Assignment for Trevian

Assignment 1: The Effects of War and Peace on Foreign Aid
Due Week 4 and worth 200 points
Use the Internet to research one (1) developing nation of your choice. Your research should include an examination of the effects that war and peace have on the distribution of foreign aid, as well as the material covered by the Webtext and lectures in Weeks 1 through 3.
Write a three to four (3-4) page research paper in which you:

Assess the positive and negative effects that peace and war, respectively, have on the distribution of foreign aid in the developing country that you have selected. Support your response with concrete examples of each of the results that you have cited.
Analyze the specific actions that the leadership of the selected country has taken, through the use of its foreign aid from donor nations and international lending institutions, to relieve the severe problems caused by warfare.
Discuss whether or not the extension of foreign aid has successfully reduced poverty and the incidence of warfare in the selected country. Support your response with examples.
Use at least five (5) quality academic resources in this assignment. Note: Wikipedia, blogs, and other nonacademic websites do not qualify as academic resources. Approval of resources is at the instructor’s discretion. Resources must also be within the last seven (7) years.  

When referencing the selected resources, please use the following format: 

Webtext Format:

Name of the author. Name of title. Retrieved from website url.

Example:

Understanding development (4th ed.). (2016). Asheville, NC: Soomo Learning. Available from: http://www.webtexts.com.

Lecture Format:

Name of the Author. Name of the lecture [lecture type]. Retrieved from lecture url.

Example:

Strayer University. (2013). Understanding Development [PowerPoint slides]. Retrieved from /bbcswebdav/institution/SOC/300/1136/Week1/lecture/story.html.

Internet Resources:

Author’s Name. (Date of publication). Title of the resource. Retrieved from website url.

Example:

Wuestewald, Eric. (2014). Portraits of people living on a dollar a day. Retrieved from http://www.motherjones.com/mixed-media/2014/04/living-on-a-dollar-a-day-photos-renee-byer-thomas-nazario.
Your assignment must follow these formatting requirements:

Be typed, double spaced, using Times New Roman font (size 12), with one-inch margins on all sides; citations and references must follow APA or school-specific format. Check with your professor for any additional instructions.
Include a cover page containing the title of the assignment, the student’s name, the professor’s name, the course title, and the date. The cover page and the reference page are not included in the required assignment page length.

The specific course learning outcomes associated with this assignment are:

Analyze how funding in the form of aid, investment, and loans moves from industrialized nations to the developing world to alleviate the problems caused by warfare.
Use technology and information resources to research issues in sociology of developing countries.
Write clearly and concisely about sociology of developing countries using proper writing mechanics.

Click here to view the grading rubric.

Research Assignment

  
Week 3 assignment
Problem statements help to further define the nature of a problem/issue, as well as provide the rationale for why a particular problem was chosen. In this Application Assignment, you will write a problem statement for the problem/issue you selected.
The literature review provides the empirical justification for the project. Literature reviews involve collecting resources directly related to the selected problem, critically analyzing those resources, and synthesizing them into a coherent narrative. The critical analysis not only considers the validity of the argument, but the credibility of the source as well. Where did the information come from? Was it the author’s personal opinion? Did he or she conduct a study or analyze data? These questions should be considered in completing a critical review of literature.
 
 
Please make sure you cite all references fully and properly. Please follow both part 1 and part 2 step by steps
The assignment: Part 1
1. In 1-2 pages, respond to the following: Write a problem statement for SUBSTANCE ABUSE IN AMERICAN for the Capstone Project.
  
Doctors who prescribe opioids to patients, but patients do not take the prescriptions as described which causes substance abuse?

2. Then collect resources related to your problem statement and demonstrate your skills in critical analysis. 
3. Find 10-12 research resources related to your problem statement (including at least 4 peer-reviewed journal articles).
The assignment: Part 2
1. In 2-3 pages, please complete the following: 
2. Briefly synthesize one of the resources you selected.
3. Critically analyze that resource.
4. Cite 10-12 resources for your literature review. Four of these resources must be peer-reviewed journal articles.

Madame Bovary Personal Response

In part two of Madame Bovary by Gustave Flaubert we see Emma’s development as a character in a negative way. Emma’s development is seen as she embarks on a path to moral and financial corruption all for a search of love and passion. The passion and love Emma seeks cannot be found in the reality of that time causing her to feel imprisoned in society with Charles whom she has no passion or lust for. To Emma love is defined as lustful, spontaneous action which she only reads about in her romance novels. SHe learns to fulfill this inner lust by undertaking in adultery with different men.Throughout this section of the novel we see the emotions Emma encounters, guilt, anger, lust, passion and spiritual longing.
“The more Emma became aware of her love, the more she suppressed it. She would have liked Leon to guess at it… ” [p. 86] This quote shows the change is Emma’s character from part one due to the fact that in part one she only longed for such a relationship and what she read in books and took pity on herself while now she has taken action by committing adultery. When Emma first meets Leon there is a spark and common interests emerge unlike between Emma and Charles.
This is seen in the quote “Their Eyes indeed were full of more serious conversation; and, while they were struggling in search of banal phrases, each felt assailed by the same langour; it was like a murmur from the soul… ” [p. 88] Emma’s Lust for Leon is an example of the commencement of her thoughts of adultery actions, once Leon leaves she becomes even less satisfied by Charles than before and continues to seek for that same love she had for Leon. She goes to such extremes with love due to her idea of love coming from novels, this is seen when she considers ruining after Leo after he had left for Paris.This part of the novel is seen as Emma’s attempt at filling an empty gap in her hear in search of romance that she has always longer for yet never grasped.

She seems to do this by committing such unfaithful acts. “… but i always relish the upheaval; I do love being on the move. ” This quote emphasizes the fact that Emma cannot stay with one decision or be in one place for a long period of time because she is easily bored and dissatisfied. Once Leon leaves Mme.
Bovary has an understanding of her feelings for Leon and her regret for not pursuing these feelings. the bad days form Tostes came back again. ” [p. 114] Emma then realizes the option of adultery and Leon was the one to open this idea up to her.This is what leads her to commit adultery later on in this section of the novel. The second major development is the love affair between Mme. Bovary and Rodolphe.
This love affair fulfills the dream of the romance she has always longed for from the books that she has read. “She merged onto her own imaginings, played a real part, realizing the long dream of her youth, seeing herself as one of those great lovers she had so long envied! ” [p. 51] This quote emphasizes Emma’s happiness and sense of accomplishment that she feels during the affair. This is a development in her character because this can be compared to previous areas in the book where she was bored and unhappy waiting for something to occur this sudden even has now changed this view on life to a more happy one.This is because there was now an aspect of excitement that allows her to experience her dreams that she has so long longed for which causes her to isolate herself from reality. This is seen when she wants to run away with Rodolphe “Take me away! ” [p. 80] This also shows Emma’s selfish behavior because she is acting only to please herself while Charles sacrifices his love and lets Emma be with Rodolphe to treat her depression (illness).
The final major development in Emma is when she is plunged back into reality with the letter the Rodolphe sends her. This letter allows her to realize the difference between the romantic novels and dreams and reality. The fact that she had so many ideas to pursue with Rodolphe such as running away which she though would allow her total freedom.However these longings are all crushed and the caged feeling from before begins to come back again. why have not done with it? Who was to stop her? She was free” This quote shows her thoughts of running away with Rodolphe and how she want to be free. In conclusion these major developments such as the love for Leon and the introduction to the idea of adultery as well as the affair with Rodolphe and the longing for freedom show Madame Bovary’s change throughout part two of the novel. One is also able to see the constant unstable actions of Emma and her decisions.
She is one to go from being spiritual to wanting to commit suicide, then desiring a proper family household and yet none of these make her happy for very long.

Psychology

Assignment 1: Social Psychology
Due by the due date assigned. Complete your participation for this assignment through the end of the module.

Consider these examples from a typical, large suburban high school.

Kelly is a sophomore who attends a meeting of the all-male robotics club. She says she has an interest in joining the club and working on building a robot for an upcoming competition. The male members of the club snicker at her and one boy puts his foot out and “accidently” trips Kelly in the aisle. The male teacher in the room tells the boys to settle down, but he also tells Kelly that he isn’t sure she would have the necessary skills for the club, since the other members have all had several years experience building robots. “After all,” he said, “you were probably playing with dolls for all the years these boys were building things and experimenting with electronics.”
John is an artistic, intelligent boy who is not interested in sports or other “typical” male pursuits. He enjoys writing fiction and poetry for the school newspaper. When he gets on the school bus no one will share a seat with him. He ends up standing and a group of students in the back of the bus harass and heckle him, calling him homophobic slurs.
In the teachers’ lounge, a group of Caucasian teachers huddle around the water cooler gossiping about why one of their fellow teachers, an Asian-American woman, was promoted to assistant principle over other teachers with more years of experience. “I know she has a master’s degree, but I still think this is clearly an affirmative action thing—they just want to get more minorities in administration. They don’t care about who is really qualified, and that’s all there is to it.” 

Select one of the examples above that you feel illustrates prejudiced attitudes. Answer the following:

What elements of this scenario make it an example of prejudice? 
Is there also discrimination present? 
Is there stereotyping in this example? 
Explain why the predjudice is occurring using the following terms: Social categorization, in-group, out-group, and ingroup-bias.
Based on your readings, what type of intervention could help to reduce prejudice in a situation like this?

Please be sure you address each question, using terms and concepts from your text. A good initial discussion response should be at least 150–250 words in length.

budget

  

Conduct a short internet job search for the type of position you will be applying for once you have completed your education. Consider your work experience in this search. For example, if you have no experience in field, please search for entry level positions or the type of position someone with your background could reasonably qualify for. Look for three positions that include wage/salary information. Once you have found 3 job ads that include salary information, determine the average starting salary and use this as the basis for your household budget.
Create an Excel spreadsheet of your own design to breakdown your household budget. List monthly expenses and monthly income. You will need to list your expenses for 12 months (so you should have columns for each month).  Remember your expenses are not always the same every month (for instance your electric bill could fluctuate based on how hot it is). Be sure to format the expenses and income as currency using one of the formatting options in Excel. Do NOT use an online template. The designs must be easy and logical to read.  You should start from a blank, clean, Excel document.
Requirements of the assignment

Title your spreadsheet with a meaningful title, in bold, at least 16 point size, centered above your spreadsheet content and is centered over more than 3 columns. Use “Merge & Center” provided in Excel. The rest of the document should be in 12 point font.  All data that represents money is formatted as currency.
Write your job title and the city and state you will live in
Include 3 job titles, locations, and starting salaries from the job search you performed.  Find the average starting salary (using the AVERAGE function) Calculate and label your monthly income by dividing the annual income cell (reference the cell) by 12. Please make sure that your salary realistically and accurately matches your skill set (for instance, you will not start an engineering job making 90,000 a year).
Include at least 8 expense items such as electricity, telephone, gas, groceries, rent/mortgage, car payment, student loan payments, credit card payments, entertainment allowance, clothing allowance, etc.
Make all negative numbers appear in red using automatic formatting or conditional formatting provided in Excel. Choosing RED as the choice for the font color is not correct. Apply this formatting to the entire worksheet.  You must have a negative somewhere in your calculations
For the following items, you MUST use an Excel function. You cannot calculate the values and enter a number. Excel functions include SUM, AVERAGE, MIN, MAX, etc. You must choose the correct Excel function and then use it properly to get full credit.

Using an Excel function, calculate the average of each type of expense category for the months you have listed. You must select the right function, such as SUM or AVERAGE, and then use the function correctly in the cell you have selected. Be sure to label the row or column (note this will depend on how you set up your budget sheet).
Calculate a subtotal for each expense category, using a function provided in Excel. You must select the right function, such as SUM or AVERAGE, and then use the function correctly in the cell you have selected. Be sure to label the row or column (note this will depend on how you set up your budget sheet).
Calculate a subtotal for each month, then a grand total of all the months, using functions provided in Excel. You must select the right function, such as SUM or AVERAGE, and then use the function correctly in the cell you have selected. Be sure to label the row or column (note this will depend on how you set up your budget sheet).
Calculate your monthly income after expenses. For each month, subtract the monthly expenses from the monthly income.  Use an absolute reference to reference the cell of the monthly income. You must select the right function, such as SUM or AVERAGE, and then use the function correctly in the cell you have selected. Be sure to label the row or column (note this will depend on how you set up your budget sheet).

Include a pie chart to display the breakdown of expenses. Use the expense categories you have listed and the monthly totals you have calculated to create your pie chart.  Put the pie chart on its own worksheet labeled “Chart”.  Please note, the chart values should be from the budget page of the worksheet.  Do not copy the values into the new worksheet.
Make sure your spreadsheet is clearly organized and well formatted. For example, no values should display as ##### so make sure your columns are of the correct width for the data.
Check your spelling
Create a footer displaying the filename.
Save your completed file with the filename formatted asExcel_Budget_yourfirstname_yourlastname.xls. An Excel document should be uploaded to D2L.

I have included two (2) example budgets for you to review, Budget Example 1, Budget Exampe 2.  These are from students from another section of this course.  These are meant to be guides and not exemplars. Please note, even though these are PDFs, you are expected to upload a XLS

Examining the relationship between Management Accounting (MA) and Operation Management

In order to come up with the correct relationship between Management Accounting ( MA ) and Operation Management ( OM ) in footings of heightening the organisational public presentation which are stairss in a concatenation taking to increased house value, it should give some practical definitions to the both of the footings.
Atkinson, Banker, Kaplan and Young ( 2001 ) defined direction accounting as the procedure of designation, measuring, accretion, analysis, readying, reading and communicating of information used by direction to be after, measure and command within an entity and to guarantee appropriate usage of and answerability for its resources. Kaplan and Cooper ( 1986, 1989 ) defined it as “ the ability of direction accounting patterns ( MAP ) in supplying relevant, seasonably & A ; accurate information to direction for planning, control & A ; determination devising intents is questioned ”
While the operation direction focuses on carefully pull offing overall activities associated with Product and services direction such as: merchandise creative activity, development, production and distribution every bit good as the activities pull offing purchases, stock list control, quality control, storage, logistics and ratings. Furthermore, it involves the duty of guaranting that concern operations and efficient in footings of utilizing as small resources as needed, and effectual in footings of meeting client demands. Thamboo ( 2008 ) described operation direction “ involves all the activities that converts inputs such as natural stuffs, semi-finished goods, capital, work force, installations and machinery into finished merchandises and services ” .

In the same manner that MA, OM is a subject with its ain propositions for how to pull off administrations. Where MA is based on accounting Numberss in hierarchal flows of information enabling planning and control, OM is more concerned with technological, architectural and organizational rules established to ease the sidelong flow of goods and services. Great figure of new OM techniques such as Computer Aided Design ( CAD ) ; Computer Aided Manufacturing ( CAM ) , kanban, cross-functional squads and procedure function ingrained in entire quality direction ( TQM ) , merely in clip ( JIT ) or automated patterns focus on the integrating of functional sections, activities and organizational ends, and change the very nature of the planning and control undertakings in operations, which, in bend affect the function of MA.
Therefore, this survey aims to understand the responses that have been made within the MA subject in respect to new operational patterns. The survey intend to depict the literature that straight addresses the challenge/barriers from incorporate fabrication /innovations and the altering features of MA design and patterns that have been appointed. Subsequently, the paper will reflect upon possible research inquiries for the hereafter, in order to derive new penetration into the relationship between MA and OM ( Hansen & A ; Mouritsen, 2007 ) .
The paper is organised as follows. The following subdivision outlines cardinal issues in relation and new operations direction patterns. Then, it describes how operations direction research depicts the job of accounting and follows this with an lineation of operations direction accounting – a natural tenseness than describes the MA inventions that ought to get the better of the misfit between MA techniques and altering environment of operation patterns. Hereafter the paper describes how the challenges / barriers from inventions in OM have been debated in MA research. The subsequent measure is the findings and recommendations. Finally, the paper ends with a brief decision.
2.0 Cardinal Issues in Relation and New OM Practices
Management accounting calculates organizational public presentation for decision-making, coordination and motive utilizing techniques such as cost allotment, duty Centres, transportation monetary values, merchandise costing, public presentation measuring and budgeting. All are expectA­ed to lend to increased house value. Operations direction has a parallel docket, but has other techniques. These specify flows of stuffs, resources and merchandises, lineation layout in fabrication and service scenes and are concerned with non-financial facets of public presentation such as clip, quality, flexibleness and invention, which are stairss, in a concatenation taking to increased house value ( Hansen & A ; Mouritsen, 2007 ) .
2.1 Operations direction accounting – a natural tenseness
In order to understand the nature of engagement of operations directors and direction comptrollers in determinations about operational procedures this subdivision briefly outlines their several cardinal undertakings. As a consequence it is suggested that their differing functions and positions may take to a natural tenseness between these two groups of people ( Johnston, Brignall, & A ; Fitzgerald, 2002 ) .
2.1.1 The function of the operations director
The cardinal undertakings for operations directors include ( Slack et al. , 2001 ) :
developing and implementing operations schemes associating the operation to corporate scheme in order to derive competitory advantage ;
planing merchandises and services and the procedures by which they are created and delivered ;
planning and commanding the stuffs, clients and information used in the procedure to make the goods and services, on clip, every clip ;
Continually bettering the operation to do it be effectual and competitory.
2.1.2 The function of the direction comptroller
There are three chief activities undertaken by the accounting and finance map in most administrations, which in little concerns may be performed by the same individual:
daily recording of fiscal minutess and their periodic coverage to external parties, chiefly stockholders ;
fiscal direction, including determinations on the mix of finance and dividend policy ;
Management accounting
Management accounting systems generate fiscal information to run into three chief demands ( Drury, 2000 ) :
a periodic allotment of costs between cost of goods sold and stock list ;
the proviso of information on both an ad hoc and regular periodic footing to help managerial determination devising ;
the proviso of information for planning, control and public presentation measuring.
A big portion of the activities of direction comptrollers concerns the operation of systems of budgetary control, sometimes referred to as “ managing by the Numberss ” ( Ezzamel et al. , 1990 ) . The operation of budgetary control requires that directors be made accountable for those costs and grosss for which they are responsible and which are governable by them. Budgetary control involves puting budgets and so doing periodic comparings of existent public presentation with budget, followed by appropriate action and organizational acquisition ( Fitzgerald et al. , 1991 )
2.1.3 A natural tenseness
It is at regular meetings to compare existent public presentation with budget that operations directors and direction comptrollers run into. The direction comptrollers run the systems whereby operational budgets are set, capital undertakings are approved or rejected, and operational directors are held to account. This is ground adequate to understand that there may good be a natural tenseness between the direction comptrollers and operations directors.
Basically, the natural tenseness between operations directors and direction comptrollers is the consequence of their differing positions on two issues. First, operations directors tend to be focused on determination devising today and in the hereafter whereas comptrollers are traditionally concerned with describing on past events. Second, when it comes to bettering procedures, operations directors are looking for ways and means to alter, on the premise that what they do should better the administration ‘s fiscal place. Management comptrollers, on the other manus, being concerned with fiscal coverage, and responsible for budgetary control, are less concerned about alteration per Se and more concerned about the demand to be convinced, in fiscal footings, before any alteration can take topographic point.
2.1.4 Tension and the grade of alteration
The cardinal premise of this paper is that this tenseness is likely to evident itself most strongly where operations directors and comptrollers are brought closely together, for illustration when operations directors are seeking to convey about betterments to operations procedures which may hold an impact on budgets and capital outgo. Process alteration, such as the execution of new computer-based procedures or equipment, alterations in bringing systems such as Internet-based trading, or the restructuring of bing procedures, functions and duties, may good affect determinations on capital outgo, hazard appraisal, allotment of costs, the pulling up of budgets and execution of new fiscal and operational control systems ( Lynch & A ; Cross, 1991 ; Nanni et Al, 1990, 1992 ; Shank & A ; Govindarajan, 1993 ) .
2.2 Issues in New OM Practices
Many complex direction conA­cepts have been introduced to define better ways to pull off modern operations. Entire quality direction ( TQM ) , merely in clip JIT ) , thin fabrication, agile manuA­facturing, time-based direction, universe category fabrication and flexible manufacA­turing are merely a few illustrations. In 1974, Skinner argued that the function of fabrication or operations is strategic. Several observers, research workers and others have followed his suggestions for increasing a company ‘s competitory advantage through fabrication ( Hayes & A ; Wheelwright, 1984 ; Schonberger, 1986 ; Womack et ah, 1991 ) .
Figure 1 shows how four cardinal dimensions of a fabrication system differ between two alternate attacks to planing operations to suit alterations in the environment. One design produces at a low cost and the other, whilst more costA­ly, can bring forth more differentiated merchandises that sell at comparatively higher monetary values. The system on the right of Figure 1 is a mass-producer with high modus operandi and predictabiliA­ty, while the system on the left is flexible and complex i.e. the first represents a fabrication system run for maximal efficiency, whereas the other dressed ores on flexibleness. Actual designs implement these rules in some signifier. But, before exemplifying this, it is utile to present the opposA­ing thoughts about mill and operations administration that are built-in in stuffs ‘ demand planning ( MRP ) system and merely in clip ( JIT ) rules, since they illusA­trate the control jobs encountered in such production systems.
2.3 Critical Contemplations on “ The Problem of Accounting ” Management Accounting Position:
Hansen & A ; Mouritsen ( 2007 ) mentioned that it is a functional to alter functions and map of direction accounting while altering the operations environments sing to this affair this subdivision highlights the apparent jobs. Equally good as, there are several reviews against accounting could be summarized as follows:
Accounting operations are wholly promoted on fiscal public presentation steps instead than non-financial steps.
Accounting operations are promoted on hierarchal instead than sidelong dealingss.
Accounting operations are promoted on criterion ( position quo ) state of affairs instead than betterment.
Accounting operations are promoted on control instead than authorization.
Management accounting may good hold a axial rotation in the new fabrication scene. The undermentioned four claims would explicate why:
First claim: Relevance is lost because accounting promotes fiscal public presentation steps instead than non-financial steps. There are two grounds that justify why non-financial steps are more of import in fabrication. The first claim is that schemes concentrating on cost efficiency are largely changed by distinction other schemes focused on flexibleness, velocity and quality because fabrication could unite both types of schemes. Consequently, these schemes could be obtained at the same clip. The 2nd statement is that fiscal public presentation steps are excessively abstract and non operational to steer sceptered workers in the new fabrication systems because those workers need more operational information to do right determinations. Although, fiscal accounting information is frequently portrayed as irrelevant and excessively aggregated for the determination shapers every bit good as fiscal public presentation steps has used as a store floor and fiscal information is valuable at the store floor if reorganized it can be stimulus for betterment of the fabrication system. Activity based costing has been used as a solution for this job by supplying more accurate cost information that are aligned to the operational world. Finally cost accounting has been related to concerns about production clip. Therefore direction accounting seem to be important in thin fabrication systems because it provides information for operators for local determination devising and larning contributes to understanding the economic sciences of the new fabrication schemes every bit good as creates inducements harmonizing to the ends of thin fabricating systems. Furthermore, non fiscal information may non needfully be more existent.
Second claim: Relevance is lost because accounting promotes hierarchical instead than sidelong dealingss. The complexness and kineticss frequently present in new operational scenes are presumed to be better accommodated by sidelong instead than hierarchal coordination to guarantee quality, flexibleness, invention and productiveness. New organisational devices, such as multi-skilled workers, cross-functional footings, self-management rules and affair functions, are proposed as replies to complex and dynamic environment that require fast and advanced responses. The single determination shapers in the value concatenation do non needfully have cognition of the whole value concatenation even when there is common integrating with the determination shaper future upstream and downstream. In bend, a hierarchy may make inducements or supply information that enables the sidelong orientation. Operation direction review with accounting may be that operation direction ‘s attending to nonfinancial steps does non acknowledge how accounting creates the infinite within which nonfinancial steps are used.
Third claim: Relevance is lost because accounting promotes standardization instead than larning and uninterrupted betterments. Standards do non excite persons to transcend criterions. Furthermore, criterions are frequently considered as mechanisms that lead to stand in optimisation in organisations. Standard can hold different belongingss and there may be a disagreement between motivational and planning intents. For case, effectual motive frequently requires criterions that are higher that what is usually accomplishable and frequent accommodation is necessary. In contrast, any job with standard scene may impact employees ‘ public presentation due to dispute of asymmetric information. Directors and supervisors do non needfully cognize the occupation or procedure that they evaluate and employees may work that for their ain benefits in this instance the solution is seting or enrooting the trust between directors and supervisors on the one side and employees on the other. Finally, It could be said that the standard scene and sidelong dealingss do non needfully to conflict because that relies upon what criterions are set for and what is the end of this criterion every bit good.
Fourth claim: Relevance is lost because accounting promotes top-down control instead than authorization. The impressions of self-management and empowerment, indispensable in thin fabrication systems, run counter to accounting Numberss that are diagnostic levers of control whereby operations are planed monitored and evaluated by upper degree directors. Self direction implies that governments for determination devising and control are given to the employees. Here, accounting Numberss are synergistic levers of control used for single acquisition and determination devising instead than top-down monitoring and public presentation rating. However, accounting Numberss may hold disciplinary consequence, as workers can non command how these Numberss are used for surveillance by others. Therefore local operational informations is non merely utile locally ; it can go portion of wider systems of answerability. Paradoxically, self direction and thin fabrication can convey stronger hierarchal systems of answerability. Equally good as direction accounting will still be used for control and monitoring because duty centres are still in topographic point in modern fabrication scenes. Besides there are other types of duty centres which are promoted by direction accounting as relevant in altering operation direction patterns. For case, some organisations motivate their employees by supplying them with net income information because, it is argued that this type of inducements considered more comprehensive fiscal signal than cost decrease. In bend the old index provides inducements for uninterrupted betterment even when employees work squads are non organized as net income centres. Therefore hierarchal systems of answerability still play important function in modern fabrication scenes.
3.0 Inventions
Invention is by and large regarded as an of import research subject because inventions are believed to enable organisations to successfully accommodate to, and survive, volatile concern environments ( Rogers, 1995 ) Management comptrollers ‘ part to this invention procedure is to guarantee that directors are provided with information that continues to be relevant as concern fortunes alteration.
However, direction comptrollers have been criticized for their inability to introduce ( Kaplan and Johnson, 1987 ) and these perceptual experiences continue to prevail in visible radiation of the comparatively low success rate in implementing ‘new ‘ direction accounting inventions such as ABC and the balanced scorecard ( Cobb et al. , 1992 ; Reeve, 1996 ; Chenhall ; Langfield-Smith, 1998a ; Lukka & A ; Granlund, 2002 ) . This deficiency of invention was described by Kaplan ( 1986 ) as ‘accounting slowdown ‘ that needs to be minimized in order to maintain direction accounting relevant to the altering information demands of directors. However, at the clip Kaplan ( 1986 ) coined the term ‘accounting slowdown ‘ , there was small research about direction accounting invention and research workers have merely turned their attending to this issue in recent old ages. This research into direction accounting invention has now matured into several different watercourses and this literature is reviewed in order to turn up this survey within that literature.
Inventions in operations direction ( OM ) have challenged direction accounting ( MA ) for more than two decennaries ( Berliner & A ; Brimson, 1988 ; Cooper, 1995 ; Johnson, 1992 ; Kaplan, 1983, 1990 ; Maskell, 2003 ) . Automation, just-in-time ( JIT ) and entire quality direction ( TQM ) are illustrations of patterns that have changed fabrication systems ( Hayes & A ; Wheelwright, 1984 ; Schonberger, 1986, 1996 ; Womack et al. , 1991 ) and are today considered to be basic elements in the OM subject, and pivotal in the pursuit of fight.
3.1 Inventions in OM – Prosecuting Integrated Fabrication
Integrated fabrication environment JIT, TQM and mechanization, and characterises the new fabrication paradigm as a affair of integrating. Hayes ; Wheelwright ( 1979, 1984 ) ; Wheelwright and Hayes ( 1985 ) who present the statement for heightened attending to fabrication in the modern universe. They point to the deficiency of fight in American fabrication industries compared to Asian and European makers in the 1970s and 1980s ( Clark et al. , 1985 & A ; Teece, 1987 ) , and the impulse to rethink fabrication and the rule of OM, and by making so, they set the phase for incorporate fabrication and the functions of mechanization, JIT and TQM.
3.1.1 Puting OM on the Strategic Agenda
Skinner ( 1969, 1974 ) was one of the first to indicate to the strategic function of manufacturing/operations. Skinner ‘s response to ‘the productiveness crisis ‘ in the early 1970s in the US was to offer an optimistic position, proposing that what was needed was non to experience powerless in viing against cheaper foreign labor. From his survey of about 50 workss in six industries, he pinpointed three constructs in focussed fabrication which he considered dealt with the productiveness quandary: ( 1 ) there are many ways to vie besides bring forthing at low costs ; ( 2 ) a mill can non execute good on every yardstick ; ( 3 ) simpleness and repeat strain competency
Hayes and Wheelwright coined the term ‘world category fabrication ‘ ( Hayes & A ; Wheelwright, 1979, 1984 ; Wheelwright & A ; Hayes, 1985 ) . They developed world-class fabrication based on in-depth analysis of the patterns implemented by Nipponese, German and US houses that exhibited outstanding public presentation. Hayes and Wheelwright ( 1984 ) offer six design suggestions: ( 1 ) construct the accomplishments and capablenesss of your work force, ( 2 ) construct proficient competency throughout direction, ( 3 ) compete through quality, ( 4 ) develop existent worker engagement, ( 5 ) rebuild fabricating technology, ( 6 ) tortoise and hare attacks to industrial competition. Furthermore, Hayes and Wheelwright emphasise incremental betterment patterns instead than strategic leap alterations in corporate development.
3.1.2 Incorporate Fabrication
Dean and Snell ‘s ( 1991 ) impression of incorporate fabrication, as it conceptualizes the new fabrication pattern in three patterns: advanced fabrication engineering ( mechanization ) , JIT stock list control and TQM. Advanced fabrication engineering, TQM and JIT stock list control work in concert to transform fabrication administrations, and they complement one another. For illustration, JIT enhances entire quality, because a decrease in stock list unmaskings quality jobs that were antecedently hidden, and entire quality facilitates JIT, because hapless quality is one of the chief grounds for keeping ‘just-in-case ‘ degrees of stock list. Advanced fabricating engineering may besides be closely linked with entire quality and JIT. For illustration, Majchrzak ( 1988 ) observed that ‘flexible mechanization creates an increased dependance on quality control ‘ . However, Warner ( 1987 ) argued that these techniques can replace one another, with a company utilizing JIT or TQM in topographic point of advanced fabrication engineering.
Dean and Snell ( 1991 ) propose that each of the patterns represents a different aspect of incorporate fabrication, a paradigm of fabricating direction whose nucleus construct is the riddance of barriers between different facets of fabricating operations.
3.1.2.1 Advanced fabrication engineering ( mechanization ) includes computer-based engineerings such as computer-aided design, technology, fabrication and procedure planning ( CAD, CAE, CAM and CAPP ) . These engineerings are sometimes combined into flexible or computer-integrated fabrication systems ( FMS, CIM ) , where the potency for integrating is a cardinal feature of advanced fabrication engineering.
3.1.2.2 Just-in-time ( JIT ) is a system for cut downing ‘lead clip ‘ , stock list and thereby cost. With JIT, workss receive purchased parts merely in clip for usage in fabrication ( Schonberger, 1986 ; Womack et al. , 1991 ) . A figure of other techniques relate to the JIT construct. For illustration, the kanban system of minimising work-in-process stock list by utilizing cards to draw parts through a mill is frequently associated with JIT control. Other related techniques include minimising batch sizes by cut downing machine apparatus and conversion times, and set uping close working relationships with a little figure of providers.
3.1.2.3 Entire quality direction ( TQM ) is the most elusive of the three constituents of incorporate fabrication, because of the many intensions of the term ‘quality ‘ . Like JIT, entire quality involves a few, comparatively simple cardinal constructs, and what Dean and Snell name ‘an formless array of peripheral associated patterns ‘ . The nucleus thoughts include behaviors things right the first clip, endeavoring for uninterrupted betterment and apprehension and run intoing client demands. Associated patterns include statistical procedure control, quality map deployment and Taguchi methods. Quality was ab initio limited to mill floors, but entire quality is now understood to use to all countries of endeavors.
Companies eliminate barriers in three ways: ( 1 ) incorporate the phases of production, ( 2 ) integrate functional sections and ( 3 ) integrate fabrication ends. Therefore, Dean and Snell talk about three different signifiers of integrating: phase integrating, functional integrating and end integrating. With respects to present integrating, Dean and Snell ( 1991, 778 ) emphasise that ‘the pattern underlying incorporate fabrication integrates the phases of fabrication procedures in footings of clip, infinite and information. JIT eliminates work-in-process buffers between production phases, and any stairss, such as the motion of parts, that do non add value to the merchandise. Consistent with entire quality ‘s premiss of making things right the first clip, reviews and rework between phases are besides eliminated. Companies practising these techniques frequently create ”cells ” in which machines executing consecutive operations on similar merchandises are located next to one another in a works. Such steps dramatically cut down clip and infinite between phases ‘ . Table 1 summarises these thoughts.
This paper besides argues that invention in OM typically deals with the sidelong flows within and beyond the house. Like MA, OM is concerned with the transmutation of inputs into end products, but in contrast to MA, OM develops and explicates how this transmutation takes topographic point in item. In a sense, while MA is concerned with juxtaposing a series of inquiries about determination devising, duty and answerability on the procedure of transmutation, mechanization, TQM and JIT are more focussed on the specific stairss in the transmutation procedure. As a effect, the objects of OM are related to throughput mechanisms including the design of fabrication and service production systems, the design of merchandises and services, the design of dealingss beyond the house, the design of ( mill ) layout and the flow of services and merchandises, the design of production and service engineering and besides the design of work administration. This is a really wide spectrum of objects, which testifies that OM efforts to develop propositions about most things in a house: the lone caution is that these objects have to be subordinated to the flow of the merchandise or service in the supply, fabrication and ingestion procedures.
Many invention surveies in direction accounting scenes focus on a individual invention as the unit of survey, and Lukka and Granlund ( 2002 ) indicate that ABC is the individual most studied invention. Traditional soaking up bing systems have long been capable to unfavorable judgment. This clip the focal point of unfavorable judgment was that these systems do non accurately step costs for determination devising intents and activity based costing ( ABC ) has been developed and promoted. Besides, mark costing and the ‘costing of quality ‘ were introduced as tools for facing increased competition ( Abdel-Kader & A ; Luther, 2006 ) .
4.0 Challenges from Inventions in Operations Management from a Management Accounting Point of View
MA research has considered inventions in OM to present a challenge for more than two decennaries ( Berliner & A ; Brimson, 1988 ; Bromwich & A ; Bhimani, 1994 ; Johnson & A ; Kaplan, 1987 ; Kaplan, 1983, 1984, 1990 ) . This paper analyses the responses to the new fabrication paradigm given in MA research. As mentioned above, we draw on Dean and Snell ‘s ( 1991 ) impression of incorporate fabrication in our apprehension of the new fabrication paradigm. However, in the reappraisal it is the single research worker ‘s ain definition of incorporate manufacturing-related to mechanization, TQM or JIT – which forms the footing for characterizing the relationship between MA and OM. Figure 2 identifies five challenges related to integrated fabrication that are addressed in the MA research: ( 1 ) decentralization, ( 2 ) non-financial public presentation measuring, ( 3 ) cost computations, ( 4 ) criterion scene and ( 5 ) wages systems. These five challenges are non a comprehensive list of all facets addressed in the MA research concentrating on inventions in OM. However, we believe that these points give a representative image of how the MA research has responded to the challenge from incorporate fabrication.
Figure 2 OM challenges from a MA position ( Adapted from Hansen & A ; Mouritsen, 2007 )
4.1 Role engagement ‘s consequence on innovativeness
Role engagement is expected to impact innovativeness in footings of: ( 1 ) cognition about the rightness of inventions ; ( 2 ) credence of the inventions by concern unit directors ; and ( 3 ) inducements to introduce. The first and 2nd facets of function engagement affect the ability of direction comptrollers to introduce while the 3rd affects their motive to introduce ( Emsley, 2005 ) .
4.1.1 Knowledge about the rightness of inventions
To successfully introduce, the direction comptroller needs to be cognizant of an invention every bit good as understanding its rightness to a concern unit director ‘s demands. However, “ consciousness ” and “ rightness ” are separate issues and function engagement is merely argued to be of import for understanding the rightness of inventions for concern unit directors ‘ demands.
Management comptrollers with a concern unit orientation are more likely to cognize whether an innoA­vation is appropriate or non because they work aboard and/or study to concern unit directors. This propinquity to, and contact with, concern unit directors means that these direction comptrollers will be more familiar with the kind of determinations concern unit directors make, more likely to understand the information that is of most value to doing those determinations, accordingly, they are more likely to cognize which inventions are appropriate for bring forthing that information. As these inventions need to reflect altering concern unit needs, direction comptrollers with a concern unit orientation are less likely to be constrained by functional ( accounting ) dictates and accordingly the inventions are besides more likely to be viewed as extremist ( Emsley, 2005 ) .
4.1.2 Acceptance of inventions by concern unit directors
Emsley ( 2005 ) mentioned that cognition about the rightness of a direction accounting invention is likely to be a necA­essary but deficient measure to originating inventions. The 2nd manner function engagement affects the deA­velopment of inventions concerns the grade to which direction accounting inventions are acA­cepted by concern unit directors. Inventions initiated by direction comptrollers with a concern unit orientation are more likely to be accepted because they can cut down concern unit directors ‘ perA­ceived uncertainness about the benefits of the inventions every bit good as lessen their opposition to innovaA­tions.
The sensed uncertainness environing the benefits of direction accounting inventions is likely to be comparatively high because they are administrative inventions whose benefits are hard to show and detect ex ante, at least comparative to proficient inventions ( Dunk, 1989 ) For illustration, the benefit of a proficient invention that makes a machine tally faster is likely easier to show than the betterment to determination devising as a consequence of implementing an administrative invention such as ABC. Consequently to be confident that the claimed benefits of a direction accounting invention will happen, the concern unit director needs to pass clip going familiar with the information generated by the invention in order to appreciate its utility. However, the concern unit director can short-cut this procedure if s/he can swear the direction comptroller ‘s sentiment about the benefits and costs of an invention and this trust is more likely where the direction comptroller has a concern unit orientation because trust will hold developed as a consequence of working together in the yesteryear. This state of affairs is particularly relevant for extremist inventions whose benefits are frequently harder to show antique ante and greater resources are needed to implement them. In contrast, less trust is likely to be between a concern unit director and a direction comptroller with a functional ( accounting ) orientation, accordingly, the concern unit director will be less certain about the benefits of the invention and will be less likely to accept it as a consequence ( Emsley, 2005 ) .
With respects to understating the degree of opposition to the invention, societal identify theory ( Janis, 1982 ; Tajfels, 1978 ) indicates that direction comptrollers with a concern unit orientation will go a member of the “ in ” group ( i.e. the concern unit ) and, accordingly, will happen it less hard to acquire their positions accepted within the concern unit than direction comptrollers with a functional orientation who will be viewed as members of an “ out ” group. In the former instance the direction accountant tends to be viewed as “ one of us but different to us ” compared to the latter instance where the direction comptroller is viewed as “ one of them ” . This state of affairs is particularly relevant for extremist inventions where the going from bing methods is larger and a greater religion in the direction comptroller is necessary ( both in footings of the invention ‘s benefits to the concern unit and any possible downside that might accrue to the concern unit as a consequence of implementing the invention ) .
4.1.3 Incentives to introduce
The 3rd manner a direction comptroller ‘s function engagement affects the development of inventions is through their inducements to introduce. Incentives include a direction comptroller ‘s wagess and future chances but besides includes the enhanced occupation satisfaction that comes from greater occupation enrichment ( Argyris & A ; Kaplan, 1994 ) These inducements are likely to be mostly determined by the direction comptroller ‘s higher-up who, for direction comptrollers with a concern unit orientation, is likely to be the concern unit director. In such state of affairss, inducements are more likely to be geared to the accomplishment of concern unit ends where the direction comptroller will take to bring forth information that is geared towards accomplishing these ends and, as such, will be less likely to be constrained by conventions of functional accounting ; furthermore, in order to run into the assorted demands of the concern unit, inventions are likely to be extremist compared to bing pattern ( Emsley, 2005 ) .
For direction comptrollers who are functionally orientated, their higher-ups will be comptrollers who are more likely to aline direction comptrollers ‘ inducements with the accomplishment of functional ends ( such as pull offing hard currency flows and conformity coverage ) than concern unit ends. In such state of affairss, there is less incentive and motive for them to prosecute inventions designed to accomplish concern unit directors ‘ ends. This state of affairs is particularly likely if direction comptrollers with a functional orientation have to put considerable clip and attempt to convert the concern unit director of the invention ‘s benefits or if prosecuting those inventions threatens the accomplishment of functional ends. These statements all lead to the outlook that the function engagement of direction comptrollers will be associated with their innovativeness ( Emsley, 2005 ) .
Some research workers have identified factors such as deficiency of top direction willingness, deficiency of equal function theoretical accounts, the accent on fiscal accounting and the laterality of computing machine based accounting systems. Others have included organizational scheme, construction and the influence of communicating channels as factors act uponing the diffusion of direction accounting inventions ( Yazdifar & A ; Askarany, 2008 ) .
4.2 Barriers to following new accounting techniques
Everett and Waldron ( 2000 ) mentioned that restrictions relative to a house ‘s human resources were the most comA­monly cited barriers to the debut of new accounting techniques and patterns. In peculiar, the cost of alteration related to people and clip, and a deficiency of relevant accomplishments were the top three barriers reported, as shown in Table ( 2 ) 40 % or more of the respondents identified each of these three factors. The 4th most cited barrier, selected by 37 % of the respondents, was direction inactiveness. This job, which repA­resents yet another human resource barrier, besides featured in a survey of barriers to UK maker ‘s acceptance of throughput accounting that was conducted by Dugdale and Jones ( 1998 ) .
It would look that more attempt demands to be expended in educatA­ing troughs about the now accounting techniques and the benefits that can be realized from their usage.
Askarany and Yazdifar ( 2007 ( indicated that factors related to the features of inventions are seemed to be among the most of import influencing factors impacting the diffusion of cost and direction accounting alterations: 1. Lack of suited package plans. 2. Cost of system set up and its execution. 3. Cost of keeping and roll uping cost information. 4. Lack of information on available bing techniques. 5. Management policies and precedences. 6. Lack of appropriate cost accounting accomplishments. 7. Low benefit arising from alteration compared with higher needed outgo. 8. Lack of assurance in the ability of new accounting techniques. 9. Adequacy of current system. 10. Employee opposition. 11. Insufficiency of the current system non being of import plenty to necessitate alteration in the costing system. 12. External fiscal or cost accounting criterions or patterns
5.0 Findingss and Recommendations
The findings suggest that top direction committedness and support is a cardinal factor in acceptance and successful execution of new cost and direction accounting techniques. However, the top direction committedness and support will be more effectual if it is backed up by sufficient top direction penetration. They need to cognize about the new techniques being implemented in their company and be able to pass on this to others.
The findings besides indicated that direction accounting inventions may be able to cut down the misfit between direction accounting techniques and the altering environment of operation patterns. As Snell & A ; Dean ( 1991 ) suggest, mechanization, TQM and JIT are major inventions in operational patterns in companies around the universe, and they contribute to the integrating of phases, maps and ends in what has been called a new fabrication paradigm.
The consequences of the research provide of import information to ease the diffusion of late developed direction accounting techniques in pattern. Such developments are expected to increase the satisfaction of users of current direction accounting information. The findings may besides be helpful in be aftering successful execution of any direction accounting alteration programme.
The research findings suggest that directors and practicians should seek a better apprehension of the nature and features of new direction accounting techniques that they are be aftering to follow. The findings are besides relevant for directors and practicians working in group administrations, as the research suggests that they need a better apprehension of the operations and demands of subordinate companies.
In 2002, Johnston, Brignall, and Fitzgerald recommended that at that place look to be six requirements that appear to assistance and underpin coaction:
team-working ;
sound and good established accounting systems ;
comptrollers with good concern and procedure cognition ;
comptrollers with a flexible position of their functions ;
comptrollers with good interpersonal and communications accomplishments ;
comptrollers who were willing to dispute the position quo and facilitate alteration.
The comptrollers who worked closely with operations directors in procedure alteration appear to be non-traditional comptrollers, who act as facilitators and anchors for concern determinations.
There are several issues for operations directors in order to interrupt down the tenseness between operations directors and direction comptrollers. First, there is a demand to promote comptrollers to go involved in the operation and to understand, first manus, the issues confronting operations directors. Second, this may be achieved by greater usage of cross-functional squads non merely to portion understanding but besides to make common ownership of jobs. Third, operations directors need to recognize and utilize the accomplishments of the comptrollers, in peculiar promote their functions in supplying non-financial information and utilize their accomplishments in interpretation and circulating information. Fourth, operations directors should see comptrollers as facilitators non as a barrier to alter. It would look that the potency of direction comptrollers is much maligned and misunderstood and their accomplishments undervalued and under-utilised in procedure alteration – a cardinal undertaking for operations directors.
Using the refined instrument, the following 14 points were identified to mensurate features of direction accounting invention: 1. Can acquire the occupation done quicker. 2. Can make the occupation easier. 3. Can better the quality of service. 4. Can make the occupation more efficaciously. 5. Can accomplish greater control over work procedures. 6. Can be learned rapidly and easy. 7. Is easy to implement. 8. Is compatible with exist-ing procedures. 9. Has minor deductions for other procedures. 10. Is compatible with corporate civilization. 11. Advantages/benefits are clear and incontrovertible. 12. Results are easy reported/communicated. 13. Able to test the technique to guarantee it does what it said it would. 14. Enhances the profile and repute of the company ) Askarany & A ; Yazdifar, 2007 ) .
6.0 Decision
Management accounting work out organisational public presentation for decision-making, coorA­dination and motive utilizing techniques such as cost allotment, duty centres, transportation monetary values, merchandise costing, public presentation measuring and budgeting while operations direction concerned with non-financial facets of public presentation such as clip, quality, flexibleness and invention, which are both techniques stairss in a concatenation taking to increased house value.
Even if direction accounting can be described as fiscal and hierarchal, and concerned with criterions and control, it may good hold a function in the new manufacA­turing scene.
In add-on, direction accounting and operations direction have much to state to each other because, as Bromwich and Bhimani ( 1994 ) note, many challenges confronting modA­ern direction accounting semen from an operations environment. The writers ‘ analysis justify this position: new ways to gestate of direction accounting emerge from analyzing its interaction with operations direction. Both have similar concerns and decisions about the importance of non-financial information in modern fabrication environA­ments. A In whatever manner, the paper analysis confront the imitation of accounting frequently made in arguments about operations direction and more by and large.
Hansen and Mouritsen ( 2007 ) recommend that the linguistic communication of operations is non a strictly non-financial. Employees do understand fiscal linguistic communication to a certain extent. Standard cost systems are used as a catA­alyst for betterment procedures and ‘pseudo net income centres ‘ provide inducements for continA­uous betterment. In add-on, direction accounting is of import as it describes the economic sciences of flexibleness, velocity and invention.
As good they argue that standard cost systems and discrepancy analysis do non needfully conflict with aspirations for ‘zero defect ‘ schemes and sidelong dealingss as is suggested by many operA­ations direction observers.
Operations direction has confronted direction accounting for rather a piece. on the other manus, direction accounting could likewise be a confront for operations direction, at the same clip as the restrictions around and within operations depend upon computations that join flows of merchandises and services, persons with organisational ends, and thoughts of fight to profitableness and control. Management accounting and operations direction can larn and develop one from the other.
There is an unsolved tenseness between the different functions of nonfinancial public presentation steps in respect to local and cardinal information systems that build on two different sets of logic, one is oriented towards operational acquisition and uninterrupted betterment, while the other is oriented towards control. Therefore, the vagueness of the function of nonfinancial public presentation steps in incorporate fabrication still leaves us with a important inquiry for the hereafter
Another trait of the MA research is the focal point on the economic sciences of integrating, and in peculiar, the demand for new cost computations in footings of supplying determination shapers in incorporate fabricating systems with better information. For case, the cost decrease potency of the ‘integration of maps ‘ such as the production and design interface can be made clear by agencies of life-cycle costing, which helps design for manufacturability. Furthermore, the economic sciences of flexibleness and quality reflected in ABC and quality bing supply input to determination shapers about the bounds of the integrating scheme. New cost computations are besides introduced in order to bring forth inducements to increase throughput by agencies of back flower or throughput accounting, which have been specifically adapted to JIT scenes. One possible function of MA research here is to look into tradeoffs between types of fabricating systems ( Hansen & A ; Mouritsen, 2007 ) .
It can be conclude that operations manA­agement and direction accounting can larn and develop one from the other. In add-on, direction accounting inventions may be able to cut down the misfit between direction accounting techniques and the altering environment of operation patterns.

WebDesPix Ltd case study questions

1. What does the name WebDesPix Ltd tell you about the ownership of the company?
It tells us that it is a private limited company; this means that it is in the private sector and it must have the letters ‘Ltd’ after its name. The main features of a private limited company include:
* It is owned by the shareholders.

* It is controlled by the board of directors.
* It is managed by appointed managers.
* Finance can be gained by borrowing from banks or selling shares.
* The profits go to the shareholders of the company, in the form of dividends.
Socratic Seminar Questions
2. Give (2 or more) reasons why they may have decided on this type of company?
This type of business is more expensive to set up than a sole trader or a partnership, however:
* It carries less financial risk for the owners as they have limited liability, which means that if the company goes bust, they only lose the amount of money that they invested in the company and not their personal possessions.
* Limited companies are also incorporated which means that the company has a separate legal identity from its owners. Which means that it is the company that can be sued or sue, not the owners.
* It also gives the company greater continuity because its existence is not ended by the death or retirement of its owners.
3. Tom and Dee are shareholders. What does this mean?
* It means that Tom and Dee are the people who invest money in the company by buying shares, and are therefore called shareholders. It also means that they are the owners of the company.
* By buying shares in the company Tom and Dee are entitled to a share of the profits known as dividend. How much dividend a shareholder receives depends on how well the company is performing, the type of share they own, and the number of shares they own.
* This also means that as they are shareholders they can elect people to the board of directors to represent their interest and be responsible for the long term strategy of the company. The directors will then appoint managers to be responsible for the day-to-day running of the company. Also, some managers may also be directors and are known as executive directors. In a private limited company the major shareholders, board of directors and managers may all be the same people.
4. They have an overdraft facility. Explain how an overdraft works and say what they might use if for.
An overdraft is when a business draws more money from its bank account than it currently has in the account. It has permission from the bank, which sets an agreed limit called an overdraft limit.
Interest is payable on the overdraft and this is calculated on a daily basis. An advantage of an overdraft is that money is only borrowed when needed; this means that interest is only paid when the bank account is overdrawn.
The big disadvantage about an overdraft is that the bank can insist that it is repaid immediately.
However, because of its flexibility an overdraft is probably the most frequently used way to solve a cash flow problem.
The table shows the advantages and disadvantages of overdrafts:
Advantages of overdrafts
Disadvantages of overdrafts
Flexibility-can change the amount borrowed within limits.
Cannot be used for large borrowing.
Interest is only paid on amounts borrowed.
Rates of interest higher than loans.
Bank can change limit at any time or ask for money to be paid sooner than expected.
Used for anything wages, computer repairs etc
5. List 4 products the company offers.
* Web design is still the core business of the company, but new services are also offered.
* Electronic newsletters.
* Domain registrations.
* Hosting and search engine optimisation.
* The company offers three standard web design packages, this is
-budget at �800
-professional at �1000
-and executive at �1500
Each package provides a number of web pages, e-mail facilities and the cost of hosting the site.
* WDP (WebDesPix Ltd) give a quotation to clients who require non-standard packages (a quotation is just an estimated price for job or service).
6. All their products are marketed online. Explain 3 advantages of this when compared to selling from a shop on the high street.
Firstly, buying and selling products online is called e-commerce. The advantages of this include:
* Websites can be used to reach wider markets; this means that the internet provides extra marketing possibilities.
* The internet can be accessed all over the world-this makes it possible to target potential customers in foreign countries.
* A company can put marketing material on its own website, or it could pay to advertise on other websites.
* A good website can really help a firm’s competitiveness and increase its market share.
* Firms can market and sell goods through their website 24 hours a day, 7 days a week (’24/7′).
* By using the strategy of marketing and selling ’24/7′, it can give e-commerce firms an advantage over the traditional 9-5 businesses, as customers can shop at home, at a time which is convenient to them.
7. The company wants to build up their brand name. List 3 advantages of having a strong brand name.
* Businesses will hope that this leads to brand loyalty, where customers will repeat-buy because they prefer the look, taste, quality or image of their products.
* If the company’s name becomes established with one product, it may encourage customers to buy different products bearing that name.
* Customers can be reasonably sure about the quality they will get with branded goods.
8. What are overheads?
Overheads (also called fixed costs or indirect costs) are costs which do not change whether the business produces lots of goods, or produces no goods at all. These are costs which still have to be paid, regardless of output. For example, the rent on a shop will still have to be paid, whether or not the shop has any customers. Examples of overheads are:
-interest payment on loans.
-managers’ salaries.
– Rates payable to the local council.
-rent of premises.
-gas
-electricity
-telephone costs
-administration costs
– and advertising
9. Explain why the company has relatively small overheads.
The company has relatively small overheads because it is labour intensive.
* It builds and upgrades its own computers.
* Vacancies are just advertised on the company’s website and at regular networking meetings with other businesses in the Bristol area.
10. List 2 factors which influenced the company to locate in Bristol.
* They could have run the company from anywhere in England, but as they were all from different parts of the country it was easier to locate in Bristol where they had all studied (it was more convenient).
* Bristol is a large city with good infrastructure, so transport is not a problem.
* There is a university in Bristol, so the business is close to an educated working force.
11. List 3 non-financial fringe benefits available to the employees.
* Free lunch each Friday.
* The use of a Wii during their breaks.
* Free health insurance after six months employment.
12. Give 2 reasons why the company gives fringe benefits.
* To motivate their employees so that they feel valued by the company and are therefore more productive as well.
* Helps attract and retain better qualified employees.
* Improves efficiency and productivity as employees are assured of security for themselves (as well as their families).
13. Some employees receive a monthly bonus based on turnover. Explain bonus.
Full-time employees receive a monthly bonus based on turnover. A bonus is a monetary reward. It can be paid within both the time rate and piece rate systems. Under the time rate system, a bonus is paid if the workers reach their production targets, which could be hourly, daily or weekly targets.
14. Explain one advantage of giving these employees a bonus.
-this encourages workers to work at their maximum output, and so overcome the problem of the lack of incentive. It also increases the productivity, efficiency and motivation of employees, which may also increase their happiness.
15. Give one disadvantage of giving them a bonus.
The disadvantage is that the employees expect a bonus and moral drops sharply when the bonus is not paid.
16. The 2 sales assistants receive commission in addition to their salary. Explain commission.
Commission is a monetary incentive that the company can offer in addition to their basic pay. It is a payment to people who are employed in selling the products or services of a business.
17. Explain one advantage of giving these employees commission.
This system ensures that employees have to work hard to earn their pay, but if they are successful, their earnings can be unlimited.
18. Give one disadvantage of giving them commission.
If they fail to meet the required turnover or sales figures, they receive no commission.
19. List 2 advantages of using email.
* It is quick and easy to send emails, as it allows communication easily over a number of sites.
* People can keep in touch very easily-as many messages can be sent.
* Messages can also be keyed-in and stored until they are needed.
* One email can be sent to a number of different people at the same time.
* They are very convenient, as multiple attachments can be sent.
* It is easier to refer back to emails rather than looking through different pieces of paper.
20. Explain why the company might use video conferencing.
Video conferencing is fast becoming more and more popular with companies. It involves using computer links and closed-circuit television, allowing people to hear and see each other.
The advantages include:
* Saves people travelling to meetings.
* Large savings can then be made in terms of time and cost.
* Face-to-face communication is possible rather than using telephone or letter.

10 week ass.

Write a five to six (5-6) page paper in which you:

Explain the importance of maintaining accurate and objective employee records, indicating the consequences that may result from lack of record keeping. Provide support for your rationale.
Provide an example of formal and an example of informal documentation that would normally be maintained in an employee file, indicating how each is likely to protect an employer.
Determine the most significant factor that will ensure an effective legal termination, indicating the most likely way employees can protect themselves from termination in a downsizing situation. Provide support for your rationale.
Analyze two (2) major challenges that today’s health care leaders face in trying to uphold the ethics of critique, justice, and caring, indicating how managers can balance the need for ethics with employee and organizational needs.
Create a detailed outline of an effective succession planning process that will help ensure a smooth transition as members of the management team at your organization begin to retire. (The plan should prescribe, at a minimum, how to identify employees for advancement, training and development programs, mentorships, and a timeline for preparing leaders for their role.)
From both a management and employee perspective, justify or dispute unionization. Provide support for your rationale.
Suggest the best way in which HR can continue to be an effective strategic partner in helping this organization achieve its future goals. Provide support for your rationale.
Use at least three (3) quality academic resources in this assignment. Note: Wikipedia and other Websites do not qualify as academic resources

A Woman Made a Yemeni Future

A woman made a Yemeni future The Republic of Yemen is one of the poorest countries in Arab world. Recently, Yemeni politic was rule by plain dictatorship for a long term. The economy is poor and corruptions were rampant in Yemen. Hence the Yemeni people made a decision to stand up to establish a democratic government. The Yemen uprising was up on January 2011 in Sana’a University which is in Yemen’s capital. The leader of the protests was Tawakel Karman from Yemen. This essay will explain who Tawakel Karman is and why her accomplishments were recognized to the Nobel Peace Prize committee.
Tawakel Karman is one of the greatest political activists in the world. She was born in 1979 in the port town of Taiz, which face with the Red Sea. She has been active in searching for freedom of expression and women rights in the Arab words. At the same time, she is a journalist and a member of the Al-Islah, which is the largest opposition party in Yemen. Tawakel and the protesters  shouted ‘Day for rage’ among the troops and armed government officers at the seaport of Aden in northern Yemen.?
She is one of the three persons who won the Nobel Peace Prize in 2011 and became the first woman from Arabia to be awarded the prize. She has continued to regularly partake in protest activities to insist on freedom of expression and women rights over the past five years. The Nobel Peace Prize Committee in Norway admired her achievements of “seeking full attribution to the society, claiming the safety and rights of women without violence”. In the social background of the affair, there was huge discontent towards the long term dictator government in the Arab worlds.?

Thus, she decided to lead not only the victims of ‘The Arab Spring’ but also all the people who deserve better human rights. Thus, Tawakel Karman’s achievements have brought great changes not just in Yemen but in many other Arabian countries too. There are three reasons why Tawakel Karman’s achievements were deserving for winning the Nobel Peace Prize. First, she made contributions to improve Yemeni human rights and freedom of expressions, which were in a nonviolent way.
Despite of the Yemeni dictator Saleh resorted to arms, she pressed for the improvement in social affair, which were great things. For example, she led a huge number of the Yemeni people and chanted their slogan in chorus again and again. Those incidents were broadcasted all over the world and aroused sympathy from many people. She indicated the Yemeni people’s strong intensions through an interview. ‘We Yemeni people do not yield the dictator-ruled government and we want freedom in a peaceful way. ‘ Second, she insisted that the Yemeni woman should be liberated from Yemeni traditional dress codes.
For example, by taking off her headdress and showing her face, she insisted that the dress code is enforced not by Koran, but by male-dominated Yemeni society. Her smiles were different from what we Japanese are used to have seen, she looked very confident. However, if she did not insist the importance to break away from such a bad custom, Yemeni woman still could not share their real feelings. That is to say, they would be forced to un-sensitive communication. If I were a Yemeni woman, I could not stand such a small world and might have gone insane at least.
Finally, she co-founded the human rights group ‘Woman Journalists Without Chains’ to make the Yemeni woman belong to all of the Yemeni society with safety. For example, she made full use of social network like a mobile phone to share her opinions and activity to the world. The Yemeni dominated social network looked like the Japanese painted textbook; General Headquarter censored and painted out the Japanese publications to hide the information, which they did not want to be known after World War 2 was ended.
If I could not express what I want to say, nobody would understand myself. For the each reasons I stated above are about Tawakel Karman’s achievements to break away from the Yemeni social pressure in an amicable way. There is no Yemeni happiness without her achievements. Consequently, Tawakel Karman is indispensable for the Yemeni people and that is why her accomplishments were recognized the Nobel Peace Prize committee. (721words)

Sex Discrimination at Walmart

Sex Discrimination at Wal-Mart OMM640 Business Ethics and Social Responsibility Dr. : David Britton May 14, 2012 Betty Dukes along with five other women filled a law suit against Wal-Mart Inc. in 2001 for discrimination against women, denying them their raises and also their promotions. Betty Dukes and the other women hope that they can stand for hundreds of thousands of other women who might have been similarly affected by this type of behavior when they were there also. Years later the ladies got the go ahead to represent 1. 6 other women in the case seeking back wages and maybe even punitive damages from Wal-Mart.
This is by far the biggest class action suit against such a huge company and by these ladies getting the go ahead they have to prove to a court that Wal-Mart treated them unfairly. Wal-Mart has denied that such atrocities have ever taken place. If it is found that Wal-Mart did in fact do these things not only would their image ne tarnished, they would also end up paying billions of dollars to these ladies and open a door for other suits to be filed against them for whatever purpose and also sends a message saying no matter how big a company you are you are still going to be held accountable for the way in which you treat people.
That is why laws were established for this precise purpose. Wal-Mart was hoping to have the case dismissed and have all the women file separately which would be easier for them because all of the women filing together would stand to gain millions from them. The financial impact a law suit of this magnitude might have on Wal-Mart would be loss of business, loss of millions of dollars paid to the women and the majority of shoppers that frequent Wal-Mart are women and if they are found to be discriminating against women of course other women will not shop there.

Them they would have to end up letting go a Lot of people if they don’t have the money to sustain them; companies that supply to them would pull out, and with the criticism they would get would probably destroy the company. Wal-Mart has maintained that they did not discriminate against Betty and the other women that filed claim against, but I believe that Wal-Mart knew exactly what was going on and just chose to ignore Betty when she was making her complaints. They began to take her seriously when she filed the suit.
Some of the moral complaints the women were suing Wal-Mart for was for statistical disparities such female workers were less likely to be paid the proper wages as the men; they were denied promotion in a timely fashion different to those of the men (Boatright, 2009, pg. 199). There was a lot of bias involved with all of this; it even has a hint of gender stereotyping. I believe the moral complaints were justified because Betty made complaints to managers and higher up and because she did this they began to treat her differently and demoted her for not opening a cash register with a penny but for talking.
When it came to promotions opportunities they were not made known, and those that she wanted they kept telling her they were filled and hired male counter parts that were not fit for the position. What made Wal-Mart managers determine what part of the store you worked was based on your gender and that was wrong, not because they were women meant they could not do what was needed. The women by far were more experienced than the men and the stayed longer on the job also.
It was shown based on the records of the trial and brought up in the news that this massive company had so discrepancies that they had to correct as it pertained to the way they treated women. They would first have to start off improving their employment policies and what they are looking for in individual. They have to be an equal opportunity employer and employ People based on their skills and experience on a particular job. Women need to be promoted into management programs just as men do, not showing favoritism to men over women.
They have to allow people to work anywhere in the store as long as they can do the job and not putting them in whatever department they think they should be in. Develop a program that teaches all employees about diversity in the work place and place emphasis on respecting women and treating them fairly. Starting an affirmative program would be to the benefit of the company, they have to learn that women are priced just as highly as men and the way they. For women with kids it is hard for them to work as they would because they have no child care and this is something that Wal-Mart must put in place.
Proper compensation for the work being done and it should be equal pay for both parties involved. Training programs for employees that want to advancement and how to work with each other. In conclusion I would have to say it would have been a good luck for the women to win that discrimination law suit against Wal-Mart Inc. I am actually surprised at the outcome but I understand it. None the less Betty Duke allowed the world to see Wal-Mart for who they really are and allowed them to see that they were treating women unfairly and they now have the opportunity to reevaluate the way they do things.
Women have the right to be treated fairly and equally and also have the right to be paid and promoted just as any man. The law suit also opened up the eyes of all the other companies that were watching with a keen interest. References: Boatright, J. (2009). Ethics and the conduct of business (6th Ed) Upper Saddle River, NJ Prentice Hall Emily Friedman, April 16, 2010, Appeals Court Rules Wal-Mart Sex Discrimination Case Can Go to Trial Retrieved May 14, 2014 from http://abcnews. go. com/WN/Business/wal-mart-sex-discrimination-case-trial/story? d=10480510 Wal-Mart sex-bias case could have wide impact Retrieved May 14, 2012 from http://www. msnbc. msn. com/id/42250811/ns/business-careers/t/wal-mart-sex-bias-case-could-have-wide-impact/ Wal-Mart Wins Request in Bias Case Retrieved May 15, 2012 from http://www. blackchristiannews. com/news/2009/02/wal-mart-wins-request-in-bias-case. html Betty. V Goliath Retrieved May 15, 2012 from http://walmartwatch. com/wp-content/blogs. dir/2/files/pdf/dukes_backgrounder. pdf