Feasibility Study Critical Essay

I. Introductory page A. Name and Address of the business “Sip n’ Trip Snack House” is situated at Brgy. 25 Real St. Tacloban City near Ritz Tower. B. Nature of Business The proposed business is a Snack House. A food establishment that will serve nutritious fruit shakes, milk shakes and finger-licking foods that will cater most especially to the on-the-go individuals. Also, to the general public that is searching for the perfect place to have a relaxing and intense experience to share with their family and friends.
The name is coined from how the food is to be served, “sip” because the shakes will be served in a tumbler, while “trip” means to have an intense and relaxing experience. It is a snack shop that would offer a variety of fresh fruit shakes and tasty finger foods. The menus will mainly consist of It will also provide varieties of music depending on the majority of the clients present in the establishment to add more compliments of being relaxed. “Sip n’ Trip Snack House” will be located in Real Street near the Ritz tower of Leyte because the target customers will be the students of UP Tacloban, Sto. ino church and employees of the government offices in the vicinity such as Tacloban City Hall, “Bulwagan ng Katarungan”, the Land Transportation Office. Likewise, many people visit and spend their free time near the Balyuan tower because of its beautiful, relaxing ambiance, so that they would also be potential customers of the snack shop. The product concept…………. Possible limitations of putting up the snack shop is that there will be peak days, usually during weekdays because of nearby offices and tudents attending classes at UP and lean days because students do not have classes on weekends, also because government agencies do not report for work on weekends. Another possible obstacle is lack of capital to be invested in the project. A third possible hindrance that must be considered would be how to ensure year round supply of fresh fruits and other ingredients for the shakes because of the seasonality of some fruits in the country. Mission To provide health-friendly fruit shakes served with delicious finger-licking snacks that can satisfy your appetite without spending too much.
Vision To be known as one of the popular snack houses that caters to students, employees and local people who enjoy munching with finger foods and sipping healthy fresh fruit shakes. Moreover, these are served in convenient disposable tumblers that customers can bring back to their offices or to school. Objectives: 1. Secure financing of at least P_____ to P______start-up. 2. Provide healthy, hassle free, and fresh fruit shakes and milk shakes in a tumbler. 3. Provide tasty and affordable finger-licking foods to match-up the shakes. 4.

Conceptualize a place with a beautiful ambiance and soothing music to those who are on dates, from work or from school. 5. To employ people in the community. 6. To be accessible, especially to the community. Target market: • Young professionals • Students • Senior citizens • Children below 12yrs. Old C. Statement of Financing needed In order to make this business possible, it requires a capital investment of P________. The business proponents will disburse of amounting to P____________ to put up the said business. II. Executive Summary (Will be done last part) III. Industry analysis A. Future Outlook and Trends
Our generation nowadays is often changing due to the technology. Gadgets were made to make life easier. The general public wants fast, convenient and good quality service especially when it comes to the food. The human need for water is inevitable desire for a higher level of satisfaction made to the creation of healthy fruit shakes. This inspired our group for the business. Snack houses are now popular in our industry because its quality service and variety of food. Shakes are one of the refreshments that attract customers especially during hot weather. Our way of selling our product is to uniqueness due to its convenient container.
Since people are after of the fast-hassle free service of the product, we conceptualize a business that can cater well to the customers and give them the satisfaction they need. B. Analysis of Competitors Competitor’s Analysis We consider these food establishments as our competitors since they also offer some similar foods and type of service. As to what and how we cater the customers. Our competitors are: DIRECTINDIRECT Kerri Mo Twirl Berry Thirsty Ritz Tower de Leyte Big Mak Potato Fries
Competition Our establishment usually turns into a popular demand during weekdays since it is a regular school day and also has office work. So, customers are in-need of fast, on the go and convenient product and service such as what we offer in our business. However during weekends there is a tendency of customer lacking due to no office work and school days. Edge among Other Competitors Our business offers a variety of fresh fruit shakes and finger-licking foods. The uniqueness of our product comes from the container itself because it is a tumbler style.
Our product has a combo meal which includes the shake at the bottom and the finger-licking snack on top of the shake. This is a package of two-in-one. Hassle free and convenient for the customers. We also focus on other important aspects such as flavor and taste, quality, health-friendly foods, fast service, convenience, cost identity/ image of our business. The establishment want to make sure that the customers are well satisfied w/ what we offer and will have a positive feedback towards us. We also want to be recognized and to be popularly known as the unique snack shop w/ delicious foods and shakes to offer. | | | | | | |COMPETITOR |STRENGTHS |WEAKNESSES |PRODUCTS |STRATEGIES |MARKET FOCUS | | | | | | | | |TWIRLBERRY |- accessibility |- seasonality of |- yogurt with fruit |-promotions |-targeting costumers/ | | |for the customers |fruits |toppings |- location wise and |visitors within the | | |- good choice of | | |attractive snack house |vicinity of the location | | |color pattern |- lean season, lack of | | | | | |- healthy yogurt |customers | | | | | |snack | | | | | | | | | | | | |RITZ TOWER de LEYTE |-variety of foods to|-hidden location site |-snacks, desserts, |-promotions, media, |-target market are the | |SNACK SHOP |offer | |meals, drinks, and |functions, events |people w/in the location | | | |-slow service |shakes | | | | |-accessibility to | | | |-visitors and guests that| | |customers | | | |are accommodating in the | | | | | | |Ritz Tower function | | |-beside the Ritz | | | |Halls. | |Tower function hall | | | | | | | | | | | | |BIGMAK |-along the road |-limited space for the |-burgers, hotdogs, |-promotions |-potential customers w/in| | |accessibility to |customers |pizza’s, drinks, |-hassle free |the place | | |customers | |siopao’s | |-passer by | | | |-limited resources | | | | | |-one stop snack shop| | | | | | | |-bad weather | | | | | | | | | | | |POTATO CORNER |-established names |-prices are too high for|-flavored potato |-location wise and |-shoppers; students who | | | |the serving |fries |attractive stalls |often stroll | | |-access to a great | | | | | | |no. f customers | | | | | | |since it’s located | | | | | | |at the Gaisano | | | | | | |central and | | | | | | |Robinsons | | | | | | | | | | | | |-attractive stall | | | | | | |-has various of | | | | | | |options in sizes and| | | | | | |flavors | | | | | | | | | | | | |KERRI MO |-established the |-the decoration and |-drinks(soda) in a |-discounts, offers combo|-passers by, shoppers at | | |innovation of 2-in-1|choice of color of the |tumbler w/ a |meals |the downtown area and the| | |tumbler snack |stalls and the packaging|finger-food on top | |nearest mall which is the| | |-location wise; near|is not attractive |such as French | |578. | | |at 578 mall | |fries, chips, etc. | | | | | | | | | |THIRSTY |-established |-offers lesser menu at |-healthy fruit |-location wise and |-shoppers at the | | |business for healthy|some period of the year |drinks and salads |attractive stalls |Robinsons and at the | | |fruit shakes |due to seasonality 0f |(shakes, juices | |downtown area. | | |-appealing color |fruits. |,salads) | | | | |-attractive satalls | | | | | | |-offers a various | | | | | | |ways to enjoy | | | | | |healthy fruits | | | | | | |whether in drinks or| | | | | | |of snacks (shakes, | | | | | | |juices, salads) | | | | | | | | | | | | |HENDRICKS |-established snack |-lack of promotions |-burgers, shakes, |-ambiance |-students, employees, | | |house | |fries, ice-cream, |-delicious snacks/ menu |shoppers | | |-offers various menu| |sandwiches, hotdogs,|-offers variety of | | | |from drinks to | |cakes and pasta |snacks | | | |sandwiches and ice | | | | | | |cream | | | | | | |-freshly- cooked | | | | | | |snacks | | | | | | |-the location is for| | | | | | |dine-in suitable for| | | | | | |hang-out | | | | | |NAME |ADDRESS |CONTACT NUMBER | |TWIRL BERRY |Brgy. 25 Real St. , Tacloban City |325 – 3977 | |BIG MAK |Brgy. 25 Real St. Tacloban City | | |THIRSTY |Corner Justice Romualdez and Del Pilar St. , Tacloban City |327 – 6741 | |RITZ TOWER |Brgy. 25 Real St. , Tacloban City |325 – 9966/325 – 9977 | |HENDRICKS |Dynasty Square Bldg. Tacloban City |321 – 5688 | |KERRI MO |Rovic Building Tacloban City |09089581627 | C. Industry Forecast Economy
The demand of fruits continues to increase despite of its seasonality. A variety of fruits are sold in the market. During lean season, the supplies of fruits are scarce and as result, the prices of which is increasing due to its demand. This situation determines the willingness of the public to spend as much on their preferred fruit shakes. 2011 will witness a true test of healthy living. For the past few years, the prices of fruits are inconsistent due to the supply and demand situation especially during certain occasions like Christmas and New Year. Since the proposed business is selling fruit shakes, it would be a popular demand during summer time when the weather is hot. Technology
As of today, technology is one of the most dominant forces that affect people’s lives. Due to technology, every industry is evolving and food service is no exception yet other food establishment did not anticipate the beneficiary effects of using the latest technology in food service. The following are the major technologies used by food establishments to provide faster and reliable service to the customers: Media and Social Networks for promotional purposes. Hamburger griller Gas range with Oven Blender Deep Fryer Cash Register Refrigerator Water Dispenser Research The lacking menu of shakes existing in the market is the primary weakness of our competitors.
It gave us the idea of turning their weakness into opportunity in the sense that constant research is held frequently in order for us to find some more types of delectable fruits that can be utilized in making shakes. D. Legal Political Concerns Any kind of business, whether big or small will always face the barriers and the hindrances that barricade the firm to achieve its goals. While some of them may be solved without involving the law, some may be too big to be ignored. For that reason, it is important to familiarize yourself, as an entrepreneur, on the various laws that exist and which govern various sectors and facets of the business industry. When it comes to food and beverage handling, cleanliness and sanitation is a top requirement. The employee’s health and sanitation is of a great maintenance as well.
Each employee is required for a health for a health and sanitation permit not just for the government compliance but also of securing the sanitation of the establishment thus, maintaining its reputation for a good service. And as the proposed business aims to provide a high-level dining and take-out experience we will also take the responsibilities of being a part of the community by assuring the establishment’s cleanliness and sanitation without prejudicing the community itself. This can be done by having a proper waste disposal policy and maintaining the cleanliness of the cleanliness of the establishment’s vicinity hence, securing health and sanitation permit. Waste Disposal Zero waste management will be utilized in order for the firm to contribute to the environment of the vicinity of the business thus, leading to the betterment of the community.
The various waste materials produced by industries maybe classified generally as solids, gaseous or liquid. Methods of Waste Disposal 1. Eliminate of source – The first approach to a waste disposal problem requires a careful attention of the source of pollutants. 2. Recovery of waste products – Before deciding how to discard waste materials, the engineer should always think for recycle, reuse or for sale. 3. Regulate how to fit dilution. 4. Divert waste to other points. Fiscal Policy Regular payment of tax is also a responsibility of the establishment since it is also regulated by the government. The proposed business is a small therefore an annual payment of tax is done according to its yearly sales. Licensing
Description of Activities in a Chronological Manner 1. DTI Permit Application The business name of Sip n’ trip should be register with the Department of Trade and Industry. 2. Mayor’s Permit The Mayor’s Permit application will acquire the submission of the following: a. SSS Clearance Permit b. Sanitary Permit c. DTI 3. TIN (Tax Account Number) The project business will be registered at the Bureau of Internal Revenue District located at Government Center at Campetic Tacloban City. The following forms should be accomplished with necessary attachments. BIR FORM No. Attachment Required, Mayor’s Permit and DTI Permit 5. Buying of machineries and equipment
Involves the acquisition of the necessary machinery and equipment in the food establishment as indicated in technical aspect. 5. Promotion As stated in the Marketing Mix, the medium of promotion is through tarpaulins, leaflets, free tasting and rebates, discounts, coupon, “barkadahan” package for lean periods. 6. Start of Operation After securing all the necessary permits and other needed materials. The said will be now ready to operate. IV. Description of Venture A. Product “Sip n’ Trip Snack House” will be offering varieties of nutritious fruit shakes, milk shakes and finger-licking foods which is guaranteed fresh and minimal usage of preservatives to provide beneficiary effects to health. “SIP ‘N TRIP MAIN PRODUCTS” FRUIT SHAKES |FINGER FOODS | |WATERMELON |CLUBHOUSE | |MANGO |FRIES : PLAIN, CHEESE AND SOURCREAM | |APPLE |KROPEK | |PAPAYA |KRINKLES | |BANANA |MUNCHKINS | |PINEAPPLE |BURGER : REGULAR AND SPECIAL | B. Service The proposed business will be operating 12 hrs a day/ 7 days a week.
The employees and staffs most especially the service crew and cashier which personally deals with the customers must bear in mind the importance of TLC towards the clients and that the customers are the lifeblood of the business. The type of service that the establishment will have is customized service wherein coupon will be deployed that contains 20% discount on first 20 customers within opening. Another factor of customer’s patronage is the excellent customer service which will be, in the proposed business, must be strictly applied and monitored. C. Size of the Business TABLES: SEATING CAPACITY: 28 PAX BUILDING SIZE: 120m X 20m DIMENSION: V. Production Plan A. Production Process
Budgeting – Financial report containing estimates of income and expenses. Purchasing – An act of instance of purchasing. Receiving – Stage of production where products are inspected, in-charge of the products orders and checking of the quality of the items purchased and if all of the necessary items have been purchased. Storing – Process where your foods are stored. It must be done to preserve the quality of goods Preparation – Raw materials are prepared to make the expected product. Portioning – It is where divisions of products are done as to how many servings without sacrificing the profit of the business. This is one of the most crucial parts in the production process.
Pricing – Products are priced depending on the price of our competitors. Serving – This is the part of the production process where in the products are served to the customers. Controlling – Manages the business performance to ensure its good operation. B. Facilities and Amenities List of Equipments |ITEMS |UNIT PRICE |QUANTITY |BRAND |TOTAL PRICE | |Water Dispenser |6,800. 00 |1 |Markes |6,800. 00 | |Refrigerator |75,000. 00 |1 |Samsung |75,00. 0 | |Hamburger Grill |16,339. 75 |1 |WEBstaurant |16,339. 75 | |Blender |5,500. 00 |2 |Markes |11,000. 00 | |Gas range with Oven |55,800. 00 |1 |Slim |55,800. 00 | |Cash Register |7,697. 00 |1 |Casio |7,697. 00 | |Ice Crusher |1,244. 5 |1 |Market Place |1,000. 00 | |Deep Fryer |8,000. 00 |1 |WEBstaurant |1,244. 00 | |Air conditioning unit |53,795. oo |1 |Kolin |53,795. 00 | |Weight scale |199. 75 |1 |Lucky |199. 75 | |Speakers |5,200. 00 |1 |Konzert |5,200. 0 | | Sterilizer |5,000. 00 |1 |markes |5,000. 00 | |Mixer |11,567. 00 |1 |Classic satand |11,567. 00 | |Gas Tank |1,000. 00 |1 |Shellane |1,000. 00 | List of furniture and fixtures |ITEMS |UNIT PRICE |QUANTITY |BRAND |TOTAL PRICE | |Hand Dryer |2,500. 0 |1 |Vector |2,500. 00 | |Tables |1,795. 00 |11 |Cortes table | | |Chairs (stacking) |650. 00 |32 |Wella 903 | | |Working Table |2,320. 00 |1 |San yang |2,320. 00 | |Faucet |575. 00 |2 |Handyman |1,150. 00 | |Mirror |375. 0 |1 |mirrors |375. 00 | |Wall Clock |349. 75 |1 |Meide |349. 75 | |Sink |1,399. 75 |2 |Handyman |2,799. 75 | |Bulb |269. 00 |7 |Firefly |1,883. 00 | |Emergency lamp |1,049. 75 |6 |firefly | 2,099. 50 | TOTAL: LIST OF OFFICE SUPPLIES ITEMS |UNIT PRICE |QUANTIYT |BRAND |TOTAL PRICE | |Pencil |40/box |1 |Mongol |40. 00 | |Ballpen |45/box |1 |HBW |45. 00 | |Puncher |50. 00 |1 |Sunny |50. 00 | |Paper fastener |7/5pcs. |1 | |7. 00 | |Stapler |50. 0 |1 |Crystals |50. 00 | |Stapler wire |8. 00/box |1 |Stapler |8. 00 | |Paper clips |20. 00/100pcs. |1 |Stapler |20. 00 | |Marker |10. 00 |3 |Toyo |30. 00 | |Sticky notes |57. 00 |1 |Post-it |57. 00 | |White board |400. 5 |1 |VECO |400. 75 | |Cork board |162. 00 |1 |NBS |162. 00 | |Scissors |49. 75 |1 |Helix |49. 75 | |Record book |140. 00 |1 |Record |140. 00 | |Bond Papers (short) |225. 00/bundle |1 |Paper one |225. 0 | |Bond paper (long) |246. 00/bundle |1 |Paperone |246. 00 | Maintenance & Others |ITEMS |UNIT PRICE |QUANTITY |BRAND |TOTAL PRICE | |Mop |219. 00 |1 |Scotch Brite |219. 00 | |Dishwashing liquid |88. 00/liter |1 |Sher |88. 00 | |Sponge |9. 5 |2 |Scotch Brite |18. 70 | |Scrubbing pads |18. 00 |2 |Scotch Brite |36. 00 | |Trash Bags |49. 50/pack |1 |Dolphin |49. 50 | |Trash Cans |385. 00 |2 |Zooey |77. 70 | |Dust pan |75. 00 |1 |Slim |75. 00 | |Soft broom |50. 0 |2 | |100. 00 | |Stick broom |10. 00 |1 | |10. 00 | |Furniture rags |72. 75/pack |1 |Arix |72. 75 | |Floor mat |110. 00 |3 |Novel artistic |330. 00 | |Toilet perfume |36. 00 |1 |Glade |36. 0 | |Air freshener |219. 00 |1 |Lysol |219. 00 | Kitchen & Dining Utensils & Supplies |ITEMS |UNIT PRICE |QUANTITY |BRAND |TOTAL COST | |Glass |15. 75/pc. |30 |OCEAN |472. 50 | |Knives |379. 95/set |1 |Cutlery set |379. 95 | |Pitcher |114. 0 |4 | |456. 00 | |Table napkin |16. 00 |2 |Cheers |32. 00 | |Tooth pick |13. 25/pack |1 |Swan |13. 25 | |Straw |26. 90/pack |3 |Family |80. 70 | |Tissue |87. 50/12pcs |1 |Femme |87. 0 | |Cocktailtoothpick |32. 80/pack |1 |Lucky |32. 80 | |Platter |130. 00 |3 |Costa |390. 00 | |Pot holder |33. 75 |5 |Kitchen Aid |168. 75 | |Measuring spoon |24. 95 |1 |TupperWare |24. 95 | |Measuring cups |39. 5 |1 |TupperWare |39. 95 | |Food tong |74. 00 |3 |Tongs corp. |222. 00 | |Chopping Board |69. 95 |2 |Yong yo |139. 90 | |Trays |79. 75 |10 |Happy |767. 50 | |Spoon |50. 00/dozen |1 |Solingen |50. 00 | |Fork |55. p0/dozen |1 |Solingen |55. 00 | |Plates |25. 00/pc. |12 |b-smith |300. 00 | |Saucers |22. 00 |24 |b-smith |528. 00 | |Ice bucket |179. 75 |1 |Crawn ice chest |179. 75 | |Turner |74. 75 |2 |Eurochef |149. 0 | |Sauce bottle |17. 00 |5 |Unitech |85. 00 | B. Labor Requirements Skills required The firm will hire local employees since it is more beneficiary both to the employees and the business itself. Living near the business site is preferable to the employees to insure promptness and can do overtime work when needed. The company on the other hand will give assurance to the workers such as good working condition, facilities for a conductive maintenance of their health incentives and many other benefits required by the labor code, plus benefits given by the company itself.
The business will have five (5) employees; one of the proponents will be the manager of the establishment to manage the business in general, one (1) cook who prepare the product satisfactorily, one (1) cashier responsible in cash transactions, and one (1) service crew to serve the customers and one (1) utility man to maintain the orderliness and cleanliness of the establishment. Recruitment and Selection of Employees • Process used in selecting sales personnel: 1. Application 2. Screening Interview 3. Analysis and Hiring Decision • Qualifications 1. At least high school graduate 2. Has a pleasing personality 3. Can communicate in English 4. At least 18 years of age • Requirements 1. 2 x 2 picture 2. Brgy. Clearance 3. Police Clearance 4. Complete Medical Examination C. Salary Schedule of Employees |No. f Employee |Position |No. of working |Rate per Hour | Monthly Salary |Yearly Salary | | | |Hours | | | | |1 |Manager |10 |P 30. 00 |P 7,200. 00 |P 86,400. 00 | |1 |Cashier |10 |P 25. 00 |P 6,000. 00 |P 72,000. 00 | |1 |Cook |10 |P 25. 00 |P 6,000. 00 |P 72,000. 0 | |2 |Service Crew |10 |P 20. 00 |P 4,800. 00 |P 57,600. 00 | |1 |Utility |10 |P 20. 00 |P 4,800. 00 |P 57,600. 00 | |1 |Security Guard |1 |P 15. 00 |P 3,600. 00 |P 43,200. 00 | IV. Marketing Plan A. Marketing Objectives 1. To achieve 15% profit in one year 2. To meet the needs and wants of the customers 3. To maintain good public image to the community B. Situational Analysis
The major concern of the organization is not only to gain profit but Sip n’ Trip Snack House will contribute to the community by employing local people that is qualified, skilled and can perform multi-tasks to perform the job effectively and efficiently. The firm will also conduct sponsorship to a certain event in order for the organization to establish good public image and also to expand the firm’s linkages for future business deals. VIII. Market Growth Tacloban City population |2006 |2007 |2008 |2009 |2010 | |211,269 |217,199 |223,129 |229,220 |217,199 |
GROWTH RATE |2007 |2008 |2009 |2010 | |2. 8% |2. 7% |2. 7% |—– | C. Market Analysis Summary of the Market Survey The given questions and their Corresponding Percentage regarding Target Market’s Preferences: 1. Do you like eating snacks? YES: 91 %NO: 9% 2. With whom? Family: 45%Friends: 51%Relatives 0%Co-employees: 4% 3. At what price? 50: 30%100: 43%150: 27% 4. What type of food establishment do you prefer?
Fast food: 36%Barbeque: 8%Snack House: 58% 5. How often do you eat outside? Every day: 30%Weekends: 49%Monthly: 6%Occasionally: 15% 6. Do you like on-the-go and hassle free products? YES: 88%No: 12% 7. Do you like shakes? YES: 95%NO:5% 8. What type of shakes? % Fruit Shakes: 59%Milk Shakes: 16%Chocolate: 25% 9. What finger foods would you pair with your shake? Fries: 42%Chips: 6%Cookies: 22%Breadsticks: 3%Burgers: 27% 10. What type of menu are you into? Combo Meals: 27Take-out: 44%Dine-in: 29% 11. What type of packaging do you prefer? Styrofoam: 61%Carton: 13%Plastic: 26% 12. What type of ambiance do you prefer? Air-conditioned: 25%Nature: 0%Nature-friendly: 19%Relaxing: 56% 13.
Do you think putting up a snack house here in Tacloban City is a good idea? YES: 97%NO: 3% Conclusion: Based from the survey, the proposed business will be feasible and viable because the there is a great demand of our product . D. Market Demographics 1. Geographic Our immediate geographic targets are Sto. Nino church goers, Balyuan Tower goers, UP students, STCDC students, City Hall and “Bulwagan ng Katarungan” employees, Rizal Park goers, and Rizal School students. 2. Demographic – Young professionals – Students – Senior citizens – Children below 12yrs. Old – Both Female and Male – They spend for at least P 100. 00 – P 150. 00. 3. Behavioral Factors Students/ teenager loves to eat fries, burgers, and milkshakes – Health-friendly fruit shakes and tasty milkshakes (conscious market) – People/ customers patronize foods/ snacks served fast with a relaxing ambiance of the establishment. – Students especially teens loves to have food trip with friends/ “barkadas” so they spend a lot of it. – Our establishment is budget conscious as well. E. Market Needs 1. Menu Selection Sip ‘n Trip will be offering hassle-free and on the go food product which has a high nutrient value. We have variety of shakes matched up with finger licking foods that most our target customers would love to eat. 2. Location
Our location is very accessible since it is located in a commercialized area. It can be easily seen since it is along the highway going to the downtown. 3. Service Our service would only be limited since it is a self-service concept, but we will see to it that whenever the customer needs help, they will be attended. The type of service that the establishment will have is customized service wherein coupon will be deployed that contains 20% discount on first 20 customers within opening. 4. Price Rates Sip ‘n Trip products will make sure that we can always give the quality of product yet affordable since we target students. F. Service Offering 1. Product
Sip n’ Trip Snack House will be offering a variety of fresh fruit shakes and tasty finger foods that will give the customer full satisfaction without spending too much. 2. Service Snack Houses are now popular in the Hospitality Industry because of its quality service and variety of food. The type of service that will be used is customized service wherein the customers are going to offer our Health-friendly fruit shakes and tasty finger-licking foods. We aim to provide our customers the satisfaction and convenience of our product and give them the best service we could, in return for their patronage. The type of service that the establishment will have is customized service wherein coupon will be deployed that contains 20% discount on first 20 customers within opening. VII. Market Growth
Tacloban City population |2006 |2007 |2008 |2009 |2010 | |211,269 |217,199 |223,129 |229,220 |217,199 | GROWTH RATE |2007 |2008 |2009 |2010 | |2. 8% |2. 7% |2. 7% |—– | VIII.
SWOT ANALYSIS STRENGHT 1. Accessible enough for the potential customers. 2. The menu is simply delicious and nutritious 3. The place has a magnificent view. The beach 4. Uniquely served 5. New innovation and technology 6. The ambience of the place is very unique and refreshing because it is near the beach than that of direct competitors which is located in the downtown which all one can see are concretes and buildings, and the oozy-boozy noise of the city is present. WEAKNESS 1. The supply of fruits for the fruit shakes since come fruit are not always in season. 2. The competitors have established names and ours is still on the birthing stage. 3.
The proposed business is in Real Street which is a main highway therefore; accessibility is not 100% unlike in our direct competitor which is located in the heart of the city which has quite advantage than of the proposed business. OPPORTUNITY 1. Certain institutions are present such as church, schools, park and City Hall so therefore people are present during our operating hours 2. The proposed business is in Real Street which is a highway wherein almost all people in Tacloban will be passing by so therefore; promotional activities will not be more complicated due to the location of the business. THREAT 1. Increasing cost of production 2. Competition in the market specifically snack houses. 3. Substitutes • How to convert threats into opportunities 1. New innovation and technology Through the used of these new innovation and technology, we can apply or use the latest machines and equipment that are popular nowadays to keep track with the generation and make work easier and better. 2. Increase Cost of production – The increase cost of production can be an opportunity for our business to gain more profit by setting a higher price on product but with good quality and better service. Even though the cost of production is high, we can still adjust and compete to the industry. On the other hand, we can also lower the cost of production by cutting on the total cost and using alternatives for the product. 3. Competition of business specially snack houses: Competition in the market is usual case scenario in the industry, these threats can be converted to an opportunity since if there will be more competition of our business, then the product will be popularly known for its competitiveness to the market and we can also use the Decoy Strategy to have an edge to the other competitors. IX. Positioning Sip n’ Trip is a snack house that will cater to students and also to young professionals. Their main products are shakes, and finger licking foods with a unique packaging. Putting up a business in a highly urbanized city is away of accepting the challenge of developing establishment with new existing market trends. Sip n’ Trip has a unique way of attracting customers through its packaging which is very convenient.
Since people are after with a hassle free service of the product, we wish to provide them the best service and give them the satisfaction they need. X. Marketing Mix Price The prices of our products are reasonable in a sense that it has beneficiary effects to health for the ingredients are fresh and nutritious fruits and also affordable because the cost of production is cheap. Such machineries used to process the products are power saver. Also, there are suppliers that compete and as a result, prices of the raw materials decrease. Product The products of the establishment are shakes and finger foods placed all in one in a tumbler for a hassle-free eating experience for the on-the-go customers. Place
The location of the proposed business is at Brgy. 25 Real St. Tacloban City near Ritz Tower. Certain institutions are present, the Sto. Nino Church, Rizal Elementary School, and University of the Philippines, St. Therese and City Engineer’s Office therefore the place of the said business will be applicable due to the presence of target market. Promotion The use of modern technology will be utilized for promotion purposes; e. g. Facebook and Twitter and also the use of tarpaulin and leaflets. During lean periods, such promos will be deployed like coupon, freebies, raffle tickets, giveaways,discounts and rebates in order to attract more customers.
Packaging The packaging of our product is a biodegradable type of Styrofoam therefore it is an environmental-friendly material. Also the modern trend of packaging will be applied; e. g. the usage of vibrant colors and line patterns to add more attractiveness of the product. We also offer product packaging for business meetings, seminars and trainings, family package and “barkadahan Package”. This packaging activity serves at one of our strategy for promotions of our business and for creating a good image/ identity to our potential and target markets. People The growth in the demand of healthy products and hassle-free food containers is undeniable.
People nowadays are quite meticulous regarding the quality of the product they are into and as an entrepreneur; these demands will soon be satisfied through Sip n’ Trip. Production The production of the firm will be high at minimum cost. This will be achieved through these processes: 1. Budgeting 2. Purchasing 3. Receiving 4. Storing 5. Preparation 6. Positioning 7. Pricing 8. Serving 9. Controlling These processes will be implemented strictly to achieve the firm’s mission. Programming There will be two (2) programs that will be conducted to ensure that the business will be well-known to the community. Conducting sponsorship and charity works will be the media to establish a good public image and establish linkage.
We will also coordinate with other institutions; Gawad Kalinga, City Tourism, Rotarians, CWL, Private and Public Sectors XII. Organizational Plan A. Forms of Ownership The proposed business is in Partnership form owned and managed by seven individuals. The partners will contribute money, property, and labor/skill and expects to share in the profits and losses of the business. Each partner must file an annual information return to report the income, deductions, gains and losses from the operation of the proposed business but eventually will not pay income tax. B. Identification of Partners 1. Jea A. Dayap 2. Michelle Angelique A. Veloso 3. Emmanuel A. Tan, Jr. 4. Jo-Ann I. Bacay 5. Crista Gale B.
Manatad 6. Rhea Mae M. Portula 7. Margellen P. Managbanag C. Organizational Structure D. Duties and Responsibilities 1. Job title:Manager Basic Function: A master of multi-tasking in which he is in-charge of all aspects of day-to-day operations of the business. Duties and Responsibilities: a. To make sure that the food preparation is done correctly by the cook. b. To make sure that the cleaning schedule of the staff is followed and ensuring cleanliness of all equipment, tools and physical building surfaces. c. To train all staff in food preparation, food safety, cleanliness, proper cleaning procedures and every aspects of food service. d.
To be aware of food safety, health codes and state of food and beverage industry law. e. To ensure the cashier’s daily transactions are monitored. f. To manage different problems of the daily operations of the business and makes wise decisions. g. Ensures the wellness of the operation of the business. 2. Job title :Cashier Basic Function: Receives payments of customers and ensures the circulation of daily transactions. a. To secure the how much amount of money is being received during day-to-day operations. b. To secure the amount of change in the register drawer for the purpose of finding out when they are required to restock the change. c. To balance all receipts against sales. d.
To answer complaints/questions when the need arises since as it is in visible areas and directly to customers. e. To perform other tasks as may be assigned to the superior. f. To remit daily income to the manager. 3. Job title :Cook Basic Function: Prepares all the food that the menu depicts a. To maintain records of food used and supply at hand. b. To prepare and make the meal in a timely manner. c. To make sure that the food in the menu is available. d. To maintain the cleanliness and sanitation of the working area. e. To ensure the quality of the food is at its best. f. To perform the other tasks as may be assigned by the superior. 4. Job title :Service Crew
Basic Function: Responsible for providing fast and efficient food and beverage services to the guests. a. To present menu, take order, suggest and recommend appropriately. b. To attend and respond to guest’s needs promptly and professionally. c. To present bills to diners, collect payment and give to the cashier, return change to diners. d. To keep the cleanliness of the food center. e. Performs other tasks as may be assigned by the supervisor. 5. Job title:Utility Man Basic Function: To perform general housekeeping and cleaning duties including sweeping E. Management Proposal on Business Policies 1. The establishment will provide a friendly environment for the customers which they could hang-out. 2.
The employees will observe fast and efficient service 3. The employees will be on a contract of no work no pay policy. 4. The employees must perform their duties and responsibilities accordingly and professionally. 5. The employee’s compensation will be based by their hours of work. This will be given every 15th and 30th day of the month. 6. The employees attendance will be recorded through the use of Dailt Time Record (DTR) kept by the manager, which will be signed every after log-in and log-out. 7. The inventory of consumable products will be done daily by the cook. And the inventory of the fixtures and equipments will be done quarterly by the utility man and service crew. 8.
Financial statement shall be submitted from the cashier to the manager for auditing and tax purposes monthly. 9. The employees will be given day-off once a week in accordance with the schedule of all other employees. XIV. Socio-Economic Feasibility a. Employees The proposed business gives an opportunity to employ people in the community thus, not only contributing the economy but also improving the lives of people whom their livelihood is not sufficient enough to provide for their family. b. Government The proposed business will give an additional income to the government through taxes coming from the purchase of goods needed in the business thus, contributing for the betterment of society. F. Management Study For Pre-operating Period:
During the pre-operating period, the business proponents are responsible to deal with some government and private agencies to secure the necessary documents and files, and deal in financing institution for financial needs of the project. The business proponents also are the ones to negotiate for the constructor. The supplier of the materials and by the hired construction firm and the supervision will be integrated with the said contract. Consultant shall be hired also to ensure the safety of the plant and to supervise the installation of the equipment. For Operating Period: During the operating period, the business proponents are the ones that will handle the key position in the company.
The organization sees to it that hired employees are all licensed and undergone the medical examination and drug test. All these persons should have at least an experience in their respective jobs. The personnel will give the customer his undivided attention to make sure that the customer will feel that he is the only one served amidst the queuing multitude. The high wage given by the company and, likewise, the humane treatment of the superiors will inspire the crew to render machine-precise service. ———————– BUDGETING PUCHASING RECEIVING STORING PRODUCTION PORTIONING PRICING SERVING CONTROLLING 2 SERVICE CREW UTILITY MAN COOK CASHIER MANAGER SECURITY GUARD

Evaluate the economic strengths and weaknesses of Japanese

The Japanese Keiretsu has kept on growing, there are many definitions of what a Keiretsu are and how they actually operate. Keiretsu’s can be understood by ‘financial Keiretsu’ this one of there meanings. The so-called financial Keiretsu correspond roughly to the post war descendants of the pre-war Zaibatsu groupings. The largest six groups are Mitsui, Mitsubishi, Fiji, Sumitomo, Sanwa and Dai-ichi Kangyo. While some smaller groups exist which are called financial Keiretsu. The term Keiretsu actually refers to the importance of ‘networking’ which is in principle of organizing the economic life in Japan. Networking takes the form of a group of firms associated with the same ‘main bank’, a trading company. The definition of the pre-war Zaibatsu is closely linked to Keiretsu groups but the Zaibatsu were destroyed by forces such as the USA 1946-1947. The principle distinction is that Zaibatsu were closely held conglomerates run by wealthy families and with member firms often existing as formal subsidiaries. On the other hand Keiretsu members are legal entities which issue their own shares.
The connection of member firms to the ‘main bank’ is more tenuous than under the Zaibatsu form of organization. Sheard (1989), Morck and Nakamira (1992), Flath (1991) and others stress the role of the main bank as monitors, especially when other forms of monitoring may be weak. Even though banks are prohibited from holding more than 5% of the outstanding shares of any one company (10% in the event of financial distress), they are nevertheless very important, shareholders within a Keiretsu. Cross holdings of shares by member firms is another distinction of Keiretsu. Aoki (1986) argues cross-holding of shares effectively insulates member firms from hostile takeover.
The Keiretsu are a key feature of the Japanese economy, directly or indirectly affecting economic transactions within and across the industry. Keiretsu’s can be categorized as two types, firstly there is a Horizontal Keiretsu these are associated with large corporations and are organized around a main bank, a city bank, trust bank, real estate agency, life and casualty insurance firm and one or more trading companies. E.g. Mitsubishi. Keiretsu’s only contained a single firm from each industry, to promote, by mutual assistance and preferred transactions, interests of its members. But there are exceptions with Dai-ichi Kangyo, Sanwa and Fuyo. The firms will sponsor the Keiretsu’s products if they charge them a reasonable price which is not higher than the outsiders.

Keiretsu’s are distinguished by cross holding of shares; companies hold shares of member firms. These are acquired less for ordinary commercial motives than for considerations of mutual solidarity. Such investments serve to ward off non-group predators. This leads to companies to measure long-term security and freedom from outside control, which then leads to a better management of implicit lifetime employment contracts.
The second is Vertical Keiretsu these organized around a large independent company and its subsidiaries and affiliates. However, one of the prime forces underlying these formations is that in contrast to most western firms, leading Japanese corporations tend to undertake less in-house activity, preferring instead to have relatively larger bulk of their components tailor made by others. E.g. in 1979 and 1983, the proportionate value of total automobile manufacturing costs derived from a firm’s own activities was 26% for Nissan and 28% for Toyota.
By several measures, despite press reports in the contrary, Keiretsu ties appear to have strengthened somewhat rather than weakened in recent years. E.g. the ratio of cross-shareholding for the six Keiretsu groups rose from 43.3% in JFY 1992. In 1992, the intragroup transactions involve the trading companies, according to the JFTC. With ties tens of thousands of Japanese companies, including Keiretsu, the trading companies play a significant role in Japan’s exports and imports, including domestic distribution activities. They are essentially gate keepers for Japan’s economy. The trading companies, along with the banks and insurance companies, provide both horizontal and vertical leadership and integrating functions to the Keiretsu. They provide key services to Japanese firms operating overseas, including those in Asia, and facilitate trade between third-party countries. By maintaining strong linkages between firms, the trading companies serve important intermediaries among local suppliers, parent companies, and customers in Japan.
Companies belonging to a Keiretsu have benefited from the occasional pooling of capital, technological knowledge, personnel, office space and recreational facilities. This has proved to be particularly useful when member firms have entered into joint ventures with each other, for by dealing with fellow Keiretsu firms, one starts off on the basis of long held associations which facilitate negotiations and cooperation. Information can be freely exchanged with full confidence. Loans can be readily be arranged through the group’s main bank and other financial institutions, and the Keiretsu’s major trading company can be called upon for assistance in distribution and the acquisition of imported inputs.
On average horizontal Keiretsu firms appear to be not profitable than non- Keiretsu ones. Odagiri 1992 ‘hardly any benefit seems to accrue from grouping’. Profit measurement in Japan has not been adequate enough for indication of the firm’s performance. Some people think that Keiretsu groups lead to monopolistic powers which try to maximize utility of corporate employees and not profits. One advantage of Keiretsu membership lies in greater degree of security which is protected by the Keiretsu’s main bank. This advantage extends to the economy at large, in that it enables Japan to adjust better to variable market conditions than most other industrial counties seem to be capable of doing. But this implies that less reliance on Keiretsu banks leads to a general weakening of Keiretsu links.
The cross-holding of shares among Keiretsu firms has come under criticism by foreign firms and governments in recent years which are excluding shareholders from outside the Keiretsu groups. The cross-holding of shares resembles self management for Keiretsu firms because it allows them to concentrate on what they are good at – engaging in R&D activities, planning for efficient production and distribution and new markets, by minimizing outside intervention of other stakeholders in the running of their business.
Japanese companies and their workers are intensely aware of the standing of their own firm in its industry. They loathe to be left out of the race. So there is pressure from divisions of companies affected by a new trend within an industry to get in early on new products. Printing companies have rushed to make electronic circuit boards; drug and chemical firms. Also food firms have started research on biotechnology; while every firm with its own plant engineering department, from car companies to small firms making pens, has begun to tinker with making and applying industrial robots. The same instincts in the electric appliance industry led to the rush to put microchips in every product. This ensures, first that the Japanese are unlikely to ignore a new industry, second, that competition in it will be intense, the drop out rate is high, but that, third, several world companies emerge.
Competition could not have produced such powerful companies in so wide a range of industries unless each firm determined to stay ahead in the same race, instead of shifting to another business. Japanese companies remain specialised for two quite different reasons. They cannot merge or takeover companies which are doing well in other industries because shares in companies are not treated like financials assets as they are in Britain or the U.S. So conglomerate companies are unheard of.
The inability to diversify by takeover, and the stress in Japanese companies on ensuring the survival of the community within them rather than maximizing shareholders’ returns, forces a powerful discipline on each firm. It must compete and survive in its own field. That has given managers two main aims. One is to ensure profitability, but mainly on operations not on assets or capital employed. The other aim is to anticipate the end of the useful life of one successful product by developing its successors.
The potential behavioural differences between affiliated and independent firms in Japan were explored. The primary behavioural implication of interest was that of potentially more risk-averse behaviour on the part of managers of affiliated firms. That is, on of the functions of group affiliation often cited in the literature is the insulation of mangers from hostile takeover. To the extent that such managers are risk averse, this insulating effect is supposed to allow for more stable management of the firm. However, those arguments are problematic because affiliation is so widespread in Japan. It therefore becomes difficult to clearly identify affiliated versus independent firms. If this is true that performance of affiliated firms is more stable, but dampened relative to that of independent firms.


Hey Gaby, I just started my class online with the University of Phoenix, let me tell you a little bit about it because I know you were interested in going back to school as well. Online courses are also known as distance learning, which means that you are earning your education via online. Instead of being in a traditional classroom setting and having that face to face contact with your teacher, distance learning is student centered instructional format that allows you to take courses without having to commit to a regular campus attendance. I personally enjoy doing distance learning; so far I have been able to easily concentrate on my work.
The reason why I chose to do distance learning is because I really have a hard time attending regular face to face classes due to my work schedule, very much similar to the situation you are in Gaby. Just like your goals I want to continue to pursue my degree further and I didn’t want to stop attending school so I chose this avenue. Distance learning is a field where instructional systems are designed to deliver education to students who are not able to physically be in classroom site. In my opinion I think you would enjoy distance learning and you would be able to focus a lot easier.
I really enjoy doing it because I love working with computers, some people say that they do not like it but most people that I have spoken to say that they really enjoy it as well. You should really try it I truly recommend it; I was scared at first because I was concerned about having questions that I would like to ask my teacher in person and via online you do not have that opportunity. The method used to communicate with your professor and or classmates is through forums and thread discussions. In these forums and threads you post your questions and responses to other posts as well, somewhat like a live chat room.

This is referred to as asynchronous communication; because you are not receiving feedback onsite like you would in a regular face to face classroom. To be honest with you it was a little frustrating learning how to navigate thru everything but once I had spoken to my advisors and they explained to me how everything worked things went so much smoother. As the time has gone by I have gotten the hang of it and I think you would pick up the process pretty easily too. Hope that this information has shown you that there is a way for you to continue your education just like I am.

In class Assignment

The point in the issue is that the common understanding of the idea and language is efferent in different cultures. Thus all the companies should mix up different culture people so people can understand different cultures. In the Bell’s example illustrates the different cultural thinking where pantomime tradition and since ancient times in plays leading man is being played by lady and vice-versa wherein American people thought that all these people enjoying are freaks and the play is politically incorrect.
As in nonverbal communication is considered in Indian culture while greeting people put their hands together with a slightly bow of their head and saying “Names” which wows respect amongst each other while in Western culture while greeting people is quite important to shake hands, make an eye contact and kiss on checks is necessary.
When a company has definite values of business which would lead to equality amongst employees belonging to different cultures the communication would be difficult amongst everybody and people would not be able to reach an expectation of their colleagues but gradually with the time p goes people would know an individual’s perspective, values and beliefs which would help them to build an right expectation further it creates respect amongst employees. So according to me yes it is good idea to grow a company with multicultural environment and let people know other people.

Businesses with multicultural people have its advantages and disadvantages. For instance, considering it as an advantage it is useful to for increasing knowledge of different cultures and worldwide involvement which leads a strong base of globalization whereas on other side there are also certain disadvantage of getting along with different cultures as in there can be high risk of discrimination.


Write a report in APA style (for example: appropriate title page, spacing, and margins; correct formatting of citations and references used to support your perspectives; properly formatted headings to organize your work).
Be sure to include the following in your report:
Summary of Free Trade:

What is free trade?
What are the pros and cons?

Example of Free Trade Impact:

Discuss one of the following:

A specific example of a business in your area that is vulnerable to layoffs or closure, or has been downsized, as a result of outsourced operations
A specific example of a new business or service that has been created or transformed, or has grown as a result of free trade.
A specific example of an increase or decrease in the availability of specific products/services in terms of cost, quality and differentiation, which may be attributed to free trade.

Assessment of Free Trade:

Provide rationale and research support whether the benefits of free trade outweigh the drawbacks.

Submission Details:

Submit your plan in a 3- to 4-page Microsoft Word document, using APA style

Introduction to the World of Retailing

Chapter 01 Introduction to the World of Retailing
Multiple Choice Questions
1. (p. 6) What is retailing? A. It is the merchandising component of the retail mix. B. It is the set of business activities that adds value to the products and services sold to consumers for their personal use. C. It is the strategy retailers and vendors use to get products into the stores. D. It is the process of offering products in smaller quantities for consumer consumption patterns. E. It is the ability to offer enough variety in a store to encourage one-stop shopping. Difficulty: Easy Type: Definition

2. (p. ) Which of the following businesses would be considered a retailer? A. a hot dog cart at the Highland Games B. Delta Airlines C. University bookstore D. Priceline. com E. all of the above Retailers are businesses that sell goods and/or services. Difficulty: Medium Type: Application
3. (p. 6) Why is it imperative that manufacturers like Apple Computer and Proctor and Gamble understand how retailers operate? A. Manufacturers will be able to sell directly on-line. B. Manufacturers will understand how to get their products on the shelves and sold to the customer. C. Manufacturers can better sell merchandise without retailers.D. Retailers can expect fewer buyouts to occur. E. Manufacturers can limit multi-channel integration Difficulty: Medium Type: Comprehension
4. (p. 6) A ______________ is a business that sells products and/or services to consumers for their personal or family use. A. manufacturer B. wholesaler C. retailer D. Distributor Difficulty: Easy Type: Definition
5. (p. 6) The decisions that retail manger make include: A. Selecting their target markets B. Selecting retail locations C. Negotiating with suppliers D. Training and motivating sales associates E. All of the above Difficulty: Easy Type: Comprehension
6. (p. 7) A(n) ______________ is a set of firms that make and deliver a given set of goods and services to the ultimate consumer. A. supply chain B. buying network C. trade association D. integrated wholesale network Difficulty: Easy Type: Definition
7. (p. 7) A retailer’s role in a supply chain is to: A. act as the liaison between manufacturers and wholesalers B. buy merchandise exclusively from the manufacturers C. negotiate with manufacturers to eliminate a wholesaler D. satisfy the needs of the consumers E. sell to wholesalers Difficulty: Easy Type: Definition
8. (p. ) ______________ is when a firm performs more than one set of activities in a channel. A. Channel diversification B. Horizontal development C. Horizontal integration D. Vertical development E. Vertical integration Difficulty: Easy Type: Definition
9. (p. 7) If a chain of florist shops opened a plant nursery to provide gift plants and cut flowers to all of its outlets within a 300-mile radius, the chain would be practicing A. vertical integration. B. channel expansion. C. horizontal expansion. D. opportunity incrementing. E. service marketing. The florist is performing more than one channel function. Difficulty: Medium Type: Application
10. (p. 7) Victoria’s Secret, a popular retail chain in women’s lingerie and perfume, design the merchandise they sell, and then contract with manufacturers to produce it exclusively for them. Victoria’s Secret is practicing: A. globalization B. product-related marketing C. vertical integration D. horizontal integration E. product diversification Because the retail chain designs and contracts its manufacturing firm, it is an example of vertical integration. Difficulty: Medium Type: Application
11. (p. 7) Why is it advantageous for retailers to be vertically integrated? A.It is advantageous because retailers can develop unique merchandise sold only in their stores. B. Retailers can expand their services easily to the Internet because they can direct orders to the manufacturer C. Retailers have realized that to stay competitive, they must become vertically integrated D. Customers prefer retailers who are vertically integrated. E. There is no advantage to being vertically integrated. Difficulty: Hard Type: Comprehension
12. (p. 7) A retailer that is vertically integrated: A. concentrates on selling to businesses only B. does not have frequent communication between buyers and managers C. as an excellent vertical relationship between corporate and stores D. performs more than one function in the chain from manufacturing to sales to end user E. performs only one function to end user Difficulty: Medium Type: Definition
13. (p. 7) __________________ arises when a retailer performs some distribution and manufacturing activities, such as operating warehouses or designing private-label merchandise. A. Globalization B. Product-related marketing C. Backward integration D. Horizontal integration E. Forward integration Difficulty: Easy Type: Definition
14. (p. ) _______________ occurs when a manufacturer undertakes retailing activities. A. Private label business B. Product-related marketing C. Backward integration D. Horizontal integration E. Forward integration Difficulty: Easy Type: Definition
15. (p. 7) Retailers provide important functions that increase the value of the products and services they sell to consumers. Which of the following does not include value function created by a retailer? A. Providing an assortment of products and services B. Reducing production costs with innovative design C. Breaking bulk D. Holding inventory E. Providing services Difficulty: Easy Type: Definition
16. (p. 8) Which of the following statements about retailers holding inventory is FALSE? A. By having inventory held in the store, consumers can hold less merchandise at home. B. By holding inventory, retailers can decrease the visual merchandising expenditure. C. Holding inventory in a store helps serve the customer’s needs. D. Retailers keep inventory so products are available when consumers want them. E. Holding inventory reduces consumer’s cost of storing products. Difficulty: Medium Type: Comprehension
17. (p. 8) Grocers purchase pineapples from several different tropical countries.
When pineapples arrive in the distribution centers across the United States, containers are reduced to amounts that are appropriate for store delivery. Once delivered to the stores, associates open the cartons and arrange the pineapples for the consumer to select. Grocers are performing what function? A. adaptive selling B. breaking bulk C. acclimating D. distribution E. transferring Difficulty: Medium Type: Comprehension
18. (p. 8) Providing assortments is an advantageous business activity because: A. it enables the company to create a more informational and entertaining environment that would promote more sales B. t enables the company to reinvest for the future of the business. C. it enables the customer to choose from a wide selection of brands, designs, sizes and prices all in one store D. it enables the customer to try more products E. It enables the customer to stock up on the assortments because of bulk availability. Difficulty: Medium Type: Application
19. (p. 8) One of the functions retailers undertake to increase the customer’s perception of value is providing services. Which of the following would be an example of that activity? A. clean restrooms B. displaying merchandise C. aving trained salespeople available to answer questions D. well-lit parking E. all of the above All of these functions are provided by the retailer to make it easier for a customer to buy and use products. Difficulty: Easy Type: Comprehension
20. (p. 8) A credit union holds and maintains detailed records of the banking activities of its members. Each quarter, the credit union provides its members a printout of banking activities, information about low rate loans and pre-owned automobiles. By contacting its members on a regular basis, the credit union is engaging in the business function of: A. breaking bulk B. olding inventory C. providing assortments D. financing E. providing services Maintaining records and informing members are services. Difficulty: Easy Type: Application
21. (p. 9) Retailing is one of the nation’s largest industries in terms of: A. community involvement B. employment C. competition D. promotions E. variety Difficulty: Easy Type: Fact
22. (p. 11) When considering the largest retailers worldwide, ___________ retailers continue to dominate among them. A. food B. apparel C. drug D. home-improvement E. Internet Difficulty: Medium Type: Comprehension
23. (p. 11) Which of the following statements about the U.
S. distribution system is true? A. Many people think the United States is understored. B. Many U. S. retailers are large enough to have their own warehouses and have eliminated their need for wholesalers. C. When compared to retail density in Europe, the United States is very low. D. The small specialty store is the fastest growing type of U. S. retailer. E. All of the above statements about the U. S. distribution system are false. The U. S. is probably overstored. The U. S. has the greatest retail density in the world. The large store with over 20,000 square feet is the fastest growing type of U. S. etailer. Difficulty: Medium Type: Fact
24. (p. 11) The Chinese distribution system: A. has more people employed in distribution than the U. S. B. is characterized by small stores with a large wholesale industry C. is more efficient than the distribution system in the U. S. D. is more similar to U. S. distribution systems than Europe’s systems E. none of the above Difficulty: Medium Type: Fact
25. (p. 11) The fastest growing retailers in the United States sell through: A. kiosks in malls and department stores B. large stores with over 20,000 square feet C. outlet stores D. small specialty stores E. he Internet Difficulty: Medium Type: Fact
26. (p. 12) What factors have created differences in the distribution systems in the major markets? A. geography B. market size C. the high population density in Europe, China, and India D. different social and political objectives E. all of the above Difficulty: Easy Type: Fact
27. (p. 12) Which of the following is NOT TRUE when explaining what created differences within the distribution system of the major international markets? A. China and India have many large businesses to reduce unemployment. B. E. U. has many large retailers to achieve economy of scales. C. E. U. countries protect small retailers. D. China has many large retailers because it has an abundance of low-cost real estate available for building large stores. Difficulty: Hard Type: Fact
28. (p. 12) Which of the following is NOT TRUE in describing distribution systems within major international markets? A. The U. S. distribution system has the greatest retail density and the greatest concentration of large retail firms. B. The Indian distribution systems are characterized by small stores operated by small firms and a large independent wholesale industry. C. In the Chinese distribution system, the merchandise often passes through several levels of distribution to make the daily deliveries to the small retailers efficient. D. Northern European retailing is similar to efficient distribution system in the U. S. E. Southern European retailing is fragmented across all sectors. F. All of the above is true. G. None of the above is true. Difficulty: Medium Type: Comprehension
29. (p. 16) The competition between the same types of retailers is called: A. intertype competition B. indirect competition C. intratype competition D. scrambled merchandising E. vertical integration Difficulty: Easy Type: Definition
30. (p. 16) CVS, Walgreens and Rite Aid are _________ competitors. A. indirect B. intratype C. intertype D. vertical E. horizontal All three category killers utilize the same format Difficulty: Medium Type: Application
31. (p. 16) Macy’s, Belk, JCPenney and Nordstrom are ___________ competitors. A. channel B. vertical C. intertype D. intratype E. none of the above All three department stores use the same format Difficulty: Medium Type: Application
32. (p. 16) Which of the following would be an intratype competitor for a Home Depot supermarket? A. Target B. Lowe’s C. Kroger D. Macy’s E. All of the above Lowes is a home-improvement center Difficulty: Easy Type: Application
33. (p. 16) What is variety? A. Variety is the number of different items in a category. B. Variety is the number of different SKU’s within a merchandise category. C. Variety is the number of different merchandise categories within a store. D. Variety is another term for scrambled merchandising. E. Variety is the number of different facets of the business plan. Difficulty: Medium Type: Definition
34. (p. 16) When Taco Bell opened its first restaurant, a hungry patron could order a taco, a burrito and a Coke. In those early years, Taco Bell did not offer much: A. assortment B. product depth C. quantity D. value E. variety Difficulty: Medium Type: Application
35. (p. 16) Dillards sells Godiva chocolates and coffees in their stores. By selling such products, Dillards is: A. offering a good merchandise mix B. offering what the market demands C. offering deep product assortments D. practicing scrambled merchandising E. practicing intratype competition Difficulty: Medium Type: Application
36. (p. 16) The offering of merchandise not typically associated with the store type is called: A. scrambled merchandising B. ntratype competition C. product diversification D. channel conflict E. vertical differentiation Difficulty: Easy Type: Definition
37. (p. 16) While vacationing at the beach, Delia was delighted to see that the local Walgreens carried milk, bread, apples and bananas. Her delight indicates she has never seen: A. a deep product assortment B. an acceptable merchandising mix C. a retail mix D. scrambled merchandising E. this type of intratype competition Difficulty: Medium Type: Application
38. (p. 16) Scrambled merchandising increases: A. vertical integration B. intertype competition C. concentric diversification D. orizontal integration E. intratype competition Difficulty: Medium Type: Comprehension
39. (p. 16) Which of the following would be an example of intertype competition? A. a supermarket and a fresh flower stand B. a specialty store and a fast food restaurant C. a supercenter and a pharmacy D. a convenience store and a department store E. all of the above Difficulty: Easy Type: Application
40. (p. 16) The Lands’ End Web site, the JCPenney catalog, and the Sears area all in ____________ competition. A. channel B. horizontal C. indirect D. intertype E. intratype They all sell similar products, but use different formats to do so. Difficulty: Hard Type: Comprehension
41. (p. 16) Increasing intertype competition has made it harder for retailers to identify their: A. competition B. target market C. merchandise mix D. retail mix E. none of the above Difficulty: Medium Type: Comprehension
42. (p. 16) The intensity of competition is greatest among retailers when: A. price dominates the retail mix B. they are located near each other and offer similar retail offerings C. they are located near each other and target the same customer D. they are located far from each other and offer similar retail offerings E. hey are located far from each other and target the same customer Difficulty: Hard Type: Comprehension
43. (p. 16) Since convenience of location is important in store choice, a store’s proximity to competitors is a critical factor in identifying: A. competition B. ethical standards C. real estate negotiations D. the target market E. which merchandise to scramble Difficulty: Medium Type: Comprehension
44. (p. 18) Once a retailer understands its environment, it needs to develop and implement a: A. viable customer base B. advertising plan C. retail strategy D. competitive strategy E. functional strategy The retail strategy is developed after information is gathered in a situation analysis. Although similar in theory to a business plan, it is specific to the retailing industry. Difficulty: Easy Type: Application
45. (p. 18) The retail strategy helps a retailer to identify the following EXCEPT: A. The target market toward which the retailer will direct its efforts. B. The nature of the merchandise and services the retailer will offer to satisfy the needs of the target market. C. How the retailer will build a long-term advantage over its competitors. D. Break-even point for making profits E. All of the above Difficulty: Easy Type: Application
46. (p. 18) When developing the _________________ for his new barber shop, Theo decided to obtain a long-term competitive advantage over other salons by offering longer hours, better prices, a well trained staff and half-price perm day every Wednesday to attract customers. A. selling concept B. business cycle C. retail strategy D. focal point orientation E. marketing concept A retail strategy statement identifies the target market, the merchandise and services, and how the retailer will build a long-term advantage over its competitors. All three of these elements are present in the question. Difficulty: Medium Type: Application
47. (p. 18) As the owner of a store specializing in men’s suits, Isabella can use a retail strategy statement to identify all of the following EXCEPT: A. the advertising campaign developed to sell last season’s merchandise B. the shop’s target market C. how the store will build a competitive advantage over Men’s Warehouse D. what services the shop will offer its customers E. what types of suits the store will stock A retail strategy has to do with planning for the future and not focusing on a short-term problem. Difficulty: Hard Type: Application
48. (p. 0) Which of the following strategies has JCPenney changed to compete effectively with the competition in the past? A. JCPenney centralized merchandise management. B. JCPenney is building new stores off the mall. C. JCPenney is designing stores with centralized checkout. D. JCPenney now ships merchandise through distribution centers. E. JCPenney is upgrading its merchandise offering by adding France’s cosmetics Sephora. F. All of the above Difficulty: Medium Type: Comprehension
49. (p. 21) To implement a retail strategy, a retailer must develop a _____ that satisfies the needs of its target market better than its competitors. A. production orientation B. horizontal integration C. sales orientation. D. retail mix. E. situation analysis The retail mix is the combination of factors that satisfies customers’ needs. The others are not used for this purpose. Difficulty: Easy Type: Comprehension
50. (p. 21) Once a well-articulated retail strategy has been developed, the next step is to: A. override the control mechanism B. evaluate the results of the strategy C. forecast future environmental trends D. confirm that environmental conditions have not changed E. implement the strategy Once the strategy is developed, the next logical step is implementation.
Nothing would get accomplished if a retailer repeatedly went back to step 1 as in Alternatives C and D. The final stage in the process is the evaluation of the strategy. Overriding the control mechanism would not be a good idea in any case. Difficulty: Hard Type: Comprehension
51. (p. 21) The combination of factors retailers use to satisfy customer needs and influence their purchase decisions is called the firm’s: A. retailing conglomerate B. retail mix C. marketing strategy D. target group E. none of the above Difficulty: Easy Type: Definition
52. (p. 21) Which of the following is part of a retailer’s retail mix? A. advertising B. displays C. trained salespeople D. services offered E. all of the above All of the choices are elements within the retail mix. Difficulty: Easy Type: Definition
53. (p. 21) Which of the following is NOT an element in the retail mix? A. competitive response B. merchandise assortments C. location D. customer service E. advertising and promotion The elements of the retail mix include customer service, store design and display, advertising and promotion, location, assortments and pricing. Difficulty: Easy Type: Definition
54. (p. 21) Which of the following parts of the retail mix can be utilized by a small hardware store? A. bright lighting in the store, which makes it easier to read the messages B. a new ad campaign that uses both radio and newspaper media C. store location next door to a hospital D. attractive point-of-purchase displays at the ends of the store’s aisles E. all of the above Store design, location, and advertising programs are all part of the retail mix. Difficulty: Medium Type: Application
55. (p. 23) What are the principles governing the behavior of the individual and the company? A. ethics B. retail strategy C. training guidelines D. company culture E. Civil Rights Act of 1964 Difficulty: Easy Type: Definition
56. (p. 23) Belinda is a swimwear buyer for a major department store. She will allow vendors to purchase her lunch at the local coffee shop when they visit. One October, she dined with a new vendor to discuss a progressive line of men’s swimwear that is popular in resorts throughout the Caribbean. Belinda’s goal was to assess the assortments for her company in order to see if the product was a good fit for the company brand. During lunch, the vendor invited Belinda for an all-expense paid weekend trip to Jamaica to see the popularity of the merchandise. His goal was to enable her to make a more educated decision when buying. Belinda hesitated to accept because of: A. personal and professional ethics B. the scheduling of the buy for the spring season C. the price of the exclusive merchandise would not match the income level of her target market D. the manufacturer would be unable to develop the line in time for spring E. her inability as a buyer to alter the visual merchandising for the store Difficulty: Medium Type: Application Essay Questions
57. (p. 7) What is the retailer’s role in a supply chain? The retailer’s role in the distribution channel is to link manufacturers with onsumers by directing their efforts to satisfying the needs of the ultimate consumers. Difficulty: Medium
58. (p. 8) List the four functions performed by retailers. The four functions performed by retailers are (1) providing an assortment of products and services, (2) breaking bulk, (3) holding inventory, and (4) providing services. Difficulty: Easy
59. (p. 8) With manufacturers legally able to sell direct from the factories, why should retailers exist? In the retailing distribution channel, there are occasions when manufacturers sell directly to the ultimate consumer. While occasionally doing so, manufacturers mainly exist to manufacture products to satisfy the needs of a wholesaler or retailer. Retailers exist because they direct their efforts and specialize in satisfying only the customer’s needs. Retailers exist because they increase the value consumers receive. Difficulty: Medium
60. (p. 16) Distinguish between intratype competition and intertype competition. Give an example of each. Intratype competition refers to the competition between retailers with the same format. An example would be the competition between Publix and BiLo for sale of fresh salmon. Intertype competition refers to retailers that sell similar merchandise using different formats. An example would be the sale of Revlon Color-Stay Lipstick between CVS and Target. Difficulty: Easy
61. (p. 16) Why would a Walgreens add novelty gifts, fresh bread, pre-wrapped sandwiches and milk to its product mix? Walgreens is engaging in scrambled merchandising. They have added these products; and therefore, appeal more to a broader group of customers, while providing one-stop shopping for our time-starved society. Difficulty: Medium
62. (p. 16) A chef wants to open an Italian restaurant in the suburbs of a large city. How should she identify the competition? This question can have a variety of responses, but she could first look at the obvious and identify other Italian restaurants near her location. Is her location the best? She should consider frozen Italian entrees at nearby grocery stores. She should also consider the prices of the entrees she offers and compare them to the prices of other types of restaurants. Difficulty: Medium
63. (p. 17) Why do retailers consider customers important when developing a retail strategy? Retailers need to understand customers and how they are changing so that they can better satisfy their needs. Retailers need to know and understand why customers shop, how they select stores and how they select from that store’s merchandise. Difficulty: Medium
64. (p. 18) What are the three things identified by a retail strategy statement? (1) The target market toward which the retailer will direct its efforts, (2) the nature of the merchandise and services the retailer will offer to satisfy the needs of the target market, and (3) how the retailer will build a long-term advantage over its competitors. Difficulty: Medium
65. (p. 18) Why is location strategy important for both consumers and for competitive reasons? 1) Location is typically the most important characteristic consumers consider when selecting a store. (2) A good location creates a long-term advantage over the competition. Difficulty: Medium
66. (p. 19) The success of discount stores poses a growing threat for JCPenney. To compete effectively with these retailers, the company instituted some radical changes. Discuss four changes the company made and how JCPenney expects the changes to better satisfy its target market. (1) JCPenney is reducing its distribution costs by shipping merchandise through its distribution centers rather than using direct delivery from vendors to stores. 2) JCPenney centralized merchandise management. Rather than having sore managers make merchandise decisions, merchandise decisions are made by JCPenney buyers in the corporate headquarters to save costs and respond quicker. (3) To increase customer convenience, JCPenney is building new stores off the mall. (4) To increase convenience, the company is also installing centralized checkout counters in each area of the store. Difficulty: Medium Fill in the Blank Questions
67. (p. 7) Renting a tuxedo, the purchase of a DVD on Amazon. om, buying a Ronco Veg-O-Matic after watching an infomercial, and getting a facial are all examples of ________ activities–the sale of goods and services to the ultimate consumer. retailing Difficulty: Easy
68. (p. 7) A _____ is a business that sells products and services to ultimate consumers. retailer Difficulty: Easy
69. (p. 7) Retailers are the final business in a distribution channel that link __________ to consumers. manufacturers Difficulty: Easy
70. (p. 7) A _____________ is a set of businesses that move products from the point of production to the point of sale to the ultimate consumer. distribution channel Difficulty: Easy
71. (p. 7) When a retailer like L. L. Bean designs merchandise as well as sells the merchandise, _________ is occurring. vertical integration Difficulty: Medium
72. (p. 8) By providing assortments, breaking bulk, holding inventory, and providing services, retailers increase the ___________ consumers receive from their products and services. value Difficulty: Medium
73. (p. 9) _______________ describes the voluntary actions taken by a company to address the ethical, social, and environmental impacts of its business operations and the concerns of its stakeholders. Corporate social responsibility Difficulty: Easy
74. (p. 6) When Austin saw pastries and coffee at his local bookstore, he knew it was an example of __________, which is the juxtaposition of unrelated merchandise in the store. scrambled merchandise Difficulty: Medium
75. (p. 16) Scrambled merchandising increases _______, which occurs between retailers that sell similar merchandise using different formats, such as specialty and discount stores. intertype competition Difficulty: Medium
76. (p. 19) The philosophy, strategies, programs and systems that focus on identifying and building loyalty with a retailer’s most valued customers are called _______________. customer relationship management Difficulty: Medium
77. (p. 23) _________ are the principles governing the behavior of individuals and companies. Ethics Difficulty: Easy Short Answer Questions
78. (p. 8) Best Buy purchases many of the CD’s, Playstation 2 games, DVD’s and DVD players by the truckload then sells them in smaller quantities to its stores where consumers are allowed to buy them one at a time. What business function is Best Buy performing? breaking bulk Difficulty: Medium
79. (p. 8) Costco buys directly from manufacturers. They have merchandise shipped to their warehouses for storage, and then distribute the merchandise to their stores. What term is used to describe this type of activity? vertical integration Difficulty: Medium
80. (p. 14) Which retailer had its humble beginnings in rural Arkansas and now is the largest retailer in the world? Wal-Mart Difficulty: Easy
81. (p. 15) What is the first step in the retail management decision process? getting an understanding of the world of retailing Difficulty: Medium
82. (p. 16) When is the intensity of competition between retail stores the greatest? when they are involved in intratype competition Difficulty: Medium
83. (p. 16) What type of merchandising increases intertype competition? crambled merchandising Difficulty: Medium
84. (p. 18) The Aviary is a pet shop that focuses on birds and their accoutrements for bird lovers. The shop carries cages, perches, toys and even gourmet seed and dried fruits. It sponsors a bird club where members can bring their pets to share with other bird lovers. The store provides an inexpensive veterinary service. It even has a 3-month guarantee when you purchase a bird. The Aviary has created loyalty from its customers and continuously attracts new ones because of the services offered. What does this describe? It describes the store’s retailing strategy. The paragraph describes the target market, the merchandise and services and how it maintains a strategic advantage over competitors. Difficulty: Hard
85. (p. 19) Why do retailers use point of sale (POS) terminals to read Universal Product Codes (UPC) and electronic data interchange (EDI) to send sales and inventory information from computer to computer? These technologies allow retailers to have a better idea of what is selling and a way to quickly communicate that information to vendors so that replenishment can quickly occur. Additionally it gives the retailer a competitive advantage over retailers that do not work with current supply chain management systems. Difficulty: Hard
86. (p. 23) When making the strategic and tactical decisions managers need to consider the effects of their decisions on the profitability of their firms and the satisfaction of their customers. What other implications must managers consider as a result of their decisions? ethical and legal implications Difficulty: Hard

Is the ‘Philosophy of Swine’ Objection a Telling Criticism of Utilitarian Theory?

“Is the ‘philosophy of swine’ objection a telling criticism of Utilitarian theory? Why or why not? ” Philosophy of swine. This was mentioned by Mill criticizing Bentham’s utilitarianism. Before looking at Mill’s criticism, historical background of the birth of utilitarianism should be discussed ahead. Utilitarianism arose in the Industrial Revolution period. As nations became industrialized in the eighteenth century, bourgeois: an industrial middle class, appeared demanding new political and economic theory which would support their own interests.
In the economic sphere, Adam Smith introduced laissez-faire theory following new era’s request. However, political theory was still remaining at social contract theory of the seventeenth century. Especially, as Britain was enjoying its period of political and constitutional stability after the Glorious Revolution, social contract theory which explains legitimacy of a government didn’t attract people’s attention any more. Going through the social fluctuations, Bentham came up with an idea called ‘utilitarianism’. Bentham’s theory was remarkably progressive that he was considered as philosophical radicals.
In accordance with the bourgeois’ demand for theory appropriate to those days, Bentham’s utilitarianism was based on a very simple premise; every man pursues happiness. A single behavior is determined to be moral or not by whether it creates happiness. This makes utilitarianism solely focus on the consequence of the act. Bentham also insists that every choice should be made toward the maximization of utility. Regarding making political decisions, we should follow the policy that yields ‘the greatest happiness of the greatest number’.

However, Bentham’s theory is denounced by Mill, because it doesn’t acknowledge the objective standard of values. When Bentham deals with the happiness, that only count is the total aggregation of the amount of happiness. The standard and quality of the pleasure is totally disregarded. For example, there is no difference in quality between satisfied satiety after eating delicious food and the feeling of academic accomplishment. However, Mill completes Utilitarianism criticizing and supplementing this quantitative utilitarianism. It is better to be a human being dissatisfied than a pig satisfied; better to be Socrates dissatisfied than a fool satisfied. ” This famous phrase denotes that human happiness is inseparable from the question of quality, and there exists much higher level of pleasure. It is reasonable for Mill to criticize Bentham’s utilitarianism as the philosophy of swine. However, not all utilitarian theories should be regarded as the swine philosophy. Mill developed qualitative utilitarianism with this criticism and also established liberalism thoughts on this ground, which still has a significant impact on today’s political theory.
Thus, the answer to the given question is partly yes and partly no. This essay will endeavor to explain that utilitarianism is more than just hedonism; utilitarianism completed by Mill, liberal thoughts suggested in On Liberty, and its impact on present society will be discussed further. First of all, Mill introduced the concept of quality to existing utilitarianism. He suggested that “some kinds of pleasure are more desirable and more valuable than others. ” Mental pleasure is much superior to physical and instinctive pleasure, because only human beings can experience the former.
For this reason, Mill’s utilitarianism is often called humanized utilitarianism. Another factor that distinguishes Mill from Bentham is that his idea of compatibility between individual utility and social utility. This argument is also used when criticizing Bentham who saw human beings as selfish entities. Contrarily, Mill concluded that men do not always pursue an immediate profit. Of course, human beings are fundamentally self-centered, but they can give up present interests since they can see the future through long-term perspective.
For example, volunteer workers who seek for positive change in the future cannot be explained by Bentham’s standpoint. Human beings have an element that enables them to sacrifice themselves and find their lives worth living for social utility. In this way, Mill completed more refined utilitarian theory emphasizing the harmony between individual and society. In his famous work On Liberty, Mill put great emphasis on social liberty as well as individual liberty. He relates human behavior with social utility and stresses again that human beings are not obsessed with immediate interests.
He says that “I regard utility as the ultimate appeal on all ethical questions; but it must be utility in the largest sense, grounded on the permanent interests of man as a progressive being. ” What we should take note from this is that human beings are progressive. This is the distinctive part where Mill’s theory excels Bentham’s. Aforementioned, men can desert present interest since they are progressive entities, expecting future advantages. In a word, Mill upgraded the notion of utility to the means to men’s durable profits. The concept ‘utility’ is used in modern political philosophy in relation to welfare.
In this manner, utilitarianism, from the nineteenth century to present days, has worked as a central part of political theories, and has had a great influence on democracy as a foundation of liberalism. Thus, to condemn utilitarianism as hedonistic theory cannot be justified. The last factor defending utilitarianism from such criticism is that it provides a basic ground for securing freedom of thought and speech. This is also closely connected with utilitarianism which formed the basis of Mill’s theory. Individual freedom should be guaranteed under any circumstances, because it is directly correlated to social utility.
Mill particularly gives priority to freedom of thought and speech more than any other freedom. The premise of the freedom of thought and speech is that every opinion has a possibility of being a fallacy. Mill insists that “If the opinion is right, they are deprived of the opportunity of exchanging error for truth. ” This can be justified from the utilitarian perspective, because every opinion, albeit it is a minority opinion, is possible enough to contribute to the progress of the society. All thoughts and expressions have utility for the development of humanity.
The fact known to us as a truth can turn out to be false at any time; the Copernican theory exploded pervading heliocentric theory and Einstein’s theory of relativity reversed existing scientific system. Consequentially, a maximum guaranteed freedom produces increased happiness for mankind. This is a crucial part of liberalism that emphasizes the minimization of the government intervention in individuals for every person’s freedom. Liberalism established by Mill became the very foundation of western political philosophy until Rawls’ theory appears.
From this, the importance of utilitarianism is induced; it is more than just hedonistic theory. So far we’ve gone through some reasons why utilitarianism is not the philosophy of swine that appeals to human instinct, putting Mill’s idea at the center. It is true that early utilitarian thinker Bentham suggested somewhat hedonistic theory. However, his idea of utilitarianism that consequence counts the most has worked as a fundamental root of utilitarianism and was revised, developed, and completed by Mill. Swine philosophy objection is only valid when criticizing Bentham, but it is also ard to deny that Bentham did contribute to the establishment of modern political thoughts by setting up a radical theory of that time. Thus, swine objection seems hard to be an effective critique to utilitarianism. (1,195 words) Bibliography Bentham, Jeremy. An Introduction to the principles of morals and legislation. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1907. Mill, J. S. Utilitarianism, Liberty, Representative Government. London: Dent, 1972. Mulgan, Tim. Understanding Utilitarianism. Stocksfield U. K. : Acumen, 2007. Riley, Jonathan. Liberal Utilitarianism: social choice theory and J. S. Mill’s Philosophy.
Cambridge England; New York: Cambridge University Press, 1988. Riley, Jonathan. “What are Millian Qualitative Superiorities? ” Prolegomena: Journal of Philosophy 7, no. 1 (2008): 61-79. ——————————————– [ 1 ]. Jeremy Bentham, “Of the Principle of Utility,” in An Introduction to the principles of morals and legislation (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1907), 1-7. [ 2 ]. John Stuart Mill, Utilitarianism, Liberty, Representative Government (London; Dent, 1972), 9. [ 3 ]. Ibid. , 7. [ 4 ]. Mill, Utilitarianism, Liberty, Representative Government, 74. [ 5 ]. Ibid. , 79.

Why was the tsar overthrown?

Was It the work of revolutionaries Like Lenin and Trotsky? Certainly not – they were mostly either in prison or in exile. Lenin had said in 191 6 that he feared he would not live to see a revolution in Russia! Was it the War? The war certainly had a serious impact on all aspects of Russian society. Defeats undermined the army, and economic problems alienated much of the population. Lack of food and fuel in the cruel winter of 1916-1917 certainly caused many strikes, unrest and disruption.
Inflation meant people’s savings were being eroded. War production meant fewer consumer goods. Manipulation limited food production. Transport difficulties made things worse. Certainly the war had a major part to play In the revolution of February 1917. Or did the War merely hasten things that were already happening in Russia? Peasant unrest because of land shortages, worker unrest because of low wages, long hours, poor living conditions were long-standing issues.
The middle-class and some nobles wanted political reform, as we have already seen. Revolutionaries had been active In Russia for many years, even assassinating the Tsar in 1881. Did the War help to make these pressures too much for Tsarist to bear? Perhaps the War hindered revolution? In 1914 most of the country rallied behind Nicholas II In a great surge of patriotism. Food production increased in. Perhaps without the war there might have been a revolution in Russia sooner?

Was it Nicholas II himself? What part did he play in his overthrow? He was a weak and indecisive leader – not what you want in an autocrat. He found It hard to decide what was best to do. He relied heavily on his wife and family for support. He did the honorable thing and went to lead his armies in a horrible war. He desperately wanted to retain the autocracy. He tried hard to change Russia, to make it stronger and more powerful, but was not prepared to accept political change.

Comic Comparison Exercise

Standup is a great medium for thinking about rhetoric. The jokes largely rely on how they are told, which encompasses everything from persona to body language to tone. Think about a comedian like Zach Galifianakis, whose persona is deeply ironic––there are meta jokes/jokes about jokes, absurd characters, etc.––and compare him with a comedian like George Carlin, whose persona employed ranting and frustration and usually turned critique outward, toward those outside of the performance/audience. The relationship between these comedians and their audiences are (were) vastly different––with Carlin the audience is “in” on the joke, but not so much with Galifianakis.
For this assignment, you will watch two comedy specials. There are many to choose from on Netflix, and these full-length specials tend to have a good sample size to work with. There are shorter sources, too, like The Standups on Netflix or some of the shorter Comedy Central specials. Please make sure you are using a whole set and not just clips, as you need to have a holistic understanding of the work. Clips are divorced of context and they are not usually helpful if you have not seen the whole special.

500-700 words, properly formatted (double space, 12pt font)
Compares two comedians using examples from two specific standup specials
Your writing should discuss things like persona, tone, language, relationship with audience, stage presence, body language, dress, etc. Subject matter is of course relevant––think Pryor’s work about race, Bamford’s work about mental illness and stigma––but don’t look exclusively at subject matter. It is more interesting and critical to look at how a comedian can take something unfunny like misfortune, tragedy, social issues, etc., and make us laugh.
Your writing should be comprised of your own ideas. Please do not use secondary sources for this assignment or you will lose points.
You need not have an intro/conclusion for this. While I expect your writing to progress logically and to be clearly organized, it is a more informal assignment than the ARP.

The power of the Asantehene

The Ashanti people constitute one of the major tribes in Ghana. Sustainable Development is synergistic with political stability in Africa. Currently, Ghana is trying to bring a balance between traditional leadership which still exists as one of Africa’s richest and oldest monarchy and the modern democracy that has been successfully achieved after the turbulent political past.

Most African communities held traditional posts before annexation by the European, but they discarded these roles after independence, adapting instead, the office of a state president. The presence of the Ashanti king also called the Asantehene, is of controversy because Ghana also holds democratic elections and elects a president who is expected to lead the country.

The Ashanti king is the symbol of unity for the Ashanti tribes who are the most influential and populous in the country. Past governments have supported the role of the Ashanti king and have supported the revenues and royalties that are given to him by the different clans. As such, the Ashanti king has remained economically powerful.
This thesis will seek to determine the role and the political power of the Ashanti king in Ghana and his influence in the local and regional politics as opposed to the president. The thesis will also evaluate his significance to the Ashanti people and the power and allegiance the people pay to him.
I will seek to demonstrate his position in the international community as compared to the elected presidents’ role.
Theoretical discussion
During the fifteenth century, the Europeans were competing for resources to fund their military expansions as well as to take meet the needs of their growing populations. Different empires from Europe explored to different regions including Africa and discovered the vast resources that the continent had to offer. Their interests changed from those of merely exploring the regions to wealth acquisition (Jackson, 154).
West Africa had their initial contact with the Portuguese in 1470 when the first group landed on the shores of the gold coast forming a trading post for the regions timber, gold and ivory and then converting it to the more profitable slave trade.
The region became a hot spot with various countries clamoring to secure the unexploited resources for themselves. The French, the British the Swedish and the Danish communities all rushed to the area competing for trade in any of the resources in West Africa.
Ghana’s Ashanti people led by Opemsuo Osei Tutu had already established a growing empire before colonization. The origin of the Ashanti monarchical kingdom arose out of a coalition of the people occupying the Pra and Ofin basins. These basins are located in the Twifo and Adanse regions.
The specific clans that formed the coalition to come up with the formidable kingdom were the Aduana, the Asene clan, the Oyoko, the Ekoona and the Bretuo clan. The Denkyiras were among the clans that joined the coalition later after being defeated in warfare. The kingdom was established who succeeded in his attempts of forming a unified force of all the Ashanti states (Goldstein, 238).
These states were brought together through a common allegiance to the Golden Stool which is also referred to as the Sika Agua Kofi. It is the symbol of a common soul and heritage for the Ashanti people.
Social and cultural changes have been evident in many African communities. African communities had established different political systems that were mainly tribal. After colonization and independence, they developed more unifying political positions which were not founded on tribal tenets but were representative of the whole state.
Modernization led Ghana to implement a central democratic government after independence in 1957. This was initially led by Kwame Nkrumah and represented the interest of the country at the international arena.
Ghana has continued to support and hold its traditional governance roles while it has also adapted modernity trends by implementing a state position for a democratically elected president. Even after independence, Ghana did not dispense with the traditional role of the Ashanti king and though his main role was leading the people into war, his office has remained mainly ornamental, but the royalties and the revenues he collected are still being demanded from the people of Ghana (Ward, 242).
The power of the Ashanti kingdom can be traced back to the colonization era when they formed a common empire in their attempts to resist the British. The power and skills that they held allowed them vast dominion over Ghana allowing them expansion in the area.
They entered in to endless wrangles with the British who were more interested in amassing the residents’ wealth for themselves and in 1873 Kumasi which was the epicenter of the Ashanti was captured. After unsuccessfully trying to ward of the British, the British managed to exile King Prempeh.
They however realized that they still did have control over the Ashanti since the power and authority was symbolized by the stool which was still with the people. The British mandated the people to hand over the golden stool and this was met with a resistance that even the British had not foreseen (Davidson, 182). This led to wide uprisings and the eventual treaty that saw the area being declared as part of the British protectorate, gold coast.
The reign of the Asantehene symbolizes a neo-colonial African government which was able to establish itself as an empire within the region and assume control over a lot of populations in Africa (Jackson, 180).
It amassed vast masses of wealth and went on to use these resources to establish one of the best military forces in Africa that successfully posed a challenge to the colonization by the British.
Though the political system of the Ashanti has been accused of marginalizing its people by leading them into religious sects and exploiting them by dictatorial rule it is still significant in today’s society and the values and cultures of the kingdom are inculcated in the day to day affairs of the government and the people (Gocking, 163).
In the past, the king was mainly responsible for positioning his people in battle and to this end the king established a strong military force which was responsible for the resulting victories at over other governments as well as in ensuring the entire kingdoms security.
The continual overthrow of neighboring territories ensured that the kingdom expanded and increased its pool of resources over all other governments in the region. The king also established a national holidays for example the Odwira festival which is celebrated annually.
The role of the king has changed with time (Goldstein, 238). The current king of the Ashanti, who is called Otumfuo Osei Tutu II, committed his reign to improving the national unity of the Ghanaian people. He has committed himself to, issues regarding education, improving land reform and enriching the environment. The kings’ role is merely that of implementing a seemingly traditional justice within the Ashanti territory.
The relationship between the king and the government has been supportive as evidenced by the relationship between the support that the president of Ghana Ignatius Acheampong gave to the Asantehene Opoku Ware in 1970’s after Ghana acquired independence over the disputes which emerged due to the costs of constructing the kings palace.
This is mainly because the Ashanti people have amassed great wealth over the years and currently constitute majority of the governments’ opposition wielding a lot of political power and affluence (Ward, 253).
The Asantehene has demonstrated support for the democratically elected president, John Kofuor who is the first president to be elected without violence in the country. The king recently warned the former president Mr. Rawlings and his party against uttering derogatory comments aimed at the current president Kofuor and his government (Davidson, 115).