions of the designer, the client and other members of the design and building squad in accomplishing this end, see whether other factors such as the budget and the type of procurance played a function in the success of the undertaking.
The procedure when organizing a edifice is divided into two cardinal phases: The design stage and the building stage, which since the 1990’s have been tightly linked through contractual agreements. Depending on legion factors, such as budget and the type of procurance chosen, either side can be dramatically affected by the other. As a consequence the finished merchandise may non be to the satisfaction of the client, stakeholders or the companies involved. An illustration of a edifice in which both of these stages were completed successfully in every facet is the Guggenheim Museum in Bilbao, by Frank O. Gehry and Associates ( FOG/A ) .

The Client and Advisers
The Guggenheim was a really big graduated table undertaking which was commissioned in 1993 by Consorcio Museo Guggenheim ( CMG ) . This group comprised of the Basque authorities ( Regional ) and the Vizcaya Government ( Provincial ) . They were responsible for funding the undertaking, and the municipality of Bilbao ( Local Government ) donated the site ( REF ) The ground that the authorities proposed to construct an art gallery of such importance, with an iconic designer, was due to the fact that the metropolis of Bilbao was falling into diminution. There was an pressing demand to set building undertakings into action that would renew the country. ( REF )
Because a great trade of money was invested ( ?77m ) a big measure of people involved in both the design and building stages were working for the authorities. CMG put together a squad which oversaw the full procedure, which included:

Legal Consultant
Financial Controller
Communicationss Director
Design Adviser( REF )

Their function, as a foundation, was confer withing and doing certain the undertaking was run intoing their aims. They had “everyday decision-making power” as they were the client. ( Harvard )
Besides confer withing on with the design and building squads was the Solomon R. Guggenheim in New York. They needed someplace to house their unobserved art aggregation – they made a trade with CMG to lend it ( at a cost ) , and partnered with them to make an administration called the Guggenheim Foundation. This gave them entree to the trade name name, Guggenheim. ( Ref hypertext transfer protocol: //www.guggenheim.org/guggenheim-foundation )
Engineers
Besides involved in the undertaking were IDOM, employed as executive designers. ( ref ) They had huge cognition of big scale building. The structural applied scientists were Skidmore, Owings and Merrill ( SOM ) , who besides consulted in the undertaking and formed portion of the design squad.
Procurement
CMG established a clear set of demands for IDOM to run into:

“ The Executive Architect ( IDOM ) shall be responsible for run intoing the mark cost, with a fiscal punishment if it is exceeded.
The museum shall open to the populace before the terminal of 1997.
The museum shall be completed utilizing the highest quality edifice criterions.
The Executive Architect shall maximize the usage of local employees and stuffs for building.
The Executive Architect shall ease the Design Architect’s creativity.”( ref )

To accomplish these marks, chiefly the clip restraint and rigorous budget, it would necessitate careful thought into how the edifice work would be procured. Another factor that had to be considered was that Gehry’s design was ambitious, and utilizing traditional procurance methods would non run into these ends, particularly as FOG/A’s architectural linguistic communication was “less and less derivative of current practice” ( Tombesi, 2002 ) and the fact that “80 % of the building systems and stuffs used in the Bilbao Guggenheim undertaking were wholly advanced in the edifice industry.” ( Harvard p5 )
The design had been efficaciously modelled on the package plan, Catia, antecedently used in the aerospace industry. This was another component that influenced the pick of procurance as it would significantly rush up both the design and the building phase. It would better design communicating between all the companies involved, as the theoretical account could be invariably updated to feed information to all contractors. ( REF ) “One of the cardinal factors in building was the monolithic usage of CAD engineering, something reasonably unusual in architecture. Without this engineering, the Bilbao Guggenheim would still be under building today” ( Harvard p16 )
FOG/A and IDOM decided on seamster doing the contract for the Guggenheim. They required contractors input early on in the design stage so that an effectual theoretical account could be created, that would be every bit near as possible to the architect’s vision, but could besides be constructed precisely like the theoretical account. This would overlap the design and the building processes, and would make more clip to acquire the museum built. However, Tombesi ( 2002 ) cites that due to the fact that it was an institutional and grand-scale public edifice, by jurisprudence they had to use one general contractor. IDOM had experience in big scale undertakings and their method of pull offing them was by dividing the contractual occupations. They managed to carry the public committees deputy in Bilbao that this was the best manner ( Harvard p3 )
FOG/A and IDOM divided the contractual occupations, and called them ‘paquetes’ :

Destruction
Foundations
Structure
Outsides
Insides and Installations
Urban Infrastructure
Furniture, Fixtures and Equipment

After this they began ‘the petition for proposals’ phase. FOG/A prepared preliminary certification which outlined the rudimentss of the design and what was required for each of these paquetes, and sent these off to groups of contractors who could perchance execute these specializer occupations. The method of taking who to direct these to was a challenge for IDOM.
“I was looking for contractors [ … ] who were willing to larn how to construct the undertaking instead than being stiff in adhering to their usual methodologies.” ( Harvard )
The groups who were chosen were comparatively little as “no contractor in the universe had of all time built a undertaking like Bilbao Guggenheim.” ( Harvard ) In response the contractors would subject proposals with elaborate proficient information and how much they could make the undertaking for. ( Tombesi, 2002 )
The contract was named the ‘design-assist process’ ( Figure 1 ) . ( Tombesi, 2002 ) In the diagram, it explains the initial designs and preliminary certification formed by FOG/A and IDOM for a individual paquete. The following phase was to direct out these paperss to contractors ( bomber ) and so take which to use after they have submitted their proposals. In the diagram it shows that FOG/A reimbursed the contractors who were non chosen. After they chose the contractor they had a period of 90 yearss to develop the design with the whole of the design squad. If they fulfilled the contract by the terminal of this so they would be awarded their ‘lump sum’ .

A job that IDOM had with these custom-made paquetes was specifically to make with the exterior design. Five companies met the specifications/requirements which IDOM needed to do the building of the complex outside possible ; These companies were sent command paperss and invited to subject proposals. Three of these companies responded, but all were over the set budget. The jurisprudence restricted IDOM from taking any of these proposals despite pricing, so a new petition for commands was issued. IDOM besides teamed up with the staying contractors to clear up design and pricing so that doing this command was possible. Two companies matched the mark cost this clip about and the determination was made, with the aid of CMG, to take Balzola ( a spot about the company? ) ( HARVARD )
The initial pick for the cladding stuff of the Guggenheim was hand-polished chromium steel steel, so the first command paperss were organised with this merchandise in head. However FOG/A were diffident that it was the appropriate stuff for the occupation, and were fighting to happen options that would execute good and look aesthetically delighting. Leaded Cu was an option but IDOM were dying that lead would be washed from the rain into the milieus. Therefore Ti became the perfect merchandise to replace the chromium steel steel. The lone exclusion was the disbursal, as it was non an low-cost stuff. Fortunately, big measures of it had merely been released onto the market at the right clip for it to be used on the Guggenheim, dramatically cut downing the monetary value. This made it low-cost plenty to suit into the mark cost.
The Budget
The budget or mark cost of the Guggenheim Bilbao was agreed with the client to be 14,028M Pestas, or ?77m in lbs. As a method of run intoing this end and commanding the money spent, IDOM established a system which tracked outgo at regular intervals. This was a elaborate cost estimation, calculated every six hebdomads so that the design squad could compare their advancement to it and entree their design determinations. If their programs exceeded this estimation, so steps would be taken to rapidly propose alternate ways of making the same thing. ( HARVARD )
An illustration of where the cost estimations helped forestall a serious escalation in disbursals was when SOM, the structural applied scientists, sent off to IDOM information on the structural capablenesss of the geometric volumes. A communicating mistake resulted in an underestimate of the weight of the steel frame, and this caused an addition in costs. However, because of the regular cost estimations, this addition was noticed rapidly and early on. This made it possible for the design squad to do a fast response, which involved changing the mark cost and a few facets of the design to maintain within the budget and on agenda. ( HARVARD ) Without this procedure set in topographic point, little inaccuracies would hold been much harder to descry and would hold perchance become much larger mistakes as the undertaking continued.
Construction
In the building stages, everything went swimmingly as the clear communicating of CAD drawings helped contractors and builders understand the design phase. Equally good as this, the imbrication of the design and building stages had sizably reduced the clip it took to finish the undertaking.
However, during the concluding phases of building, timing became a challenge. The exhibitions needed at least six months to be fitted into the edifice, and could non be installed without protection from the exterior. The exterior and interior undertakings needed to be complete for this to be possible. IDOM and FOG/A responded to this job by overlapping the stages of the exterior and interior undertakings even further and the agendas of the contractors involved were reviewed and reorganised to maximize the sum of clip they had staying. ( Harvard ) for illustration, “Balzola was expected to temporarily cover unfinished countries to screen the interiors.” ( HARVARD ) This response allowed work to be completed with synergism.
In decision, the Guggenheim Bilbao was an advanced undertaking at the clip it was built, an illustration of one of the first big graduated table edifices to include CAD in both stages. IDOM and FOG/A custom-made every measure of the design to accommodate its formation, such as the ‘request for packages’ procurance path, and this is what finally granted it the position of an iconic edifice. It “demonstrates a manner of interacting with trade specializers before the completion of contract paperss, and without interrupting competitory tendering.” ( Tombesi 2002 ) And this contributed to meeting:

The clients demands
The budget
The deadline
And doing a high quality edifice

Besides Gehry, as a consequence, had the design freedom to do his vision be constructed precisely as he saw it in his head. On the whole it demonstrates that the system defines the quality, clip and cost of the terminal consequence, every bit good as the input from people working as a squad contributing towards the same end. Although it was something no-one had of all time tried before, and some parts seemed like test and mistake, the edifice was successful in every facet. Every hurdle they faced was met by a strong squad of people.

History assignment

Common Graded Assignment First Scaffolding Post For this assignment, start by identifying your topic and reading up on it in our textbook.  If you have trouble locating it, use the textbook’s search function.   As you read, think about ways you can narrow down the topic to something you can learn about with just two sources (and your textbook).   Then locate TWO primary sources that you might use to learn more about that topic.   See the Final CGA Paper instructions for suggestions about where to look for primary sources and remember you can always ask for some guidance!   
 
What to post: FIRST:  Start by stating your broad topic and explain in 3-4 sentences the main events within that topic that you are going to focus on and why.  For example, if you were doing Reconstruction, you might focus on the reasons why it failed.  Or you might focus on the limits of Republican legislation.   Or you might examine southern resistance to that legislation (like the KKK).  In other words, you are narrowing down your topic from the very broad ones you had to pick from!   5 points SECOND: In the second half of your post, for each of your two chosen primary sources, In a sentence, answer each of these questions about the source: 1. What IS the document and who created it?   1 Point 
 
2. What was the intended purpose of and audience for each document.  1 Point 
 
3. What bias can you see in the document?  Identify at least one.  1.5 Points 
 
4. Sum up the main “take away” from the document – what is the one most important thing you learned from it?  1.5 points 
 
5 points per source for the summary. 15 points total 

Focus On The American Oriented Activities Of An Asian Firm

Business Name: Institution: Focus on the American oriented activities of an Asian firm The economic performance of Asia has increased the interest of American firms in the region. This is evident in the article “Production Networks in East Asia: Strategic Behavior by Japanese and U. S. Firms”. The article explores the strategic behavior of firms in the U. S. And Japan considering the eastern Asia production networks. The article achieves this by comparing the behavior of firms in the aforementioned countries, in East Asia and Latin America.
It is evident that there are strategic similarities in East Asia by the two factions but a significant difference in their approach towards the Latin American market. For instance, the firms from both countries show a similarity in the link between arms length fragmentation and geographical proximity. The different strategies employed for the two regions can be attributed to their diversity. These differences have crucial implications for the policymakers in the American firms venturing into East Asia.
Despite the sentiments against foreign direct investments (Fids), it is evident that the strategy of American firms to use this approach has some positive outcomes for the region. Some of the concerns against FAD is that there is resource exploitation and the substitution of imports. This results in unwelcome political economic tendencies for countries. Despite this, the scenario in East Asia has shown the development of economic strategies that are new. This is due to the support of the required economic climate. This has resulted in the developments witnessed in the region by American firms and their activities.

International Trade International trade has influenced economic growth significantly. These are the sentiment of the article International Trade and its Effects on Economic Growth in China, where the author explores the influence of global trade on china. According to the article, it is evident that the Chinese economy has experienced considerable growth. The growth has made the country a target for the world as a market. The article uses the perspective of production to analyze the economic growth of the country.
The economic reforms to open the Chinese market have been cited to be some of the factors, which have bolstered economic growth. Some of the industries in the region acquired specialization due to their comparative advantages. Considering tans, ten economic development AT ten region coalesces Walt International trace. There are static benefits realized by China due to international trade. This includes imports, which have an embodiment of high technology. The dynamic effects of international trade are the enhancement of human capital.
Despite the politeness experienced by China due to international trade, there are several problems experienced by the country in the economic perspective. For instance, there is a deficiency of intellectual property that is considered independent. In addition, there are development patterns that are unstable. Finally, the absorptive capability in the region is significantly low hence an issue for economic growth. Despite these challenges, it is evident that the development of international trade has been instrumental in the economic progress expensed in China.
References And M, Arrant S W. And Kumara F. (2006). Production Networks in East Asia: Strategic Behavior by Japanese and U. S. Firms. Conference Japan Center for Economic Research. Sun, P and Hesitate A. (2010). International Trade and its Effects on Economic Growth in China. Institute for the Study of Labor. United States International Trade Commission. (2010). Small and Medium-sized Enterprises: U. S. And EX. Export Activities, and Barriers and Opportunities Experienced by U. S. Firms. United States International Trade Commission.

community health assessment

I only need two short paragraphs for each of the titles:  
 
Describes the data necessary to make an informed community health assessment and identifies where the data can be found.
  
Explains how data helps determine the health care needs of a community, as well as gaps in the health care services available.

Describes a strategy for obtaining data needed for a community health assessment, identifies potential obstacles to obtaining the data, and considers secondary options for obtaining the data.
  
Explains a broad range of factors that affect the health and wellness of a community, showing a clear relationship between the factors and the health of the community.
  
Explains how to obtain information on the factors that affect the health and wellness of a community and considers how the information can be used to improve the health and wellness of the community.
  
Explains how to establish the validity and reliability of data used in a community health assessment and identifies options if the data are not found to be valid and reliable.

The main idea that runs through Christianity is that everybody should be treated equally

The main idea that runs through Christianity is that everybody should be treated equally. This is shown when Jesus said “Love one another, as I have loved you, so you must love one another,” (John 13). This means that you should like everybody as Jesus did and so coloured people should not be hated. To any Christian this shows that everyone should get on with one another as Jesus did, nobody is different in any physical form whether they are black or any other different race in the eyes of god they should still be loved. In Genesis 1:27 it says that “God created human beings, making them to be like himself.” So as we are like God we should treat one another as god would. Therefore again showing that we should treat everyone equally including different races etc as God would.
A key point towards the Christian views to racism is written in James 2:8-9 where it states one should love people for what they are not what they look like. So a Coloured person may have a good personality, which you should like that person for, but you should not hate that person because of that persons appearance.
Another point which comes across in Matthew 5:38-40 is one which would be very difficult to practise in a modern day society, as it is natural when somebody hits you for you to hit them back. Jesus in this passage is trying to say ignore those who harm you “if anyone slaps you on your left cheek let him slap you on your right cheek.” This is a statement for the oppressed i.e. like coloured people were. It is an ideal ethic and Christians believe we should aim for it, but in this modern day world it is extremely difficult to achieve. Gandhi used this greatly to his advantage in India, which was occupied by the British, and it worked.

Throughout these passages in the bible it is proven what Christian views should be towards coloured people:
Love them like you love yourself
Judge them upon there character not what they look like
And even if they are your enemy you should still treat them well.
Where Martin Luther king was born was born slavery had been abolished in 1865 but segregation continued. Negroes were rated as inferior and insecure by the whites, they were discriminated against, intimidated, people were prejudice towards them, much of the white population were racist and the Blacks tried to fight for equal rights. Martin Luther king was Christian and when dealing with the problems the blacks faced this was a key factor. When King went to university a person of the name Gandhi impressed him. This was due to the fact of his un-violent protests, which turned out to be a very strong political weapon, and in its whole the use of un-violent protest led to the independence of India. This also related to King’s Christian beliefs, if someone hits you on the right cheek let him or her hit you on the left. In 1954 he became a Baptist minister. He first went to Montgomery, Alabama.
On December 5, 1955, five days after Montgomery civil rights activist Rosa Parks refused to obey the city’s rules mandating segregation on buses, black residents launched a bus boycott and elected King as president of the newly formed Montgomery Improvement Association. King was very much for this as it was a non-violent protest and the authorities could do nothing about it immediately as the coloured community were doing nothing aggressive and wrong, in essence they were following the way of the bible and Christian views. As the boycott continued during 1956, King gained national importance as a result of his exceptional “oratorical skills and personal courage.” His house was bombed and he was convicted along with other boycott leaders on charges of conspiring to interfere with the bus company’s operations. But because of his Christian believes he refrained form turning to violence and he followed the bible degrading people who were aggressive and he refrained from fighting back. The boycott ended in 1956 with a mandate from the Supreme Court outlawing all segregated public transport in the city.
During the spring of 1963, he and his staff guided mass demonstrations in Birmingham, Alabama, where local white police officials were known from their “anti-black attitudes”. The protesters acted peacefully under Martin Luther kings guidance. Clashes between black demonstrators and police using police dogs and fire hoses generated newspaper headlines through the world. But whenever they came under attack they would kneel and prey. In June, President Kennedy reacted to the Birmingham protests and the “obstinacy of segregationist”.
King and other civil rights leaders then organised a massive march in Washington, D.C. On Aug. 28, 1963, over 200,000 Americans, including many whites, gathered at the Lincoln Memorial in the capital.
The high point of the rally was King’s stirring “I Have a Dream” speech, which “eloquently defined the moral basis of the civil rights movement.” The moral basis of this was based greatly on Christian views. That of which states everyone is equal and also no black is inferior to a white person as so in the bible. As Luther said in his speech “all men are created equal”.
The Civil Rights Act of 1964 prohibited racial discrimination in public places and called for equal opportunity in employment and education. King later received the 1964 Nobel Peace Prize.
During the 1965 Selma to Montgomery march, King and his lieutenants were able to keep intra-movement conflicts sufficiently under control to bring about passage of the 1965 Voting Rights Act. He was assassinated on April 4, 1968, while seeking to assist a garbage workers’ strike in Memphis. After his death, King remained a controversial symbol of the African-American civil rights struggle.
Throughout Kings life of protesting he always tried to use non-violent methods. In 1955 he said these following words “…we have no choice but to protest. There will be no threats from bullying. Love will be our ideal. Love your enemies, bless them, and pray for them. Let no man pull you so low as to make you hate him”. Again King always followed his Christian routes making sure he always carried out non-violent protests, loved his enemies and taking whatever the enemy through at him, making him a true Christian.
First of all I would like to address the fact of why people may find it in their hearts to be racist. Around a hundred years ago Coloured people were treated like they were insignificant and less important than whites due to their skin colour in many areas of the world, for instance England. One of the factors in the hatred of coloured people was that everyone else was doing it so you would be the odd one out if you didn’t do it. This is better known as “peer pressure”, where the mass go the rest will follow. Just this fact was one of the key influences. Also some people felt that if the whites stopped mall treating the blacks the blacks would turn back on the whites and ruin them. So they just kept on treating the blacks like they had always done and how they had been brought up to do.
But then you should also ask the question why people didn’t do it. It was generally because of their religions, which they followed strictly, stating that all men are equal and that you should treat your neighbour how you would wish to be treated. Also some people felt sorry for the Blacks and wanted to help.
So after all those years of hatred for the blacks many people would ask what was gained. Somebody from the Ku Kluck Klan may say that it terrorised the blacks and put them in their rightful place. Where as the majority now a days would say it was a pointless waste of lives and terribly unjust, people should be treated by means of their character, not by their appearance whatever that may be.
I think that nobody on earth has the right to be racist in any shape or form. But there is a certain place where I draw the line. Jokes for instance can often be directed at another person’s nationality or colour and the person who is the “victim” of the joke may often find it funny. But to be racist I think it can be a deeply offensive joke or much worse than a joke, hatred for one. Surely people shouldn’t be racist it says in the bible to love one another, to judge people on their characters and not on their appearance and to even love your enemies. On top of this racism is terrible, it can ruins peoples lives, lead to death and leave whole countries in uproar. What is the point in it? I find it totally pointless and also morally unacceptable in the modern world were we should treat everyone equally no matter of their appearance.

The Impact of Happier Employees

The Impact of Happier Employees

Envision yourself as the middle manager in your organization. Create a PowerPoint presentation for upper level leadership in an effort to obtain a pledge of organization funding for employees who are interested in outside professional certification.

In your presentation, address the following:

Summarize any connections between professional certifications and employee motivation.
List examples of professional certifications (See the American Certification Institute (Links to an external site.)).
Calculate any cost associated with the professional certification.
Explain to your superiors how you will use the 4 Functions Approach to plan, organize, lead, and control this effort.
Describe the impact of a happy employee.
Show any benefit(s) to the customers / stakeholders.

Pharmacotherapy for Cardiovascular disorders

Pharmacotherapy for Cardiovascular disorders

Despite the high mortality rates associated with cardiovascular disorders, improved treatment options do exist that can help address those risk factors that afflict the majority of the population today.

As an advanced practice nurse, it is your responsibility to recommend appropriate treatment options for patients with cardiovascular disorders. To ensure the safety and effectiveness of drug therapy, advanced practice nurses must consider aspects that might influence pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic processes such as medical history, other drugs currently prescribed, and individual patient factors.

Reference: Murphy, S. L., Xu, J., Kochanek, K. D., & Arias, E. (2018). Mortality in the United States, 2017. Retrieved from https://www.cdc.gov/nchs/products/databriefs/db328.htm

To Prepare
Review the Resources for this module and consider the impact of potential pharmacotherapeutics for cardiovascular disorders introduced in the media piece.
Review the case study assigned by your Instructor for this Assignment.
Select one the following factors: genetics, gender, ethnicity, age, or behavior factors.
Reflect on how the factor you selected might influence the patient’s pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic processes.
Consider how changes in the pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic processes might impact the patient’s recommended drug therapy.
Think about how you might improve the patient’s drug therapy plan based on the pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic changes. Reflect on whether you would modify the current drug treatment or provide an alternative treatment option for the patient.
By Day 7 of Week 2
Write a 2 pages paper that addresses the following:

Explain how the factor you selected might influence the pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic processes in the patient from the case study you were assigned.
Describe how changes in the processes might impact the patient’s recommended drug therapy. Be specific and provide examples.
Explain how you might improve the patient’s drug therapy plan and explain why you would make these recommended improvements.

Leadership Studies

Leadership Studies

The focus of the course is on developing a management team that makes a greater contribution to the organization than the sum of the individual managers. Because this course involves a term-long virtual team project, internet access is necessary
Course Overview: Most of us have had experience working in teams. In fact, organizing groups of workers into teams has become a common method of getting work done in a variety of organizations. Relying on teams has multiple advantages, including:

• The opportunity for team members to learn from each other. Potential exists for greater work-force flexibility with cross-training.
• The opportunity for synergistic combinations of ideas and abilities.
• The chance to discover new approaches to tasks.
• Social facilitation and support for difficult tasks and situations.
• The opportunity for communication and information exchange to be facilitated and increased.
• Greater cooperation among team members.
• Enhanced interdependent work flow. Potential exists for greater acceptance and understanding of team-made decisions.
• The chance for greater autonomy, variety, identity, significance, and feedback for workers.
• The opportunity for team commitment to stimulate performance and attendance.
However, for many, the experience of working in teams has been less than satisfactory. Perhaps you have encountered some of the following problems:

• Some individuals are not compatible with teamwork.
• Workers must be selected to fit the team as well as requisite job skills.
• Some members may experience less motivating jobs as part of a team.
• Organization may resist change.
• Conflict may develop between team members or other teams.
• Teams may be time-consuming due to need for coordination and consensus.
• Teams can stymie creativity and inhibit good decision making if “group think” becomes preva-lent.
• Evaluation and rewards may be perceived as less powerful.
• “Free-riding” within the team may occur.
• Less flexibility may be experienced in personnel replacement or transfer.
Adapted from Medsker, G. J., Campion, M. A., “Job and Team Design,” in Salvendy, G., Handbook of Human Factors and Ergonomics, pp. 450-489, Interscience, 18 Apr 1997.

Clearly, building a high-performance team involves more than putting a group of people together and expecting them to be effective. There are numerous skills and practices that are necessary and critical to manage teams properly. This course is designed to help you learn and master these skills and practices.

Module 1 SLP Topic: STRUCTURING VIRTUAL TEAMS
Virtual Teams
There is a plethora of material online and in print that deals with building and managing teams. However, in the global economy, teams are often made up of individuals who are not co-located. Members may be separated by space and time but still be expected to work together effectively. While such “virtual” teams face many of the same challenges that are faced by co-located teams, there are differences in how these challenges are met. This is why the focus of this course is on virtual teaming. Much of what is covered in the course is applicable to any team, but we pay special attention to the challenges of creating and maintaining highly effective virtual teams.
For an overview of the types of challenges presented by working with virtual teams, please read the following:
Edmondson, A. C. (2012). Teamwork on the fly. Harvard Business Review. Retrieved from http://hbr.org/2012/04/teamwork-on-the-fly/ar/1
In this and throughout the course, we will follow the Nemiro model for Creativity in Virtual Teams* which concerns the following topics:
• Structuring Virtual Teams (including Leadership)
• Establishing a Supportive Team Climate
• Team Norms and Procedures
• Continuous Team Improvement
We will begin by examining the various ways that teams can be structured, the advantages and disadvantages of each, and the leadership options that are available to facilitate and coordinate teamwork.
Some of the material in this course has been adapted from
Nemiro, J. E. (2004). Creativity in Virtual Teams: Key Components for Success. Pfeifer, San Francisco: CA.
Module 1 Learning Objectives:
• Identify, evaluate, analyze, and apply ways to structure work design, team process, and leadership in virtual teams.

Madness in Hamlet

DRAFT- NOT MLA-LACKS FORMATTING/REFERENCES Hamlet-Melancholy, Madness and Sanity Hamlet, a play by William Shakespeare, is as much a mystery as a tale about depression, madness and sanity. Shakespeare reveals how the scourge of corruption and decay rapidly spread; and the emotional consequences that follow. Insanity, madness and depression are as intolerable as corruption and deceit; and just as intertwined. The play makes one ponder if it is possible to be sane in an insane world full of treachery, revenge, incest, and moral corruption?
By examining the themes of melancholy, madness and sanity in Hamlet, Shakespeare details his character’s descent from depression to madness. Additionally, Hamlet’s psychological state can be analyzed by utilizing modern psychological diagnoses, in order to understand his mental state. Throughout the story, Hamlet exists in a melancholy state, “essentially not in madness, / But mad in craft” (3. 4. 204-205). Hamlet states to Horatio “as I perchance hereafter shall think meet/ To put an antic disposition on” in order to deceive the king that he is insane (Act I, Scene V, Line 190).
However, was Hamlet acting or was he already mentally disturbed? Did Hamlet go mad in the end, or was Hamlet insane from the start of the play, and his mental condition only worsened as the play unfolded? The world in which Hamlet existed appears hostile. The king is a murderer; his mother the queen lusts after her deceased husband’s brother; friends spy and deceive one another; and Hamlet’s lover Ophelia literally loses touch with reality. Hamlet believes that only suicide can free him from his misery. Hamlet is not the only person struggling with depression.

From the beginning, Francisco says, “’Tis bitter cold, / And I am sick at heart”. Marcellus states that “Something is rotten in the state of Denmark” (). Fear is spread by the ghost of King Claudius wandering the city streets. Reoccurring themes of corruption result in Hamlet stating “The dram of evil / Doth all the noble substance of a doubt / To his own scandal” (Shakespeare 51). One evil person can contaminate an entire kingdom. As the kingdom decays, emotional trauma increases. Hamlet concludes that the world “’Tis an unweeded garden / that grows to seed.
Things rank and gross in nature / Possess it merely ( ). The weeds represent decay in a world of evil and sin. The “things” are symbolic of man and his temporary dominance over himself, his fellow man and nature. Pessimism permeates the screenplay and the reader is led to connect the dysfunction with the resulting mental states of depression that infect Hamlet. Hamlet’s psychological status can also be analyzed from a modern perspective. Today we have the diagnostic tools to identify and treat the disorders that afflicted Hamlet.
Though Hamlet presents as melancholy throughout the play, there are three additional disorders that afflict Hamlet including post-traumatic stress disorder, schizophrenia, and bipolar depression. Three traumatic events contribute to Hamlet’s descent into madness: the death of his father, the incestuous marriage between his uncle and mother, and the discovery of his father’s murder by Claudius. These emotional traumas contributed to Hamlet suffering from what we would now diagnose as Post-traumatic stress disorder.
Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is characterized by the inability to properly construct emotional appropriate responses to situations and an emotional blunting. Throughout the play, Hamlet had issues with people in his social circle. Hamlet becomes enraged with Laertes because of his dramatic sorrow over the death of Ophelia (Act V, Scene I). Soon thereafter, Hamlet realizes his reaction to Laertes was inappropriate and later apologizes to Laertes. Hamlet demonstrates impulsive behavior and lashes out at people without considering the ramifications.
In addition to Laertes, Ophelia, Hamlet’s beloved, is also not immune to his rage. Hamlet is susceptible to highly reactive emotional responses, and suicidal ideation is mentioned throughout the play. Symptoms of PTSD often include changes in self-perception, relationship stressors, and frequently revenge fantasies. Hamlet’s emotional state deteriorates over the duration of the play. These changes include increased helplessness and the inability to make decisions as he becomes more ill. Hamlet exhibits other PTSD symptoms. Hamlet feels inferior to Fortinbras and Horatio, and in his attempts to kill Claudius.
Hamlet also isolates himself and becomes more paranoid as the play progresses. Not that being paranoid would be an inappropriate emotional response to the environment he is in, but his paranoia takes over. Eventually Hamlet becomes obsessed with revenge after he is compelled by his father’s ghost to avenge his death. Symptoms of schizophrenia also present in Hamlet. The symptoms of schizophrenia can include hallucinations, isolation from others, a loss of reality and paranoia. While berating his mother about her rapid remarriage, suddenly Hamlet begins addressing an invisible specter. “What would your gracious figure? [QUEEN] Alas, he’s mad! ” (Act III, Scene IV, Line 116-117). Hamlet has visions, or hallucinations, of his dead father’s ghost. The ghost was seen once by Horatio and some guards at the start of the play, but not by anyone else. The appearance of the ghost may have been reality or a hallucination. However, the second ghost to appear, that only Hamlet could see and hear, was confirmation of Hamlet’s insanity. Schizophrenia is often symptomatic with visual, but more commonly auditory hallucinations. After the death of Hamlet’s father, Hamlet began to withdraw and became reclusive in nature.
He didn’t combat be forced to leave to boarding school, he spent less time with Ophelia, and he became very isolated. Hamlet appears to have been in the initial stages of schizophrenia where the real and unreal become blurred, but he is not yet incapacitated by his disorder prior to his murder. Perhaps if he didn’t die young the disease would have progressed. Even Polonius questioned Hamlet’s state-of-mind when he said, “How pregnant sometimes his replies are – a happiness that often madness hits on” (Act II, Scene II, Lines 213-215). Throughout the play, evidence of bipolar disorder (also known as manic depression) is identified.
It is hard to distinguish if Hamlet is bipolar or having a schizophrenic break since both diseases have common behavioral features. Bipolar disorder is known for manic or escalated behaviors coupled with severe depression when the mania recedes. Manic behaviors include pressured (or rapid) speech, grandiose beliefs, insomnia, and hyper or frantic behavior, followed by periods of extreme anergic depression that is emotionally and physically debilitating. Hamlet escalates between periods of excitement and kinetic activity to states of absolute misery and unproductivity.
Hamlet procrastinates, but it may be due to the depressive period he cycles in and out of. Hamlet’s soliloquies all contain themes of suicide and hopelessness (depression), but his manic states are more difficult to define. Hamlet creates a plan to prove Claudius’s guilt while justifying his own rage and revenge. When Hamlet discovers that the players are coming to the castle, he rapidly goes from melancholy to a state of over-excitement. He becomes highly focused and implements a detailed plan to kill Claudius. Hamlet quickly abandons his plan and slips back into his depression (sparing Claudius).
If Hamlet was able to execute all of the schemes and plans he devises, the play would be chaotic. Another incident suggests another bipolar episode when Hamlet, on the boat to England, facilitates the execution of Rosencrantz and Guildenstern; and also plans an attack on a pirate ship for revenge. Grandiose thoughts are a common feature while in a manic phase. Hamlet quickly forgets or fails to follow through with his plan and falls back into a depressive state. Hamlet’s manic depression is referred to as rapid cycling because the mania and depressive states change quickly.
Ultimately, Hamlet may not be procrastinating at all like is assumed throughout the play. Hamlet may be incapable of fulfilling his grandiose plans while in a depressive state. In Hamlet’s time people had no concept of mental illness or mood disorders. People believed that behavior was deliberate and labeled unacceptable behaviors as character defects. Hamlet was a deeply disturbed individual. Author Gertrude Morin suggests that a cognitive approach be used to understand Hamlet. Hamlet, Morin says, is “a portrayal of a tortured, depressed young man who loses his way in the labyrinth of his negative thoughts. He not only suffered from negativity, mania and depression; the environment in which he lived was highly dysfunctional for anyone’s mental health, let alone an ill man. At the beginning of the play, Hamlet is depressed but the events that develop during the play exacerbate his descent into madness. Not many people in the Kingdom of Denmark escape the toxicity of the world in which they lived. Ophelia may have suffered the most, and was also tormented by Hamlet’s illness, and eventually by saw no other option but to end her life. Depression and despair seemingly became as contagious as the small pox- and just as untreatable.
Hamlet’s mental state and the events in his life may have finally drove him to madness. The reader may first believe that Hamlet is faking his dementia, when in fact, his mental dysfunctions were both organic (of biological origin)and very real. Among the mentally ill it is common to see a mentally vulnerable individual succumb to the pressures of his environment. That person may have been able to keep their illness in check in a stable environment, but when external stressors mount- they may not have the coping behaviors to cope and they escalate out of control.
Suicide, in our modern world, is often a result of life stressors the vulnerable person could no longer manage. Had Hamlet not been murdered, his suicidal impulses may have caused him to self destruct. Psychiatry was just emerging as a science during the time Shakespeare wrote Hamlet. Robert Burton, the most famous author on melancholy from the Renaissance, first published his Anatomy of Melancholy in 1621. Burton, who was afflicted with melancholy himself suggested treatments “from taking hellebore to boring a hole in the skull to let out the ‘fuliginous vapours,’” while adding his consolations (Burton ).
Had Hamlet received the services of Burton, it is probable that if the hellebore didn’t work, the hole in the skull would have left Hamlet disabled or dead. In conclusion, the question persists: Is it possible to be sane in an insane world full of treachery, revenge, incest, and moral corruption? It appears that the majority of people is somewhat resilient and can cope with adversity to a certain degree. However, there are people like Ophelia and Hamlet who are vulnerable to chaotic conditions. These people tend to internalize the trauma and don’t have the coping mechanisms to deal with intense emotional situations.
It is fascinating that Shakespeare had the insight to connect intolerable conditions with states of mental vulnerability. ‘Madness’ was a catch-all term for all mental disorders in Shakespeare’s time, but through his dialogue and scenery, he was able to identify numerous mental states of dysfunction- centuries before we had terminology to describe these illnesses in diagnostic terms. Shakespeare’s acuity in describing a mentally-ill prince is why Hamlet has endured over time. The issues, diseases, desires, fears and dreams remain constant over time among humanity. To be, or not to be’ will always be relevant in more ways than life and death. Our views on mental illness and physical ailments that relate to Melancholia are endless, and therefore so is our application of each possibility to Shakespeare’s work of Hamlet. Sources: Diagnostic Manual DMV-IV Burton, Robert. The Anatomy of Melancholy. Ed. Floyd Dell and Paul JordanSmith, NewYork: Tudor Publishing Co. , 1941. Morin, Gertrude. “Depression and Negative Thinking: A Cognitive Approach to Hamlet. ” Mosaic: A Journal for the Interdisciplinary Study of Literature 25. 1 (1992): 112.

Marketing Strategy of Best Buy

Syed Raheem Dr. Sonja Pollard-Mitchell MKT 301: Principles of Marketing 3 March 2010 Marketing Strategy at a Big Box Electronics Store: BEST BUY Consumer behavior is defined in a variety of ways such as “the dynamic interaction of affect and cognition, behavior and environmental events by which human beings conduct the exchange aspects of their lives. ” by the American Marketing Association. (2008). In a simpler form, consumer behavior can be explained as the actions of consumers and the different approaches a person may take to decide what to buy and the decision making process.
The decision making process can be effected by many factors all related to a person or persons lifestyle. Determining that behavior can be confusing and marketers need to use research techniques to understand the consumer. Understanding the intent to buy, buying process and post purchase issues from a marketing perspective raises many questions and is an in-depth process. “The basic marketing concept hold’s that firms exist to satisfy consumers’ needs. ” (2004, Solomon). Once that basic concept is understood, an organization can focus on key goals to achieve a competitive advantage.
Marketing strategies are used to gain better understanding of the market, consumers, environment, supply and demand and competition. The behaviors of consumers such as personality, emotions, attitudes, learning style, and perception of the consumer helps companies design their marketing techniques. External influences are also need to be studied and factors such as culture and sub-culture, demographics, social status, and family structure helps understand the decision making process of the consumer’s behavior.

For marketing strategy to succeed, the insight to the consumer’s decision-making process is a good starting point. One of the many tools used for knowing consumer behavior are the four P’s of marketing, the product, place, price and promotion. By knowing the concepts of the four P’s marketers, build a strategy that can be used to achieve objectives necessary to meet companies marketing goals. Through awareness, a consumer can be more knowledgeable in buying behavior if an understanding of the four P’s of marketing are considered. [pic] Such strategies are very common in big box electronics stores such as BEST BUY.
Best Buy is a specialty retailer of consumer electronics, home-office products, entertainment software, appliances and related services. Best Buy operates retail stores in many parts of the US and through their web sites under the brand name BestBuy. com and BestBuyCanada. ca. The company is always proposing new ways to increase revenue and provide the best customer service to their customers. Bob Willett, former executive president of operations for Best Buy had said, “Our goal is to create a flexible, high-velocity supply chain operating with better product availability for customers at a lower total cost for the company. Best Buy constantly lowers their prices by beating out all their competitors’ prices and maintaining quality customer service. The best way Best Buy uses price elasticity of demand to decrease prices and increase revenue is by making sure that they are offering competitor pricing, and making sure that every week prices are updated by updating what their competitors are currently selling their items for. According to the management, the only way to get customers to come into Best Buy is by word of mouth and the only way that is going to happen is by making sure that relationships are being built between consumers and employees.
Best Buy has a strong belief that relationships between energized employees and satisfied customers will lead to profits and growth. Best Buy has been able to maintain its large scale of operations by increasing its bargaining power with consumer electronic vendors and offer more competitive prices. Best Buy has expanded its installation and repair services to consumers through several venues–both on a stand alone basis as well as mixing these offerings in its retail outlets, through Geek Squad. Best Buy Company is also socially committed and believes in educating people about technology.
They are socially responsible company. This kind of behavior gives them good publicity, which is also a good marketable tool these days. The company spent $13 million in teach Awards for the school to aware them from the new technologies about the classrooms. They also gave scholarships to the students all over the world. “Best Buy stores have awarded over $13 million in scholarships to nearly 11,000 students nationwide”. In this modern world, where every day new technologies are coming up and frequently they are becoming outdated. Under this scenario, the Best buy company has to eep itself up to date and must have to keep watch out for the new technologies. In this way the company can survive under intense competition. The biggest competitors of Best Buy Company are Dell, Wal-Mart, HH Gregg and all those retailers which are supplying those products on reasonable prices. The company has also brought some changes in their business to stay in the top line. Like, they also offers their products online as other companies are doing to help overcome online competitors, Best Buy allows consumers to purchase their items online.
Consumers then have an option of having the product shipped to their home or picking it up at a local Best Buy store. Best Buy has recently established several new partnerships bringing new products to their stores. Apple, Dell, and Napster are some of the new partnerships. Best Buy became the first retailer in the US to be able to sell the Apple iPhone. Apple sent trainers to each store in order to make each employee more knowledgeable on the iPhone. They became the only retailer able to sell Dell computers.
They also recently bought in to Napster in order to try to increase their subscribers and expand the capabilities in the digital downloading business. Best Buy also bought 50% of a company called Carphone Warehouse in Europe, which was done to expand Best Buy stores into European countries. These very strategic decisions by Best Buy were another successful marketing tool. They became an exclusive place for some of the products like Dell computers and Apple iPhone. Their strategy bought in many new customers as well as increased their repeated customer’s sales.
Best Buy has a certain way of targeting their customers by separating them into several different lifestyle groups. The four groups include Urban Trendsetters, Upscale Suburban, Middle America and Empty Nesters. The first lifestyle group is the Urban Trendsetters; this group makes up about 26% of their customers and about a quarter of their revenue. They are between the ages of 23-30 who is typically single. Their second lifestyle group is Upscale Suburban; they make up about 22% of their customers and about 25% of their revenue. The third lifestyle group is Middle America; they are made up of 31. % of their customers, and around 32. 9% of their revenue. The final lifestyle groups owns more than 80% of the personal savings in the US, controls 70% of the financial assets, and are at the height of their earning power. This breakdown of their customers profile helps Best buy understand their customer needs and their spending habits, which they can use in their marketing strategies. Best Buy delivers their advertisements in a very bright and joyful fashion. Most of the paper advertisements have a blue background with several yellows and reds in order to grab the consumer’s attention.
Generally if they have a special for the week they will highlight it in red and put it on the bottom of the cover page. Best Buy is most well known for their yellow tag [pic]. All prices for the products are on a yellow tag whether you are looking at one of their advertisements or a price tag in their stores. This unique way of advertising helps them very much at time of promotions and sales to differ themselves from their competitions. In conclusion one of successful electronics store of our time is utilizing all the marketing strategies it needs to create new customers as well as maintain their regular loyal customers.
They use a very competitive pricing policy to give them upper hand with their customers. They offer very exclusive products to their customers, which customers usually cannot find anywhere else. They use all the publicity they can get through their socially good deeds. They have done a very good research on their customers who comes in their stores and shops on their websites. They are one of the pioneers in advertisements as far as creating funny ads to make their point. All this marketing strategies have made them very profitable companies of our time. WORK CITED
Solomon, M. R (2004). Consumer Behavior: Buying, Having and Being sixth edition. Upper Saddle River, N. J. : Prentice-Hall. (2008). Marketing Power. Retrieved June 30, 2008, from American Marketing Association Web site: http://www. marketingpower. com/Pages/default. aspx (2007). The Marketing Mix, the four P’s of Marketing. Retrieved June 28, 2009, from Net MBA Web site: http://www. netmba. com/marketing/mix Great Ads. (2008) Best Buy Inc. Commercial etc. Retrieved Nov. 29th, 2008. http://great-ads. blogspot. com/2008/11/best-buy-funny-commercial-2008-holiday. html