Questions:

BOOK: Frederick Douglass, Narrative of the Life of Frederick Douglass.

In approximately 200 words, answer the following questions, supporting your answers with quotations from the text:

Chapter I
In this chapter, Douglass discusses the circumstances of his birth and early childhood, as “representative” of the experience of slaves.  

1.   Why doesn’t Douglass know his birthday? Why do you think slave-owners want to keep this information from their slaves?

Chapter II This chapter opens with some detail about Douglass’s first master’s family and their plantation. 

1.      Why does Douglass tell us the details of the slaves’ annual allowance?  How would you characterize their “standard of living”?

2.      What is Douglass’s attitude towards the singing of slaves?  What does he think it expresses?

Chapter IVThis chapter is essentially a detailed portrait of the overseer, Mr. Gore, and as such, he is a “representative overseer” in much the same way that Douglass is a “representative slave.”

1. What are Mr. Gore’s essential qualities?  How does he treat the slaves? 

1. Wha1. 1. What are Mr. Gore’s essential qualities?  How does he treat the slaves? 
What are Mr.

finance

 
The project will consist of 3 sections:

Your Top 3 Reasons to Plan financially.

Choose your top 3 of Edelman’s “The 12 Reasons to Plan” and describe why these three are most important to you.  Additionally, explain how you will incorporate these three reasons into your personal financial plan.   Incorporate your knowledge of investments and compounding as well as some of Schor’s principles for avoiding consumerism and unnecessary purchases.  500 word minimum.

Your Top 3 Obstacles.

What do you see as your 3 main obstacles for building wealth?  These are purely personal, although you can refer to Edelman’s obstacles for ideas.  The goal here is your personal introspection as to your likely future hurdles to overcome.  Following up on those obstacles, address them directly in your financial plan, meaning how will you mitigate, or lessen, the potential impact of these obstacles.  500 word minimum.

What if?

Choose one these three financial difficulties and, using your imagination and creativity, write a narrative on how you would cope with your chosen difficulty.  750 word minimum.

Loss of a Spouse/Divorce:  You must construct and describe a realistic plan of action for the financial challenges currently confronting a parent of two, ages 5 and 3, in his/her early 30’s trying to regain or maintain financial independence.  You are not responsible for solving any financial problems, just for identifying the potential problems and offering solutions for coping with these problems both in the short run and long run.
Natural Disaster:  You must construct and describe a realistic solution to the financial problems currently confronting your family of three, you, your partner and a 9 year old child, struggling to reconstruct your life after losing everything in a devastating natural disaster such as a flood or wildfire. You are not responsible for solving any financial problems, just for identifying the potential problems and offering solutions for coping with these problems both in the short run and long run.
Caring for a Family Member Unexpectedly:  You must construct and describe a realistic and sensible solution to the problems currently confronting your family of three, you, your partner and a 9 year old child.  You are the sole surviving relatives of a family member who is unexpectedly in need of care, both financial and residential, for the next five years.  You are not responsible for solving any financial problems, just for identifying the potential problems and offering solutions for coping with these problems both in the short run and long run.

Walmart 2012

Introduction Walmart has more than 10,020 retail units which is spread across 28 countries and operates under 60 banners. It sells both by brick and mortar (traditional stores) and Brick and click (e-commerce) formats. The average size of each Walmart store is more than a 1, 00,000 (1lac) square feet. Its store operations are categorized into following. 1. Walmart discount stores 2. Walmart super centers 3. Walmart neighborhood markets Walmart express stores Marketing Mix: Product and branding strategies (appropriate service strategy if the company has a consumer orientation).
Walmart is a multinational retailer; in short it has every product or a brand which a person could see in his day to day life. The broad range of product categories include movies, crafts, gifts, college essentials, Electronic items, home appliance, jewellery, photo centre,  toys, outdoor living, funeral, grocery, video games etc Pricing strategies. Walmart business model doesn’t include manufacturing of any product; it procures products across the globe in large quantities in order to enjoy benefits of economies of scale. This makes price of Walmart to offer products at 15% lower price than other retailers.
Walmart uses different pricing concepts to get focus of the customers and compel a purchasing behaviour through discount strategies. Sam Walton coined the term “Always lows prices” and “Everyday low prices”; according to this each product is offered at different discount prices based on the time and demand of the hour. The consumer electronics are offered at a very low price compared to other retailers. Supply chain strategies (how they place the product in the market). Walmart has been able to assume market leadership position primarily due to its efficient integration of suppliers, manufacturing, warehousing, and distribution to stores.

Its supply chain strategy has four key components: vendor partnerships, cross docking and distribution management, technology, and integration. Walmart’s supply chain begins with strategic sourcing to find products at the best price from suppliers who are in a position to ensure they can meet demand. Walmart establishes strategic partnerships with most of their vendors, offering them the potential for long-term and high volume purchases in exchange for the lowest possible prices. Suppliers then ship product to Walmart’s distribution centers where the product is cross docked and then delivered to Walmart stores.
Cross docking, distribution management, and transportation management keep inventory and transportation costs down, reducing transportation time and eliminating inefficiencies. Technology plays a key role in Walmart’s supply chain, serving as the foundation of their supply chain. Walmart has the largest information technology infrastructure of any private company in the world. Its state-of-the-art technology and network design allow Walmart to accurately forecast demand, track and predict inventory levels, create highly efficient transportation routes, and manage customer relationships and service response logistics.
Wal-Mart’s supply chain management strategy has provided the company with several sustainable competitive advantages, including lower product costs, reduced inventory carrying costs, improved in-store variety and selection, and highly competitive pricing for the consumer. This strategy has helped Walmart become a dominant force in a competitive global market. As technology evolves, Walmart continues to focus on innovative processes and systems to improve its supply chain and achieve greater efficiency. Integrated marketing communications.
Walmart’s Integrated marketing communication is their  approach to achieving the objectives of a Marketing campaign , through a well coordinated use of different promotional methods that are intended to reinforce each other. Integrated marketing includes discipline communications advertising, public relations personal selling  and sales promotion. These methods help the corporation bring a better understanding to the consumer  this way they we will know which products best fits the consumers needs. Walmart usually does this through the tv commercials,online website,and weekly circular.
Their tv commercials usually show items that are popular and are at a cheaper price then their competition this helps them to get better sales. http://stylesmar100-blog. blogspot. com/2011/11/chap-16-integrated-marketing. html Promotional strategy. Walmart has its own in-store promotional activities which includes sales promotions through product bundling and its pricing strategies. The online store of Walmart earns major revenues from through customers placing online gifts. The pricing strategies adopted by Walmart like “Everyday low prices”, “value of the day” increases the sales turnover.
The online store uses strategies to pull customer by attractive slogans like ‘Grab it before it’s done’ which pushes customer to take a purchase decision immediately before the deals get expired. The company’s presence in domestic and international markets. Walmart operates stores in 27 countries under 69 different banners. Learn more below about our store formats around the world. Walmart began building Supercenters in 1988 – a decision that led us to become the nation’s largest grocer. Today, there are more than 3,000 Supercenters in the U. S. Each store is about 182,000 square feet and employs bout 300 associates. Today, we operate more than 600 discount stores. There are now about 200 Neighborhood Markets in the U. S. The company’s vision and execution of strategy that set its direction. Wal-Mart’s advertised mission statement and its advertising slogan are the same: “We save people money so they can live better. ” “If we work together, we’ll lower the cost of living for everyone…we’ll give the world an opportunity to see what it’s like to save and have a better life. ” The company’s plans for growing and servicing its customer base.
In order to fulfill its mission, Wal-Mart has developed some unique, policies, principles, rules, processes and procedures, the sum total of which form the Wal-Mart stores corporate culture: 4. Open Door Policy – Managers’ doors are open to employees at all levels 5. Sundown Rule – Answering employee, customer, and supplier questions on the same day the questions are received 6. Grass Roots Process – Capturing suggestions and ideas from the sales floor and front lines 7. 3 Basic Beliefs & Values – Respect for the Individual, Service to our Customers, Striving for Excellence 8. 0-Foot Rule – Making eye contact, greeting, and offering help to customers who come within 10 feet 9. Servant Leadership – Leaders are in service to their team Wal-Mart Cheer – An actual structured chant that was created by founder Sam Walton to lift morale every morning http://www. usanfranonline. com/wal-mart-successful-supply-chain-management/ http://www. marketing91. com/marketing-mix-walmart/ http://retailindustry. about. com/od/retailbestpractices/ig/Company-Mission-Statements/Wal-Mart-Mission-Statement. htm

Wk 4 – Police Operations Presentation

Review the PowerPoint Example located at the end of the course content page under the folder labeled Recommended Reading and Handouts.
Create a 10- to 12-slide presentation on police operations in which you address the following:

Identify a police agency near where you live and some of the various functions performed by this department.
Identify at least two factors which may influence an officer’s decision to arrest. 
Identify at least two types of searches and two types of interrogation practices.
Provide a minimum of two examples of police corruption or other police misconduct that have occurred in the last ten years. Include a summary of each situation and how the issues were handled. Be sure one of your examples is the article you presented and discussed with your collaborative group.

Provide examples to support your points in the presentation.
Presentation includes a title slide, introduction slide, research slides, conclusion slide, and a reference slide. (The Title Slide and Reference Slide do NOT count towards the slide count requirement.)
List major points in the slides using “bullet points,” keeping text to a minimum. Include detailed explanations in the speaker notes section of each slide. Speaker notes should contain approximately 100 words (in paragraph format) with research followed by a citation (exception Title Slide and Reference Slide). A 10 – 12 slide PowerPoint Presentation should average a total of 800 – 1,000 words of research.
Include videos, audio, photos, diagrams, or graphs as appropriate.
Include at least two references from the Electronic Reserve Readings, UOP Library, Google Scholar, eBook Collection, or course reading assignments. 

Here is my discussion with my collaborative group so that you can include in the slides: 
On October 20, 2014, Chicago Police Officer Jason Van Dyke fired sixteen bullets into the seventeen-year-old body of Laquan McDonald. Most of them hit him post-mortem. The homicide was caught on dash-cam video, which police refused to publicly release until forced to do so by a judge’s order, thirteen months after the shooting. The story told by police—that McDonald lunged at officers with a knife causing one of them to shoot in self-defense—was exposed as clearly false by the video footage. McDonald can be seen walking down the middle of the street with his hands at his side. Squad cars surround him and multiple officers exit their vehicles with guns drawn and pointed at the teen. Only seconds after exiting his vehicle, Van Dyke shoots at the teen and does not stop until his gun’s magazine is empty.
I would say yes it was related to normal police functions because we see this often in many districts with offerers covering up their own as well as other fellow officers corrupt behavior. This wasn’t caused by failed training! There are some things training can’t help! Some officers believe they are above the law in my opinion! Yes the misconduct was do to not just officer Van Dyke but a few of his fellow co officers as well

Case Study Questions

· Read in your textbook Case #2, “Costco Wholesale in 2017 Mission, Business Model, and Strategy.”
· Write a 5–7 page paper answering the questions below.
· At least 2 references of an academic or scholarly source is required for this case study paper. 
· Use APA writing style for in-text citations and each reference source that you use. Remember, all wording that is not your own must be cited. 
· Use headings to format the paper (not the questions).
· Use 12-point Times New Roman font, 1-inch margins, and double-spacing.
In addition to the above listed requirements, assignments are graded using the Case Study Rubric included in the online classroom.
Case Study Questions
1.  What is Costco’s business model? Is the company’s business model appealing? Why or why not?
2.  What are the chief elements of Costco’s strategy? How good is the strategy?
3.  Do you think Jim Sinegal was an effective CEO? What grades would you give him in leading the process of crafting and executing Costco’s strategy? What support can you offer for these grades? How well is Craig Jelinek performing as Sinegal’s successor? Refer to Figure 2.1 in Chapter 2 in developing your answers.
4.  What core values or business principles did Jim Sinegal stress at Costco?
5.  Based on the data in case Exhibits 1 and 4, is Costco’s financial performance superior to that of Sam’s Club and BJ’s Wholesale?
6.  Does the data in case Exhibit 2 indicate that Costco’s expansion outside the U.S. is financially successful? Why or why not?
7.  How well is Costco performing from a strategic perspective? Does Costco enjoy a competitive advantage over Sam’s Club? Over BJ’s Wholesale? If so, what is the nature of its competitive advantage? Does Costco have a winning strategy? Why or why not?
No plagiarism!!
Class: GEB4891: Strategic Management and Decision Making
Book:  Essentials of Strategic Management: The Quest for Competitive Advantage

Economics and Ethics

The area of ethics in economics is a divisive one, over which there has been considerable debate. Ethics has many interpretations in the history of philosophy as well as in economic history. Very simply, ethics refers to an understanding of certain forms of behavior as either right or wrong. “The field of ethics, also called moral philosophy, involves systematizing, defending, and recommending concepts of right and wrong behavior.” (Ethics) However, there are many complex aspects to the understanding of ethics. An early idea of ethics was put forward by the philosophers Jeremy Bentham and John Stuart Mill in the 19th Century. They suggested that ethical action was concerned with providing “… the greatest balance of good over evil.” (Ethics)
On the one hand, economics is fundamentally driven in a systems and practical sense by the need to acquire profit and accumulate wealth. On the other hand there is a growing debate about ethical responsibility and integrity in the business and economic world, with respect to aspects and issues that strictly fall outsider the ambit of the pure science of economics per se. Recent controversies, such as the Enron scandal have also highlighted the issue of ethics in economics and business. This leads to a vast array of issues and questions; such as the protection of future resources and the growing debate about the reality of environmental ethics as it relates to purely economic concerns. Questions are asked such as; can there ethically be a case for unconstrained economic adventurism and profiteering without paying attention to the moral and ethical dimensions of these actions?
The debate and the dilemma that business faces in terms of ethical practices and views are concisely expressed in the following quotation. While “Businesses, in some parts of the world, have become integral participants in such causes as protecting the environment and alleviating poverty from economically depressed localities”, this concern with ethics is “… confronted with the problem that economists have no other way to approach reality without concentrating on questions of utility.” ( Zaratiegui J. 1999) It is this focus on utilitarianism and the profit margin central to the capitalistic mode of economic production, which brings it into conflict with other issues and views and often results in a negative ethical assessment of business and economics.

Therefore many critics are of the opinion that in an ethical sense the utilitarian focus of modern capitalism should be criticized. More importantly, theorists note that, “The nature of modern economics has been substantially impoverished by the distance that has grown between economics and ethics … [economics] can be more productive by paying greater and more explicit attention to the ethical considerations that shape human behaviour and judgement.” (Sen, A. 1987, p 7.)
It should also be noted that this debate and the alleged dissociation between economic thought and praxis and various ethical and critical stances, is a fairly recent phenomenon. In its origins modern economics was intimately connected to ethics and ethical motivations.
Sen reminds us of the contrast between the “non-ethical” feature of modern economics and its genesis as an offshoot of ethics. At the time of its inception, then, the language of economics was comprised of normative elements. Nevertheless, over time, economics came to be considered an autonomous science, and its language and value judgments become increasingly more “positive.”
It is this change in economic thought and praxis and the move towards a neutral or ” value free” attitude towards ethical issues, with science as the motivating example, that has essentially created the present debate.
However the debate about ethical involvement and responsibilities in economics continues to vacillate from one point of view to the other. On the one hand, economists argue that economic praxis and associated analytic techniques are ethically positive in that they help to predict human social and economic growth and development in a consistent way. Economists are also quick to argue and provide examples of the way that economic strategies uplift, develop and form a common basis for world interaction and harmony. “.. it is regarded by some as beneficial, enabling economists to develop analytic techniques and make rational predictions of future human behavior. “(Zaratiegui J. 1999)
On the other side of the argument there are many who interpret the alleged benefits of economics rather as the promotion of profit over ethical norms and principles. However in recent years there has at least ostensibly a reassessment of the ethical parameters of economics from within the economic community.
As recently as a decade ago, many companies viewed business ethics only in terms of administrative compliance with legal standards and adherence to internal rules and regulations. Today the situation is different. Attention to business ethics is on the rise across the world and many companies realize that in order to succeed, they must earn the respect and confidence of their customers.
This change is still based in the praxis of customer behavior and reaction but nevertheless it does show a change towards a greater awareness of ethical responsibly ion the world.
Many of the ethical debates surrounding economics revolve around the complex issue of the interactions of business and commercial concerns and bio-ethics. Bio-ethics refers to the ethical demands and requisites in the interaction between the human and the non-human environment. As such, bio-ethics is difficult to relate to or argue in purely subjective or human terms; which make it all the more difficult to understand and react to from an economic perspective.
A case in point which is still under discussion is the intended use of the oil reserves in the Arctic Wildlife Refuge. At present the debate about the exploitation of the Arctic National or ANWR has been in process for 20 years. (Endless debate drains political energy) The debate has tended to centre mainly on the exploitation of a sensitive ecological area as opposed to the economic and political value for the country from a potentially rich oil supply. The divergent viewpoints are expressed in the following assessment of the situation.
To generalize, people who care most about the wildlife and wilderness don’t give a hoot about the oil; folks fixated on the oil think its value outweighs the wildlife and wildland concerns. The two sides are every bit as polarized and only a little less passionate than those battling over abortion rights”
The National Petroleum Reserve of Alaska (NPR-A), is situated between the foothills of the Brooks Range and the Arctic coastline, and is about 120 miles from the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge (ANWR). (Rosen, Y. 2003. ) The Bureau of Land Management ( BLM) estimates the area will”… supplement production from the Alpine fields, which hold 429 million barrels and have a daily oil output of about 100,000 barrels.” (US OKs Commercial Drilling in Alaska Oil Reserve)
From an economic point of view, the use of this oil reserve will have many positive aspects. Besides the money that would be brought into the economy instead of flowing out in oil purchases, it would have positive internal and political implication as it would obviously mean less reliance on outside oil sources.
The Energy Information Agency of the Department of Energy estimates that Alaska oil production averaged 902,000 barrels of oil per day from January through August 2004, about 16 percent of total U.S. oil production during that period, most of which comes from Prudhoe Bay. Opening up even a limited area of ANWR for drilling would offer the prospect of producing from Alaska possibly 40 percent or more of the oil consumed in America.
This view can be seen as supporting the idea of an ethical position in the economic exploitation of the region in that it will be for the “greater good” of the international community to reduce America’s oil dependencies. The other side of the argument is that the exploitation of this region for profit will upset the delicate ecological balance and will further have a larger ecological impact. From this point of view the proposed economic actions are unethical. In essence the debate is centered on two very different world views which need an understanding of their underlying biases to be fully comprehended.
Many similar points of dissention and lines of argument are formed in the ethical debate that has raged for years about animal experimentation for research. One has the argument for experimentation on the basis of ensuring human safety; while those opposed point out that this view still contravenes basic bio-ethics and the respect for life on this planet. On the one hand business and commerce stress the need to test products before public consumption and on the other hand activists state that many of these tests are simply attempts to placate the public and have no intrinsic scientific worth.
Animal rights groups point out that animal experimentation is an extremely cruel endeavor. Among the many different types of animal extermination are the”… the toxicity and irritation testing of various consumer products, such as foodstuffs and cosmetics…extraction of products, and the development of drugs.” (Rollin, 1992, p. 136) One of the most criticized tests in this regard is the Draize eye irritant test. This test involves “… placing a substance in the eyes of four to six rabbits and evaluating the effect.” (Thompson 1988, p15.) The results for these extremely cruel experiments are used for cautionary labels on various products such as soaps and cosmetics.
One of the main arguments against commercial vivisection is that many scientists claim that there is no real scientific purpose to animal experimentation. This is a particularly the case with regard to animals which are used by pharmaceutical and chemical companies to test the toxicity of drugs and other substances, including cosmetics and household cleaners. This practice has been regularly criticized by doctors and scientists who are of the opinion that these experiments are not only unscientific but also flawed in many respects and even dangerous to human health. Countering these assertions the economists point to the many successful trials that have resulted in positive results and benefits for human beings and human health.
The economic world is, as has been stated, becoming more aware of its ethical responsibilities. Some critics still see this new found ethical responsiveness in the scientific and economic communities as a reaction only to pubic opinion and customer perception. However there are also those who are more positive and who think that the economic community is becoming more aware and reacting more positively to the important ethical dimensions of their activities.

Laptops in Schools

Laptop Usage in Schools The issues of laptops being used in schools are brought up throughout the whole country. Many people think that if we provide every student with a laptop, we will end up spoiling our future generation and turn them into lazy, unimaginative individuals. But with the correct usage, maintenance, and supervision, the laptop proposal can work. For one, the students would have the internet right at their fingertips, making research quick and efficient. Along with the handiness of looking up all their notes with a simple click of a button.
The laptop initiative has been proven to be very effective in schools in the United States; it has increased students productivity, accountability, and convenience. Administrators who are against the initiative of laptops argue that they are a waste of money and the schools budgets cannot handle it. They also believe that laptops would be a big distraction towards the student’s education. Some parents are also concerned about their children visiting inappropriate websites, along with having access to obscene material.
Little do they know, there are abundant ways in disciplining the opposing view point. It has been proven in schools across the country that if we provide every student with a laptop, the productivity in classes will go up. To guarantee these successful results, both the students and the teachers would have to have the most up-to-date software’s and access to the internet through the wireless networks at school. A laptop is an essential tool, similar to how a pencil is required for class.

If everyone shows up with their prepared material, the class can accomplish an increase in quality access to technology, transform quality of instructions, increase student engagement, improve academic achievement and technology literacy, increase economic competiveness, and enhance home-school connections. Along with so many more benefits. For example, if everyone had laptops, the teacher can easily send quick links of recordings or sources that relate to the curriculum. This is a more fun way to learn for most students. This can serve a sounding board for ideas, such as interactive programs, chat rooms, emails, and instant messaging.
Judging from my own experience, I would definitely prefer engaging with different resources online rather than listening to my teachers boring lectures. Therefore, if classroom activities are more interesting, than students are more likely to participate. Laptops are a great way to make things more appealing, from all the educational games that are available to enlightening videos on the web. All of these benefits do not only apply to the students, but studies show that they certainly also have a positive effect on the schools when the results of the states test come in.
Incorporating laptop usage in classrooms has also proven the development of student’s accountability. Students then have no reason for any papers being lost or not being able to receive an assignment when being absent. Teachers would also have the responsibility to post up all the required materials and objectives of the course, along with frequently updating lectures and assignments. With this technology, it makes it almost impossible for a student to make up any excuse for not doing their work, considering all the information they need to know is online.
By using laptops at school, students have the ability to challenge their assumptions by seeking expert advice and researching data. Having that access gives the students the responsibility to have all the accurate answers on a test or an essay. Another advantage of having a laptop as a digital teaching assistant, all of the visual medium, multi-media, and interactive programs, motivate the students to participate because they can work at their own pace while still being challenged to get to the next level.
This also forces the students to think critically by examining and analyzing multiple points of view by participating in online debates. Overall, it has been proven that students, who are involved with laptop usage in classrooms, are more liable to get their work done on time and more competent. Laptops, when used correctly can stimulate a different type of learning and be a great convenience for students. No more would we be sitting in class with paper and an overhead.
Paper notebooks will be old school and online and internal collaboration between students and teachers will be at an all time high. Getting rid of the notebooks and moving to laptop based study will help in getting rid of text books. No more lugging around 50 pounds worth of paper. Teachers will not have lectures anymore; instead they will have multiple study guides and utilize our Internet resources to find information. Text books will now be online, where students can quickly lookup parts of reading or study guides in a matter of minutes.
Notes will be in the form of think bubbles where student will type their notes and make them so they can truly understand what is being taught. This is extremely suitable for students for the reason that, it can help them simplify complex operations, such as converting numbers to charts by using excel processor, spell/grammar check, and office PowerPoint as a visual aid for presentations. This laptop initiative can expand student’s horizons by exposing them to new concepts and information, such as virtual tours and simulations.
Several individuals, who disagree on the whole laptop idea, think that students would take advantage of the internet access by constantly being on Face book, Twitter, or YouTube. In reality, this is no where true. There are already blocks in place to keep students off of restricted web sites, and with these laptops, the tech administrators will know exactly who is using the computer. So there really is no downside to having laptops incorporated in classrooms.
In conclusion, the entire world is changing quickly along with the rapid revolution of technology. Our society is changing as well and people are adapting to it just fine. So schools should immediately get on the laptops in classrooms project because, technology is going to be in our everyday life soon, and we need to start teaching computers and word processing at a young age and incorporate it into everything we do. I mean why not? It has been proven to better our student’s productivity, accountability, as well as their convenience.

Multicorporate structure

As early as the 1980’s there has been significant effort to create management practices in the industry that parallel business strategies because of the realization of the need for sustainability as much as quality services (Alexander et al, 1988). The advocacy is now influencing current health administrators to adopt these practices on a structural level: organization are being reengineered operationally and to accommodate non-traditional and non-medical specific functions such as marketing, public relations and organizational development (Griffith & White, 2006).
Healthcare organizations that have multicorporate structures consider themselves not only healthcare providers but as an organization that has to be professionally productive socially responsive and operationally independent. This is not to infer that traditional healthcare organizations preclude these characteristics only rather that multicorporate structured healthcare organization follow more closely the structure of an enterprise
Going Multicorporate Structured

Technology, communication, culture and politics have changed perceptions regarding the industry and thus are changing the means of delivering services. For example, in evaluating accounting and financial management (A/FM) performance, the adaptation of performance benchmarking principles have allowed for early threshold performance measurements of health programs (Griffith & White, 2006, pp. 455-456).
In an effort to measure productivity levels of technology programs the Australia’s health and social services, the Australian Government Productivity Commission (2006) considered the marginal effectiveness propensity of the inclusion of technology in medical procedures as well as sensitivity analyses and compared them to the influence of technology in other government services to determine the impact to health services. This effort supports Griffith and White’s view of the need for sophisticated surveillance and forecasting activity in multicorporate structured organizations (pp. 564-565).
In a similar effort, the United Kingdom based Democratic Health Network (2006) established community support and communication networks to support and monitors health awareness and delivery of services. The effort has developed significant funding for community-based health activities as well for the Democratic Health Network itself, greater participation in programs and higher satisfaction rating of health services. According to Griffith and White, these efforts can be considered as part of the healthcare organization’s marketing strategy because the efforts create awareness, reinforces the significance of the organization to the public, and at the same time allows for insights that can be developed to strategic advantages (pp. 610-613).
Conclusion
Considering the demands on healthcare today, there is need to develop effective channels for services, streamline operations and maximize resources. According to Leatherman (2001), there has been a recognized need in the health care industry to reevaluate its social roles and the social developments affecting the nature of current health care needs.
This can only be accomplished if an organizations structure is able to respond to healthcare professionals and the public effectively, which can only be possible if the organization’s structure allows for the development of such competencies. The need for multicorporate structures does not invalidate the social mandate of healthcare institutions but only endeavors to make a strategy-based and sustainable enterprise. The adoption of corporate practices in healthcare is an effort to institute administrative and competitive competencies in healthcare organizations.
References
Alexander, J. A., Morlock, L. L. and Gifford, B. D. (1988). The effects of corporate restructuring on hospital policymaking. Health Serv Res  June; 23(2): 311–337.
Griffith, John R. and White Kenneth R. (2006). The Well-Managed Healthcare Organization, Sixth Edition. Chicago, IL: American College of Healthcare Executives
Leatherman, S. (2001) Measuring up: Performance indicators for better healthcare. OECD Observer No. 229
Australian Government Productivity Commission (2006). Impacts of Advances in Medical Technology in Australia. Retrieved August 11, 2007, from <http://www.pc.gov.au/study/medicaltechnology/finalreport/mediarelease.html>
Democratic Health Network (2006). Accountability of the Health Service. Retrieved August 11, 2007
 

MIS

Before develop of the MIS, it was impossible to connect various information into the highway digital map. It is because each individual system did not have digital map to share. Through the highway digital map, it became possible to give visual information by expressing the highway related information on highway digital map. MIS became easier through easy location finding, and spatial queries made it possible to conduct various analysis. The MIS Digital maps include various layers such as highway centerlines, administrative boundaries, bridges, rivers, and so on.
In many cases, highway links can have one to many relationships. A link may have more than one attribute for pavement management. For example, at a certain location of one link, pavement data can be changed. In this case, highway link in the digital map should be divided according to the number changes. In order to solve this problems, a multi-attribute dynamic segmentation data model was designed and implemented in the MIS application software. -6 In order to enhance efficiency and utilization of the MIS, a highway photocopying system was developed.
A highway visual image shows highway alignment information, road sign and roadside safety facilities. Visual image database will be added and integrated into the MIS. To collect highway visual images, highway photocopying vehicle was developed. Highway photocopying vacillates a visual mages every mm along the highway. The photocopying system will also be integrated into the MIS to provide highway visual images to the highway roadway, roadside facilities and pavement conditions, to improve frequent vehicle crash locations, and to quickly view the site in case of emergency such as landslide, severe accident and etc.

In highway photocopying vehicle, two progressive-scan CDC cameras, 2 GAPS (Global Positioning System) receivers, INS (Inertial Navigation System), DIM (Distance Measure Instrument), and signal synchronization device were installed. Proto-type highway photocopying application software which has nationalities to stimulate the highway driving on different driving speeds, and to enlarge or reduce view scale and bright control and etc. Figure 2 2. 4 Electronic Toll Collection Systems for individual routes.
Electronic Toll Collection (ETC) systems have been deployed in a few countries, and motivation for deployment is high. The deployment is aims to alleviate congestion around toll gates and to prevent theft by toll collectors. The toll plaza equipment consists of a lane controller, toll violation cameras, treadles, variable message signs (VIM), detector loops, and lane transponders. The lane controller coordinates all the information from each interacts and transaction with the Plaza Local Area Network (LANA).
The Plaza LANA connect either direct connection or via wide are network (WAN) to the appropriate service center for the toll road in question. All this items called E-Z Pass, each of the participating E-Z Pass toll authorities maintain their own service centers that issue the transponders and maintain the accounts fro their local patrons. The centers receive and correlate all of the transactions form the toll plazas it services and adjusts the accounts of the patron, then sending the transaction result back to the lazar within milliseconds.
These centers interact when patrons from one use the toll services of another center. 3. 0 Social Networking for Highway Management and Maintenance Social networking Web sites such as Backbone, Namespace, and Twitter have impact daily life and social relationships in a profound way (Marcia Amid Lusted, 2011). Businesses, large and small, are finding ways to involve employees, customers, and partners in shared, online, collaborative activities that perform distinct business functions (Ran Shah,2010). Social networking is a novel way of increasing a business by connecting with other people. 1 Establish connectivity with people/ users. Sites like backbone host a foundation for a mass audience and within any industry it is near impossible to please every customer open up a public opportunity for people to express their views or their problem in our services. Social networking allow businesses to reach customers on an individual level and address their inquires or a service, be aware that customers can also use social networking platforms to -8 grievances on past experiences. It may require addressing specific concerns in an online forum should a customer use this approach. 3.
Social networking distraction trap The threat from web-borne viruses and mallard are often overlooked by the company. Hackers are attracted to social networking sites because they see the potential to commit fraud and launch spam and mallard attacks. According to Backbone Company, there are tens of thousands of applications available for face book may make every effort to provide protection against mallard, these third-party applications may not all be safe. Some of the application have the potential to be used to infect computers with malicious code which in turn can be used to collect data from the user’s site.
Messaging on social networking sites is also a concern and the Coffee worm is. One example of how message are used to spread malicious code and worms. 3. 3 Viral social disadvantage The wrong online brand strategy could put the company at a viral social disadvantage and may even damage ours’ reputation, e. G when the company make a mistake offline, a few will know but when the company make a mistake in front of thousands users what will happen?. Social networking also can have a negative influence on worker productivity. Employees may waste valuable time using media channels such as Backbone and Twitter.
They also use social media to attack the company’s reputation. Before the development of MIS in highway management and maintenance, there existed many problems in utilizing the highway data efficiently. It was difficult to indicate the same location among the highway management and maintenance system since each individual highway management and maintenance system has its own location expression with their own system. Similarly, it was hard to share highway data such as traffic volumes and highway drawings among the system since there was no integrated database system and this caused overlapping data storage ND overlapping data input effort.
Lastly, -9 since most systems were developed a decade ago, they are non-GIS (Geographic Information System) based system. Therefore, to solve this problems, first, new location reference system for the Highway was introduced by installing kilometer posts which were designed to have flexible adjustments to route change. Second, an integrated database was established by applying a unified location reference system to relevant data. Third, the Highway digital maps were utilized and reproduced in order to provide highway information n a visual format by presenting each system’s highway analysis data in common digital map.

Domestic Violence and Child Abuse

Domestic Violence and Child abuse University of North Carolina at Wilmington Social Work 311: Child Abuse and Neglect M. Guarino 3-28-2011 Abstract Domestic violence and child abuse have a tendency to go hand in hand. In the past, people overlooked the fact that in most households where domestic violence kids present, child abuse and neglect also occurs. An improvement in the collaboration between child protection and domestic violence services is vital for workers to identify, interdict, and resolve the issues related to abuse in all forms.
Cross training and interagency cooperation will greatly reduce abuse and increase the efficiency in which help is administered. 4-29-2011 SWK 311 Domestic Violence and Child Abuse Some parents abuse their kids because they have an alcohol or drug problem, or they have an extreme temper and they take it out on their kids, some parents abuse their kids because the parents went through something traumatic. Some parents abuse their children because they were abused when they were children, and then, you get some people who are just plain cruel and enjoy abusing children.
In most instances domestic violence in the family structure also has an impact on the existence of child abuse. Households that experience some form or another of domestic violence also have higher rates of child abuse/neglect issues. We should recognize that domestic violence can also be associated with child abuse and improve the collaboration between child protection and domestic violence services. Child buse and neglect in the context of domestic violence can be played out in a variety of ways; the same perpetrator may be abusing both mother and children, probably the most common scenario; the children may be injured when “caught in the crossfire” during incidents of adult domestic violence; children may experience neglect because of the impact of the violence, controlling behaviors and abuse on women’s physical and mental health; or children may be abused by a mother who is herself being abused.

Evidence is emerging in cases where both domestic violence and child abuse occur represent the greatest risk to children’s safety (Stanley 1997) and that large numbers of cases in which children are killed have histories of domestic violence(Wilczynski 1996). The man of the family is usually the root cause of the problem, however child protection services has a history of focusing on the mother, despite the fact that men are estimated to be responsible for half of the incidents of physical abuse of children, and the majority of the most serious physical abuse.
Most interventions by Child protection have focused on the woman, even when their violent male partners have been known to have committed the abuse of children. This is problematic because this gender bias can result in women being held accountable for “failing to protect” their children from the actions of men who use violence against them and therefore a failure to hold men accountable for the effects of their violence on women and children. An understanding of how domestic abuse effects child abuse is crucial in developing strategies to combat the child abuse problem.
For child protection services to be effective there needs to be an understood collaboration between them and the domestic violence services. Child protection agencies have been slow or failed to recognize the contribution of domestic violence to many situations of child abuse and neglect. Some differences are that child protective services usually deal with involuntary clients, whereas domestic violence service workers deal with people on a voluntary basis.
Child protective services deal with women who may be at a very different stage in recognizing and dealing with the violence in their relationships, than women who contact domestic violence services. For a collaboration to be effective, both agencies must understand each other’s work, what it is and what it isn’t. They must also appreciate the constraints, pressures, and limitations under which they are both operating. Both entities need to realize that domestic violence goes hand in hand with child abuse and vice-versa. Strategies should also be changed by child protection agencies in reference to their approach of men.
They need to learn about legal approaches to contain the violent men, so that they do not merely rely on threats to a mother to physically remove her children. They also need to learn to relate to abused women in ways that do not replicate the controlling and threatening behaviors of the perpetrator. Some interesting ways so that the two agencies could work together is cross-training, integration, and specialized teams. Mandatory cross-training would enable both agencies to realize the identifying factors and how to go about handling them. It would enable the agencies to see the powers and limitations of each other.
Integration of the agencies will also enable them to use to their resources to their fullest potential. It is kind of like the Sherriff’s department and the city police, both are basically doing the same task, but they are two separate entities who rarely communicate with each other. If they merged together and integrated all of their resources they would probably be more efficient. The same goes with child protection and domestic violence services. Specialized teams would also be very beneficial because they could use their special skills to handle very tricky situations.
The teams could team up with the police and court system to find a way to handle the situation. Establishing this “common ground” approach between the two agencies will significantly reduce child abuse in domestic violence households. In response to the growing recognition of the intersection of domestic violence and child abuse and neglect, significant efforts are being made to improve the collaboration between domestic violence and child protection services. This is very important to recognize that one usually affects the other. We must understand and use every available resource to combat the problem.
Instead of standing there with our hands tied behind our backs not being able to do anything, let’s use every available tool and resource that is available to help the child. Anything that can be done to save or at least help any child that is in an abusive situation is worth it. References Stanley, N. 1197, ‘Domestic Violence and Child Abuse: Developing Social Work Practice’, Child and Family Social Work, Vol. 2, No. 3, pp. 135-146 Wilczynski, A. 1996, ‘Risk Factors for Child and Spousal Homicide’, Psychiatry and Behavioral Disorders: Family Law Issues, LAAMS Publications, Bondi Junction