Assignment 1: Auditors and Regulatory Oversight
Due Week 4 and worth 240 points
The Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) regulates public companies. The SEC has found that some of these companies have violated GAAP by using creative accounting practices to mislead investors and creditors regarding the health of their company.
Use the Internet or Strayer Library to research a recent accounting scandal within the last five (5) years where the SEC accused public companies of accounting irregularities.
Write a three to four (3-4) page paper in which you:

Analyze the audit report that the CPA firm issued. Ascertain the legal liability to third parties who relied on financial statements under both common and federal securities laws. Justify your response.
Speculate on which statement of generally acceptable auditing standards (GAAS) that the company violated in performing the audit.
Compare the responsibility of both management and the auditor for financial reporting, and give your opinion as to which party should have the greater burden. Defend your position.  
Analyze the sanctions available under SOX, and recommend the key action(s) that the PCAOB should take in order to hold management or the audit firm accountable for the accounting irregularities. Provide a rationale for your response.
Use at least two (2) quality academic resources in this assignment. Note: Wikipedia and other Websites do not qualify as academic resources.

Your assignment must follow these formatting requirements:

Be typed, double spaced, using Times New Roman font (size 12), with one-inch margins on all sides; citations and references must follow APA or school-specific format. Check with your professor for any additional instructions.
Include a cover page containing the title of the assignment, the student’s name, the professor’s name, the course title, and the date. The cover page and the reference page are not included in the required assignment page length.

The specific course learning outcomes associated with this assignment are:

Analyze the required generally accepted auditing standards, professional ethics, and legal liability of the auditor.
Assess how the Sarbanes-Oxley Act has affected auditing.
Evaluate an audit report.
Evaluate objectives for conducting audits, and compare management’s and auditors’ responsibilities.
Use technology and information resources to research issues in auditing.
Write clearly and concisely about auditing using proper writing mechanics.

The Top 5 Mistakes New Entrepreneurs Make

As a new entrepreneur, you want to succeed from the very get-go. That’s natural.
But starting a business is a journey replete with frustrating ups and downs. And while there’s no singular concrete formula to ace the entrepreneurial game, there are certain mistakes you can easily avoid.
Dave Mortensen, president and co-founder of , is no stranger to the business world. With Mortensen’s entrepreneurial acumen, Anytime Fitness has accrued a robust repute for providing amazing value to its franchisees. Entrepreneur named Anytime Fitness the “” in 2015 and 2016.

We talked to Mortensen about the most common mistakes new entrepreneurs make when they start a business and how they can avoid falling into the rut of those all-too-common traps.
1. Lacking the proper resources.
You need a variety of resources in order to run a successful business, from good financing to marketing and strategy.
The right kind of funding bolsters a company, regardless of its size and sector. It helps in scaling sales, creating better marketing to attract more customers, and launching products.
One of the biggest mistakes new entrepreneurs make is under-resourcing themselves. As it turns out, .
From the start, you need a cashflow strategy. “To support an investment in a business, you need to do more than just open the door,” Mortensen says.
Before a new franchisee opens a gym, Anytime Fitness hosts comprehensive training sessions for them at the company’s new headquarters in Woodbury, Minn. By connecting them with helpful tools and guidance right away, Anytime Fitness makes sure that franchisees have the right resource strategy from the get-go.
2. Thinking the business will run itself.
Once new entrepreneurs have launched their businesses, some forget that they are responsible for managing their business. You can’t assume your staff will handle everything and steer your business to success. A poorly run business injects poison into sales, profits, and relationships, down to the very values of the business itself. The consequences of a mismanaged or neglected business can be disastrous.

“It’s important to keep in mind that you are ultimately responsible for this investment,” Mortensen says. “Not staying on top of and helping the business grow is a grave mistake.”
Everyone needs a little help running the show—especially budding entrepreneurs. Anytime Fitness offers insight and guidance through a number of online forums where people can ask for advice. These resources help to spearhead business in the right, productive direction.
3. Getting caught up in the ‘weeds.’
Successful entrepreneurs are big-picture people. They look ahead to the future and plan proactively. By crafting a unique vision for their business, they guide it on the right trajectory to success.
But as your business grows and gets busier, it’s easy to get caught in the day-to-day grind. New entrepreneurs often lose their initial vision and wind up fixing only minor problems. Mortensen calls this getting stuck in their “comfort zone.” But this can lead to neglecting crucial tasks such as taking active control of your fundamental objectives.
To pull people out of the weeds, Anytime Fitness conducts annual conferences where all franchisees are invited. This is a time when best practices, culture and everything under the roof is discussed at length. It’s an opportunity for franchisees to look at the big picture and reorient their focus on the bigger goals.
4. Failing to track their progress.
Having a strategy defines the purpose and competitive edge of your business. It gives shape to the scope of your business’s operations and its relationship with customers and employees. But just because you make the plan for the year, doesn’t mean you can set it and forget it.
As Mortensen advises, you need to constantly follow up with your plan and assess its success. “It’s kind of like giving yourself to your own valuation,” he says. “Ask yourself, OK, how did I do this year?”
To get franchisees started, Anytime Fitness provides highly structured strategic plans on how to get their business off the ground. New owners are also given the internal resources needed to tackle existing and potential problems. Owners learn to ask themselves, “What did I do right? What did I do wrong? Where do I need to improve and how do I make the changes to make that happen?”
Remember that your strategy won’t stay the same forever, but these questions will help orient your focus to the right plan of action.
5. Being afraid of making mistakes.
Top-notch businesses aren’t born in a day. It can take a while and a dozen hiccups before a startup stands on its own feet. Seasoned entrepreneurs know this. They believe in one thing: the more you try, the stronger your chance at winning.
When you’re new to the game, it’s a natural urge to want to be impeccable. In general, people tend to glorify triumph over defeat and forget how debilitating our fear of failure is. It’s the same fear, if uncontrolled, that stunts our growth from learning the best lessons of our lives.
This is why Mortensen emphasizes the need to be brave with our gaffes. “You’ve got to be willing to make a mistake to be able to grow,” he says. “A mistake is an opportunity to really improve yourself.”
Smart entrepreneurs embrace their mistakes and learn from them for future victories.
For information about Anytime Fitness franchise opportunities, visit . 

My Business Funding

Presently I am running a used book store which is being funded by a rich relative. But, I will have to determine some alternative sources of funding as my rich uncle had died and I need money as my business is flourishing day by day but I can’t sustain the growth until I put more investment into the business. I have narrowed it down to two modes of funding: loan or equity.

If I take loan I would have to pay interest and that will increase my expenditure. And, if in the future if my business faces some downs instead of ups the lenders will not sympathize with my situation and will want their money along with interest back. If I become unable to repay the loan I will come under the list of defaulters and getting more loans in the future will be a difficult task for me. Attaining loan also has its advantages, as my business is running very successfully there is a good chance that I will easily get the loan. Moreover, I can get both short and long term loans and my profit is my profit, I don’t have to share it with shareholders (if taken equity financing).

If I decide on equity funding my investors will become my partners in the business, they will have a share in my profit as per their investment ratio. If I choose this option for the financing I will have to give the investors dividends, that is, a share of my profit. Additionally gathering finance through equity financing has some legal issues that have to be kept in mind, also the key insights of the business have to be discussed with the investors and their suggestions have to be considered as well. This may slow down the process of making decisions and conflict may arise because the aim of the shareholders and my own will be different from each other. Both will want to maximize their own profit. My priority will be my bookstore, I want to expand it and make it grow more and more but the shareholders will want immediate gain. This process of raising finance takes time as I will have to do a lot of paper work and invite the public to buy my shares. So if I want to finance my business through this way I will have to quickly start the process. A plus side to this mode of funding is that when I will suffer the loss the shareholders will also share this loss with me therefore the burden from my shoulders is decreased.

In a small business such as a retail store the owner is the sole authority, he makes the decisions on his own and that very decisions decide the success or failure of his business. I to have been presented with a question before me that will influence my business success. I think that I will go for the loan option. I have come to this decision as I don’t want to share authority of my business with shareholders. Previously my uncle was funding me, he never used to interfere in my work and always gave me room to experiment and try out things my way. This is in turn the key to my success. I know that I will be able to turn my business into something really big but I can’t do that if I have shareholders on my back. So this is why I have decided to get a loan from a bank. I do know that I can’t take a big amount which I won’t be able to repay in the future. This is why I have hired Jake Brown, a financial assistant, who will help me decided how much money to borrow and will handle all my financial statements. With him on my side I feel more confident with my decision.

1.      Fabozzi, Frank (1998). Bank Loans: Secondary Market and Portfolio Management.
2.      Wesson, Patricia (2006). Secrets Lenders Never Told You: Get Your Business Loan Approved


qualitative type

Write a critical appraisal that demonstrates comprehension of two qualitative research studies. Use the “Research Critique Guidelines – Part 1” document to organize your essay. Successful completion of this assignment requires that you provide rationale, include examples, and reference content from the studies in your responses.
Use the practice problem and two qualitative, peer-reviewed research article you identified in the Topic 1 assignment to complete this assignment.
In a 1,000–1,250 word essay, summarize two qualitative studies, explain the ways in which the findings might be used in nursing practice, and address ethical considerations associated with the conduct of the study.
Prepare this assignment according to the guidelines found in the APA Style Guide, located in the Student Success Center. An abstract is not required.
This assignment uses a rubric. Please review the rubric prior to beginning the assignment to become familiar with the expectations for successful completion.

To Kill a Mockingbird Quote Analysis

Reading Log: To Kill a Mockingbird, Chapters 5-7 “Then I saw the shadow…the shadow of a man with a hat on…the shadow, crisp and toast moved across the porch towards Jem.. When it crossed Jem… he went rigid. ” (53) The context of this quote is during their sneaky trip to Boo Radley’s house. This was the last day Dill was going to stay in Maycomb for this year, so they decided to take a quick peek at Radley Place by creeping around the house and looking through the side windows. As they are take a quick peek, the see the shadow of what they think is Boo with a hat on. They go numb with fear, and run for it.
As they are leaving the area from under a fence, they hear a shotgun go off from Radley Place. The quote of narration from Scout accurately describes the kind of fear that the neighborhood legends give to the kids. The description, “ He (Jem) put his arms over his head and went rigid” (53), shows how bloated up of a character Boo Radley is. They do not even know if this shadow is Boo, however they are frozen with fear. However, after this event occurs, the little gifts that begin to appear in the tree leads the reader to make an educated guess that it is Boo Radley who is constantly giving these gifts.
Since they used deductive reasoning to believe that it couldn’t have been Miss Maudie or any other person in Maycomb, they only other person in their neighborhood that came to mind was Boo Radley. Also, to enforce their conclusion that it was Boo Radley who was giving the gifts was when Nathan Radley cemented the hole in the tree. The series of gifts ending up in the tree molded Boo’s character into a more human-like personality. Miss. Maudie also told Scout that Boo used to be a nice boy who only became supposedly “insane” because of his family.

She stated that Boo’s family was extremely religious and drove Boo insane when his father was constantly obsessed with “sin”. Scout now has more sympathy for Boo, who is now a poor man who was abused as child, rather than a freak of nature who eats squirrels. Boo symbolizes the growth of Scout more mature perspective of the world. The quote represents Scouts (as well as Jem’s and Dill’s) childish mentality, and sets the framework for Scouts growth of maturity. I have a story that is eerily similar to this one. Several blocks down, we had a lady who never came out of the house.
The legend in our townhome complex was that two of the kids only saw her face once, and she yelled at them the moment she saw them. She also supposedly looked like a witch, which was definitely a credible description for us 8 year-olds. Soon enough, we set out to see her face once more. The whole pack of us, about 6 people, stood in front of her house while one of us rang the doorbell several times consecutively to bait her out of her house. As we starting sprinting for our lives, we heard the loudest yelling we had ever heard.
Our fear of her had spiked up exponentially. But obviously, we needed to this again tomorrow. Same plan, same time, and we went underway. However, this time, we decided to hide behind some bushes adjacent to her house. Fifteen seconds later, she came out in a wheelchair with an oxygen tank beneath her. Our fear had turned to shame and sympathy immediately. The lie of her looking like a witch represents the legends of Boo having fangs and eating cats, and the sympathy we had for this lady in her wheelchair represents Boo having an abusive family as a child.

Successful Property Development

Throughout this paper the masculine gender is used when referring to developers. This is purely for convenience and does not imply that successful developers have to be male. Demand for new buildings from tenants and owner occupiers is the basis of all commercial property development in the United Kingdom. A typical development scheme will be initiated by a developer identifying a demand for a new building or buildings in a certain location. A major office user for example may wish to combine a number of regional offices into one new building able to accommodate new echnology and enable all of the Company’s departments to be housed under one roof. The image to be presented by the new building will also be important and the Company may prefer a prominent town centre location with easy rail access or a fringe of town location on the motorway network.
The experienced developer will know that if a development is to be successful the location must be the one which will appeal to tenants or purchasers who will either pay rent or a capital sum to occupy the property. There are many examples of unsuccessful schemes which failed because of poor location. With shopping centre evelopment the choice can be very subtle and a slightly ‘off-pitch’ location may be enough to discourage tenants from leasing shop units in the new centre. If a site for a new development is identified and the site (or redundant buildings) is available for purchase, planning consent for the scheme must be sought from the Local Authority. It is usually the case that the developer will have concentrated on those locations where the planners will support development proposals and planning consent is likely to be received. If the location is correct and planning consent is likely the developer must also rrange finance to buy the site, build the scheme and let (or sell) it.
He may also wish to sell the completed income producing investment. If he does so and the money he receives from the sale of the investment is more than the capital and interest he borrowed to build the scheme, he will receive a monetary profit. There are many sources of finance for developers but conventionally money will be borrowed from banks to buy the site and build a scheme with long term finance being provided by life assurance funds and pension funds. Long term finance in this ontext means the purchase of the completed investment by the fund which will enable the developer to repay all his short term debt and (hopefully) give him a profit. The investment market and development market are therefore closely linked and the developer will be mindful of the fund’s requirements from the start of the development process. The most common form of development funding which involves the institutions if known as ‘profit erosion, priority yield’.

This method allows the developer to borrow most of his short term finance from the institution and not pay it back until the cheme is completed and let. At this time the fund takes over the scheme in return for providing the developer’s short term monies. The developer departs with a lump sum fee for carrying out the project which will be calculated by capitalising that amount of rent from the scheme which will be calculated by capitalising that amount of rent from the scheme which exceeds the fund’s required return on the money lent; in other words its ‘priority yield’. Even if the rent from the scheme does not exceed the fund’s priority yield, the developer will still receive a fee but obviously not as uch as he would get if he lets the building(s) at a high rent. There are many other types of development funding some of which are described in ‘Property and Money’ by Michael Brett (see the bibliography at the back of this booklet).
The developer will employ a professional team to design and cost the proposed building. The architect as leader of the design team has a crucial role to interpret his client’s intentions and produce a design which will meet the requirements of tenants, planners and long term funders. Other commentators such as journalists, he general public, and the Prince of Wales may also criticise the design of a scheme where it is perceived to be ugly or inappropriate for its location. Successful commercial development requires therefore a combination of good location, planning consent, good design and funding. Even if these factors are present the scheme may still fail, at least in the short term, if the economy is weak and firms cannot expand. This introduction provides a resume of a typical development and the process can now be considered in more detail. The Developer The developer is the instigator of the scheme.
He provides the entrepreneurial flair to identify the development opportunity and bring it to a successful conclusion. In doing so he will make use of established relationships with commercial estate agents and his knowledge of the occupier market. Most large development companies specialise in particular areas of the market. Slough Estates for example, built its reputation in the development of industrial and warehouse property whereas Hammersons developed the first shopping mall in the United Kingdom at Brent Cross. Some life assurance funds act as their own developer and one example is Norwich
Union in the development of the Bentalls centre in Kingston on Thames. Various government agencies also act as developers such as District and Regional Health Authorities with hospital building. Increasingly, the newly privatised utilities will carry out their own developments. There are many types of developers. Some are ‘developer traders’ who build with a view to selling the scheme when it is complete. Others will develop and hold the completed investment in their investment portfolio. Some developers are quoted on the stock exchange and others are little more than one man bands.
Throughout the development process, but crucially at the start before funds are committed, the commercial developer will carry out an appraisal which will predict the eventual profits to be earned from the scheme. A considerable amount of work has to be done to produce a full appraisal as all the costs of the scheme have to be considered. The site itself will have to be fully investigated and this will involve bore hole surveys to enable the structural engineer to estimate the cost of the foundations. An environmental impact study may be required before planning consent is forthcoming.
With the assistance of his agent, the developer will also predict the rent which the scheme will produce and (if the investment is to be sold), the investment value. If a scheme is to be successful the investment value less all capital and interest costs will have to leave an acceptable profit. If a developer has used rents in the appraisal which are too high, perhaps in expectation of rent rises in the development period, he may eventually make no profit at all and the scheme (from the developer’s viewpoint) will have failed. To avoid risk and to attract other tenants to a development, a developer will often eek a pre-let tenant for a scheme. Before construction starts, a tenant will sign an agreement to lease all or part of the scheme at an agreed rent.
This is particularly valuable in shopping centre development where an anchor tenant such as a department store will make a commitment before development commenced, thereby giving confidence to other lessees to take shop units. A developer who borrows money to buy a site, construct a building, and seek lessees will have no appreciable earnings until the scheme is let. It would be difficult therefore, for any interest on capital borrowed to be repaid during the development period.
It is usually the case that interest is repaid as a lump sum when the fully let investment is eventually sold. Interest in these circumstances is said to be ‘rolled up’ until the end of the development period. In arranging finance, the developer will often have a short term interest in the scheme, whereas the fund purchasing the investment when fully let, has a long term interest. Funds are, therefore, particularly interested in tenant quality in the longer term and building flexibility which may not be of primary importance to the developer. Local Authorities may initiate development, particularly retail, by making town centre ites available on ground leases to developers. The Authority will have a long term interest in the scheme’s success, as they will receive a grounds rent, probably geared to the full rental value of the development. Not all developers have a short term interest in a development. Major developers may hold completed investments in a portfolio rather than arrange long term finance by selling the investment to a fund. Planning In the words of Clara Green ‘planning applications (like prayers) receive one of three answers – yes, no or yes but. ‘
The process can be one of great frustration and ifficulty for developers and for a major scheme it is usual for a specialist planning consultant to be employed to negotiate a consent with the Local Authority. Planning law is complicated but in general terms, planning consent is required for most major building in the United Kingdom. The department of the Environment is responsible for planning and the Secretary of State for the Environment is advised by teams of professional planners, surveyors and architects. All applications are made to local councils and it is only the most important or controversial applications which will be of interest to the higher tier of overnment. Most applications are, therefore, decided locally although the Secretary of State may decide to call in any application at his or her discretion. To obtain planning permission, an application will be made to the District Council although applications in the future also may be considered by the new unitary authorities. The developer can choose the type of application he wishes to make. If he wishes to seek approval to the principle of development, he can make an outline application.
This is sometimes referred to as a red line application, as a red ine is drawn around the site plan supporting the application. If consent is granted, this will be subject to reserved matters and the developer will have to seek a subsequent consent for these detailed matters later. Alternatively a full application may be made which will include all detailed matters as well as the basic principles. The Local Authority will decide the application in the context of plans which will have been previously published and approved by the Secretary of State. Under the present two tier system of Local Government, the County Councils produce structure lans for their area which show in strategic terms the type and location of development which will be permitted during the period of the plan.
The District Councils produce local plans which deal with detailed matters related to specific areas of land. If the planning application does not accord with the local plan, the Local Authority will be justified in refusing the application but obviously a developer would be unwise to make an application of this type. Structure plans have a life of between 5 and 15 years and comprise a lengthy written statement supported by explanatory diagrams.
The important matters dealt with in the structure plan are strategic matters such as tourism and leisure, waste disposal, new housing, employment and transport. The Authority has a two month period in which to decide an application but it can ask the applicant for more time. If the application is refused the applicant can appeal to the Secretary of state and the matter in the majority of cases, will be decided by a Government Inspector. In major cases, the Inspector will make recommendations to the Secretary of State who will, after advice, take a decision.
There may also be a Public Local Enquiry here evidence is heard by the Inspector over a number of days from all interested parties. In producing their structure and local plans as well as deciding applications, Councils have to take into account policy statement produced by the government. These are called Planning Policy Guidance Notes (PPGs) and they are published or amended from time to time. Two of the most important are PPG 6 which relates to out of town retail development and PPG 13 which deals with transport. There are a total of 25 PPGs and many are frequently revised. For example a new PPG 12 was produced in April 1999.
This revision emphasised the importance of regional planning which now has it own PPG (PPG 11) and also stressed the government’s commitment to a plan led system. Any developer seeking to build against government guidance as stated in the PPGs faces a long, expensive and uncertain battle and therefore is well advised to tailor development proposals to accord with published guidance. The government is at pains to demonstrate that the plan led system is sensitive to demographic changes and this is seen in the revisions to PPG 3 (Housing) which take account of the prediction that ‘7 out of ten new ouseholds forming over the next 20 years are likely to be single person households’ (Nick Raynsford, Housing and Planning Minister).
A topical revision PPG 25 (Flood Risk) which aims to avoid development in flood risk areas and emphasises a precautionary approach in marginal areas with flood defences to be shown to be in place (and paid for by the developer) before development is approved. The Development Team The team will be employed by the developer at the start of a project and it role will encompass design, costing, funding and marketing. In summary its functions are as follows:
Architect The Architect is the leader and coordinator of the design team who has a major role in interpreting his client’s requirements and producing a design brief. The brief establishes the client’s basic requirements and from this the Architect and other members of the design team will produce detailed design drawings. These will eventually be given to selected building contractors who will tender for the job of constructing the building. During construction, the Architect will inspect the work as it proceeds on behalf of his client. Because the Architect’s work is so important he ill be paid a fee based on a percentage of the total cost of the building work. For a new building this will normally be between 4% and 5% of the cost of the work. Quantity Surveyor The Quantity Surveyor estimates the eventual cost of the new building and will produce regular cost checks as the design is developed.
Before tenders are invited from building contractors, he will inform the client of the estimated cost of the works (the pre-tender estimate) and the client can then proceed to tender with confidence. Services and Structural Engineers In some instances the engineers will be responsible for producing design drawings nd specifications of the building services (air-conditioning, electrical installation etc) and the structure (foundations, structural frame). Increasingly however, the services engineer will only produce a statement of how the services will perform (a performance specification) rather than a full design. In these circumstances, design becomes the responsibility of the contractor. Estate Agents Developers usually have established relationships with firms of estate agents who will be aware of development opportunities. The agent will also provide marketing advice and will be responsible for letting the building.
Other Consultants Other consultants include solicitors, landscape architects and planning consultants. With some complicated and large schemes, a project manager may oversee the project on behalf of the client. Specialist noise or environmental consultants may be required where development will take place in environmentally sensitive areas where special planning conditions have been imposed. Successful Schemes A scheme will be successful if its location and design has attracted a number of first class tenants and will continue to do so in the future should any tenants vacate. A uccessful scheme will provide a secure and growing investment for the eventual long term investor as well as an adequate monetary profit for the developer.
There are many reasons why development schemes are unsuccessful, some of which are discussed below: Poor Location This is the most obvious but nevertheless very common reason for failure. A shopping scheme may be located where there is a lack of pedestrian flow. An office building may be located where vehicular access is difficult or the chosen site does not provide the required image and identity for the tenant/s. On a wider scale, he development may be located in a city which is in decline, to the detriment of long term investment quality. Some commentators are casting doubt on the future quality of fringe of town retail warehousing schemes which do not have the support of an established town centre. Poor Design A shopping centre must be designed to maximise pedestrian flow and enable shoppers to both park and gain easy access. If the design fails to do this, the public may avoid the centre and tenants will be hard to find.
Also shopping centres must allow frequent changes of image and must provide the correct ambience for the ublic. Attention to detail with the internal design will allow this to benefit the investment. Thee are many examples of office buildings constructed in the 1960’s and 1970’s which do not provide the necessary ducting and image for modern tenants using today’s technology. These developments may have been regarded as successful when they were first constructed, but in terms of a long term investment are of dubious quality. Lack of flexibility with many buildings means that where occupier requirements change the buildings cannot and voids are the result. Increased Costs during Design or Construction
If a developer allows costs to increase, he will eventually make no profit whatsoever from the scheme. If costs increase beyond those used in the appraisal the developers profit will be eroded. The expertise of the design team to contain costs whilst, at the same time, producing a quality building is of vital importance but sometimes mistakes are made. A lack of coordination between building work and services is a typical example leading to redesign, delay and increased costs. Planning Errors When a contract is awarded to a contractor, it is important that the site of the evelopment is firstly in the legal control of the developer and secondly the same site for which planning consent has been granted. There have been many examples of mistakes in this area to the detriment of the project. Empty Property A newly built shopping centre with few tenants is clear evidence of a scheme which falls short of success. There are many examples amongst those centres completed during the recession. As with office and warehousing property pre-let tenants are particularly valuable in recessionary periods. Public Sector Development The Private Finance Initiative.
In the past public sector development such as roads, hospitals and bridges were built by government contracting with the private sector for the design and construction works. Civil servants and their consultants would work to precise specifications of what was required to be built. When the development was complete the government would then be responsible for running the completed hospital, road or whatever to the benefit of the public. The Private ~Finance Initiative (or PFI) is intended to revolutionise the traditional method of producing public facilities described above.
It was conceived in 1992 during Norman Lamont’s troubled chancellorship and was vigorously supported by his successor Kenneth Clarke. In essence PFI only required the government to state how the building is to be used and the performance it must achieve. The private sector is then invited to tender for the design, construction and running of the new facility. The reward for doing this is negotiated with the government agency responsible for the facility and will usually take the form of a regular monetary payment so long as the facilities provided continue to meet the agreed criteria.
Kenneth Clarke stated that PFI is ‘a radical and far reaching change in capital investment in public services which will break down further barriers between the public and private sectors’. The central argument in favour of PFI is that the private sector is more capable of promoting efficiency than government and will provide business solutions to public sector requirements. It is also argued that the risks of increased construction and running costs, which appears to be a feature of public sector schemes, will disappear with PFI where all the risks are borne by the private sector.
Critics of PFI point out that it is extremely difficult to produce a performance specification for, say, a highly complex building such as a hospital and this will lead to private sector contractors being allowed to cut corners to the detriment of the public. It is also pointed out that the government can always borrow money more cheaply than the private sector and that this will inevitably lead to increased costs which will be passed on to the public. The change of government in May 1997 led to a thorough review of the experience gained from using PFI in the previous five years. Malcolm Bates was appointed to arry out a review which resulted in 29 recommendations aimed at rationalising and reinvigorating the PFI process.
The ‘Treasury Taskforce’ was the government’s response to the review and this body consisted mainly of city financiers who were charged with building up PFI expertise in government. The taskforce had a life of three years and is replaced by ‘Partnerships UK’ which will operate as a joint private/public consultancy to assist with the PFI process. There are currently hundreds of PFI schemes in the process of completion and the present government is wedded to this form of procurement for public sector projects.

Ethical Conflicts

Ethical Conflicts
A patient under the care of your agency committed suicide, and you are in charge of the adverse incident review of this case. Considering the stakeholders in your agency (clients, providers, management, third-party payers, etc.), what are the potential ethical conflicts that may arise from your role investigating this incident, and what would you do to appropriately discharge your ethical duties?
When you discuss the potential ethical conflicts, provide evidence from the scholarly articles you read for this week and/or reference specific, relevant ethical standards from the Ethical Standards for Human Services Professionals (Links to an external site.) from the National Organization for Human Services.
When responding to your peers’ original postings, review the conflicts they selected and elaborate upon them by commenting on their approach and/or making suggestions.
Please provide an initial substantive answer between 400 words in length. 

Required Text

Malec, T. & Newman, M. (2013). Research methods: Building a knowledge base. San Diego, CA: Bridgepoint Education, Inc. ISBN-13: 9781621785743, ISBN-10: 1621785742.
Chapter 1: Psychology as a Science
Required References
American Psychological Association. (2010). Ethical principles of psychologists and code of conduct: 2010 amendment. Standard 8: Research and Publication. Available: (Links to an external site.).
Explorable (2010).  The scientific method.  Available at (Links to an external site.)
Stoltenberg, C. D., & Pace, T. M. (2007). The scientist-practitioner model: Now more than ever. Journal of Contemporary Psychotherapy, 37(4), 195-203. doi:10.1037/0022-0167.52.2.137

The Role and Impact of Information Technology in Business . MBA. One page. 8 hours deadline.

Consider the organization you work for or an organization with which you are familiar.
Describe the organization and then answer the following questions:

How have technological trends helped the organization innovate its business processes?
How has IT technology caused disruption in the organization? Explain.
How did the disruption facilitate a competitive advantage?
Embed course material concepts, principles and theories, which require supporting citations, along with at least two scholarly peer reviewed references in supporting your answer. Keep in mind that these scholarly references can be found in the Saudi Digital Library by conducting an advanced search specific to scholarly references.
You need to reply to at least two peers’ post answers to this discussion question. These replies need to be substantial and constructive in nature. They should add to the content of the post and evaluate/analyze that post answer. Normal course dialogue doesn’t fulfill these two peer replies but is expected throughout the course. Answering all course questions is also required.
Use Saudi Electronic University academic writing standards and APA style guidelines.

Be sure to support your statements with logic and argument, citing all sources referenced. Post your initial response early, and check back often to continue the discussion. Be sure to respond to your peers’ posts as well.


Chapter 1 in Information Technology for Management
Nascimento, A. M., & Silveira, D. S. D. (2017). A systematic mapping study on using social media for business process improvement. Computers in Human Behavior, 73, 670-675.
Xiao, J., Wu, Y., Xie, K., & Hu, Q. (2018). Managing the e-commerce disruption with IT-based innovations: Insights from strategic renewal perspectives. Information & Management.

Analysis Of A Problematic Transactional Process English Literature Essay

The client is a seven adolescent twelvemonth old African American male in the 11th class at Piper High School. The client was referred to the societal work section by his English instructor who was concerned by the pupils withdraw and unhappiness. The client was raised by his male parent and his female parent. However, the client ‘s female parent committed suicide two old ages ago while she was deployed ; the client was 5th adolescent old ages old. The client is presently remaining with his paternal grandma after his male parent asked him to go forth his place. The client has two younger siblings whom reside with the male parent. The client has late come out to his household and informed them that he is cheery.
The primary life stressor for the client is the decease of his female parent and attached is the loss of relationship with his male parent. Indeed, the client feels like he has lost both parents. The client informed his male parent that he is cheery and the male parent evicted the client from the place and informed the client that he is disinheriting the young person because of his sexual orientation. The life passage came to the attending of the worker during the first meeting with the client. The client informed the worker of the state of affairs. The bureau ‘s position is that the issue with the client is his withdraw from the schoolroom, unhappiness and the possible effects of his behaviour on his faculty members. The bureau placed small accent on the female parent ‘s self-destruction because it did non take to the client ‘s current state of affairs. The exhibiting behaviour began taking topographic point after the client told his household about his sexual orientation. In kernel the bureau says that the young person did hold troubles with his household in coming out, but that is non what caused a break in the relationship, it appeared to be his noncompliant behaviour at place. However, this societal work intern believes the precipitating factor for the client ‘s eviction from the place had to make with the client ‘s coming out episode, and his defeat and hapless get bying accomplishments in covering with his female parent ‘s decease. The client admitted to holding a “ attitude ” job prior to the coming out episode, but the job increased dramatically one time the client came out and the male parent rejected him. Besides, the client started utilizing drugs which was a manner of dulling and get bying with his depression because of his female parent ‘s self-destruction and because the client wanted to state his household he is cheery and he was concerned that they would non accept him.
In the first meeting with the client, the client and the societal work intern worked on catching. The session focused on three stairss: clear uping the intent, clear uping the function, and making for the client ‘s feedback ( Shulman, 2006 ) . Then the worker and client discussed countries for work, and agreed to work on grief guidance. The client admitted to this worker that since his female parent ‘s decease he has had a hard clip accepting his female parent ‘s decease. The client stated that his female parent knew of his sexual orientation and was supportive. However, since the decease of his female parent he does non hold the support and he believes his male parent would non hold evicted him from the place if the female parent was still alive. The client besides admitted to increased drug usage since his eviction from his male parent ‘s place. The client reported that it was hard for him to get by with his female parent ‘s decease, but so to be rejected from his male parent made the state of affairs intolerable so he turned to drugs more frequently for alleviation.

When the client and the worker met the procedure consisted of the worker inquiring the client what issue or job the client wanted to work on. The followers is an except of the catching session, “ Hey, Jacob. We are run intoing today because I wanted to cognize if there is something that is trouble oneselfing you or something you would wish to speak about? ” The client so proceeded to depict his battle with the decease of his female parent and the recent eviction from his male parent ‘s place. The client and the worked agreed to work on feelings of heartache and loss because of the decease of his female parent, and seeking to either repair the relationship with his male parent or header with his male parent ‘s positions and develop a societal support web to back up him through this life passage. The work, so, will concentrate on “ mobilizing or beef uping real-life ties between the client and important others, restoring old linkages, or assisting the client discovery and develop new connexions ” ( Germain & A ; Gitterman, 1996, pp.179 ) . The work will besides help the client with treating the decease of his female parent. The end is to assist the client with his feelings of grief/loss, emotional isolation, and as mentioned above aid strengthen or develop new connexions for the young person ( Germain & A ; Gitterman, 1996, pp.179 ) .
The work between the client and worker was an agreed upon venture. The worker in concurrence with the client established a common understanding for work, a common land to get down the work ( Shulman, 2006 ) . The worker and the client both agreed that working on heartache guidance and trying to mend the relationship with the young person ‘s male parent was a good point to get down the curative confederation. This worker believes that mutualness has been achieved because both worker and client have agreed to work the same issues.
The environment plays an of import portion in the overall wellbeing of the client, for the environment can be a strength or barrier for the client ( Krist-Ashman, 2000 ) . Indeed, the client in this instance faces many challenges in his environment. The decease of the client ‘s female parent by self-destruction is a social tabu ( Webb, 1996 ) . Furthermore, the client reported that equals and neighbours would frequently inquire why his female parent would make such a thing. Furthermore, the vicinity is really spiritual and they did non react good to a self-destruction because in the Baptist tradition self-destruction is a wickedness against God ( Webb, 1996 ) . In add-on, the vicinity is low-income and there does non look to be many resources available for the client and his household. The self-destruction of his female parent is looked upon as shameful and an act of disbelievers, harmonizing to the client. The client does non hold much support from his household either. Since the decease of his female parent, the household has non openly talked about the self-destruction. The male parent has non mentioned it one time to the client. The lone mention, harmonizing to the client, is when the client told his male parent that he is cheery ; the male parent responded that the client has the same iniquitous nature as his female parent. The household is making barriers because they are non admiting the world of the decease and are non sharing the lost experience, at least non with the client ( Walsh & A ; McGoldrick, 1991 ) .
The identified resource available to the client is his close friend. The client states that he finds support in his friend and negotiations to him about the decease of his female parent. The client will be referred to Henderson Mental Health and go on to have guidance with the societal work houseman. Besides, the client identified a spiritual leader in the community that offered his services to the client and his household, but the client is loath to take up the offer since the spiritual leader is viewed as a defiant because of his irregular patterns. The client besides identified a household member who he can speak to and is accepting of his sexual orientation.
The Client-Worker Minutess
Presentation: This is the 2nd meeting with the client. The client reported to his instructor that he was experiencing really down.
Degree centigrade: I wish I could merchandise topographic points with my female parent. I wish I could travel to kip and merely
wake up and this is all back to normal.
W: I can feel that you are sad, Jacob. It must be hard to loss person you
love so much. Jacob, do you believe what you merely said is possible? Do you
think you could travel back in clip or merely wake up and all this will be back to
Skill: Empathy, exposing apprehension of client ‘s feelings, oppugning,
Reaching for client feedback
Reading the client: I truly lose my female parent. I feel hopeless and incapacitated. I
wish some miracle could happen and wipe out this hurting. Why did she hold to go forth
me so shortly?
Reading the worker: I feel so bad for this client. How can I alleviate his hurting. I feel like there is nil I can state or make to alleviate his hurting. I think he is
traveling through the bargaining phase of heartache and loss. I have to calculate out a
manner to indicate out his irrational thought. I wonder if by trading topographic points ( make he
mean ) he besides wishes to decease.
Measure your action: I was on mark. I pick-up on the client ‘s
Bargaining phase and addressed the irrational belief. I demonstrated empathy
and showed apprehension of the client ‘s feelings.
Environmental or structural influences: Possibly if I were younger I would hold been able to pass on this efficaciously.
Another Attempt: I can feel that you are sad. It must be hard to loss
person. Sometimes when we loss person we tend to believe about material that
Is non possible. It is normal to hold these ideas. However, you have to
recognize that they are non rational.
Label New Skills: Empathy, exposing apprehension of client ‘s feelings,
Reframing. I employed these accomplishments because I wanted to normalise the client ‘s
experience, but besides indicate out that the ideas are irrational.
Presentation: This is our 3rd meeting and the client complained of feelings of desperation
and weakness. The client has besides refused to take part in any school activities.
Degree centigrade: I feel so lost without my female parent. I do non cognize who I can turn to for support
like I did with her. I need aid and my female parent is non at that place.
Tungsten: It must be hard to loss the one whom you found soothe it. I do n’t cognize
how that feels but it must ache. You mention necessitating aid, can you state me
Skill: Empathy, exposing apprehension of client ‘s feelings, making for
feelings and facts, and oppugning.
Reading the client: I truly miss her. I found way and comfort in
cognizing that she was at that place for me. Where and how can I find that
without her here. I am so overwhelmed, who can I turn excessively?
Reading the worker: I do non cognize precisely what to state. I feel like he is experiencing hopeless and needs that individual to soothe him, but what do I make. I think he is traveling through so many things, but he will non state me all. I understand that we
are still in the beginning of the relationship, but what do I make.
Measure your action: I do non believe I was on mark. I should hold
expressed what I think he was experiencing and informed him that I can seek to assist.
I should hold said that I am here to help.
Environmental or structural influences: I should of told him that I can seek to assist him, that I ‘m able to assist him.
Another Attempt: It must be hard to loss the one whom you found soothe it.
I do n’t cognize how that feels but it must ache. I know I am non your female parent I
may non supply the same comfort that your female parent could hold provided but I
like to work with you on these issues. Possibly you can state me what you need
aid with and I can seek to help you with it.
Label New Skills: Empathy, exposing apprehension of client ‘s feelings.
The employed these accomplishments because I wanted the client to understand that I can
sense his helpless and that although his female parent is non here he can seek to happen
aid through me and finally person else.
Presentation: This is our 4th session. He purportedly asked one of his instructor why his life is so f***ed up.
Degree centigrade: I ca n’t believe of anything but the decease of my female parent. Sometimes that is all I
think of. I think about how she died and why she did it to me.
Tungsten: It is great that you grieve openly because that is normal. You must experience
desperation, anxiousness, and confusion because of her decease. I think you are traveling to
have to seek to set to the alteration so you can go on with your life. What do
you think your female parent would desire you to make?
# 3 Skill: Empathy, exposing apprehension of client ‘s feelings, seting the
client ‘s mute feelings into words.
Reading the client: I think I am traveling loony. I merely think of my female parent. I
inquire how it would be if she were here now. Can I acquire over this?
Reading the worker: I do n’t cognize if I can make this. I ca n’t look to acquire him past this phase. What am I traveling to make? I wonder if I am merely non equipped for this
sort of client.
Measure your action: I was non on mark. I did demo empathy but I
used guilt stumbling every bit good.
Environmental or structural influences: None
Another Attempt: I can feel your unhappiness and desperation. I can merely image what it
would be like to lose my female parent. Alternatively of concentrating on the decease itself, have
you tried retrieve all the good times you had with your female parent?
Label New Skills: Empathy, exposing apprehension of client ‘s feelings,
and tuning into client ‘s sense of urgency. I used these accomplishments because I wanted
the client to believe more about the good times. I did non desire to state him to halt
believing about his female parent, but merely concentrate on the positive.
Presentation: This is our 5th session. Last session we discussed get bying accomplishments. It has been
hard to acquire past the phase of bargaining and the beginning stage with this
Degree centigrades: You know, I merely want to utilize any sort of drug I can to dull the hurting of my
female parent ‘s decease. I frequently think possibly it would be better if I merely stayed high all
the clip.
Tungsten: You could make that but it will merely dissemble the hurting. The hurting will still be
their, even when you are high. Possibly we can work together to ease the hurting
for you, alternatively of dissembling it.
Skill: Sessional and overall catching accomplishments, exposing apprehension of
client ‘s feelings, making for client feedback, exposing forces that support or
keep the job.
Reading the client: I feel things will be much easier to bear if I stay high. I
will non hold to believe about my jobs any more. I merely want these
jobs to travel off.
Reading the worker: I am truly tried. It is 3:30pm and I have been working all twenty-four hours. I do n’t believe I am acquiring far with this client. I feel like he merely wants to vent and I am more interested in work outing jobs. Possibly that is my issue, I keep concentrating on what I want alternatively of what the client wants.
Measure your actions: I was on mark. I offered a different manner to get by
with the loss alternatively of utilizing drugs. I pointed out a force that contributes to
the job.
Another Attempt: I bet it must be difficult to loss person. I ca n’t image how you
feel. However, I do cognize that usage drugs to dissemble the hurting will non ease or
take the hurting. Possibly we can work together to happen other ways for you to
trade with the hurting.
Label New Skills: Empathy, exposing apprehension of client ‘s feelings,
and tuning into client ‘s sense of urgency, I used these exposing forces that
support or maintain the job. This clip around I used empathy and tried to
understand the client ‘s feelings.
Presentation: This is our 6th session. Last session the client agreed to research
alternate ways to get by with his female parent ‘s decease. The client besides agreed that drugs
are non the reply.
Degree centigrades: You know, I merely want to utilize any sort of drug I can to dull the hurting of my
female parent ‘s decease. I frequently think possibly it would be better if I merely stayed high all
the clip.
Tungsten: You could make that but it will merely dissemble the hurting. The hurting will still be
their, even when you are high. Possibly we can work together to ease the hurting
for you, alternatively of dissembling it.
Skill: Sessional and overall catching accomplishments, exposing apprehension of
client ‘s feelings, making for client feedback, exposing forces that support or
keep the job.
Reading the client: I feel things will be much easier to bear if I stay high. I
will non hold to believe about my jobs any more. I merely want these
jobs to travel off.
Reading the worker: I am truly tried. It is 7pm and I have been working all twenty-four hours. I do n’t believe I am acquiring far with this client. I feel like he merely wants to vent and I am more interested in work outing jobs. Possibly that is my issue, I keep concentrating on what I want alternatively of what the client wants.
Measure your actions: I was on mark. I offered a different manner to get by
with the loss alternatively of utilizing drugs. I pointed out a force that contributes to
the job.
Another Attempt: I bet it must be difficult to loss person. I ca n’t image how you
feel. However, I do cognize that usage drugs to dissemble the hurting will non ease or
take the hurting. Possibly we can work together to happen other ways for you to
trade with the hurting.
Label New Skills: Empathy, exposing apprehension of client ‘s feelings,
and tuning into client ‘s sense of urgency, I used these exposing forces that
support or maintain the job. This clip around I used empathy and tried to
understand the client ‘s feelings.
Presentation: This is our 7th session. The instructors report that the client seems more
wellbeing. He has followed his intervention program at Henderson Mental Health and substance maltreatment guidance.
Degree centigrades: The thing that fusss me is that I feel like I will ever be unhappy. I feel
like I will fall apart. I do n’t cognize what I will make with my life.
Tungsten: It is hard to cover with the loss of a loved 1. The feelings you are
sing are normal. Leting spell of a loved one is really hard.
Skill: Normalzing, exposing apprehension of client ‘s feelings, empathy,
Supporting client ‘s in forbidden countries.
Reading the client: I feel like I ca n’t acquire over this. I feel like life will be
atrocious and I will ne’er be happy once more. I ca n’t allow travel because that means I
do n’t truly care about her.
Reading the worker: I think he is get downing to recognize that he has to allow travel and
continue with his life. I feel atrocious stating what I said to him because I know
it is difficult. I wonder what my supervisor would state? I feel good because I
think we are doing some advancement.
Measure your actions: I was on mark. I expressed that this is normal
and showed empathy. I believe this was the appropriate thing to make.
Another Attempt: I can conceive of how hard this must be for you. These
feelings are normal. You likely think that this will non stop, but it will.
You likely experience guilty about non hold those feelings and that is normal
Label New Skills: Empathy, exposing apprehension of client ‘s feelings,
Normalizing, back uping client in forbidden country. The accomplishments I used are the same,
but this clip around I think I came off a small better.
Presentation: This is our eight session. The young person has continued to come on slightly.
He continues to go to mental wellness and chemical dependence guidance.
Degree centigrade: I do n’t believe you understand what it is to lose person. You work here
and are paid to listen to our jobs, but you do n’t understand. I bet you
do n’t even care about one of us in this topographic point, right?
Tungsten: Expression, I am sorry you feel that manner, but you do n’t cognize what I feel. Yes, I
work here. I besides care about the people I work with and function. You are merely
angry at everyone because of your lose, and I can understand that. However,
you should non take it out on me. If you work with me than we can work
together on your job, but do n’t assail me.
Skill: disputing the semblance of work, exposing apprehension of
client ‘s feelings, ask foring uncertainties and concerns, re-clarifying worker ‘s
intent and function, facilitative confrontation.
Reading the client: I do n’t experience like I am acquiring any aid. I think he
does n’t care about me. Why am I run intoing with him. I bet this is merely a occupation for
him. I think he does n’t cognize what it means to lose person, or he would
understand me better.
Reading the worker: I feel attacked. I feel like stating him where the snake pit to travel. I spent this clip seeking to assist and this is the thank you I receive.
Measure your actions: I was manner off mark. I should hold been more
diplomatic and non allow it acquire to me. I should command myself and recognize that he
is merely allowing his choler out.
Another Attempt: I am sorry you feel that I do n’t understand. I want to
understand. I want you to state me more so I can understand. I do desire to assist,
but you have to allow me in so I can work with you.
Label New Skills: Empathy, exposing apprehension of client ‘s feelings, re-
clear uping worker ‘s intent, facilitative confrontation, doing a demand for
Presentation: This is our 9th session. The young person mentioned to this worker that he
realizes that his grieving is non leting him to travel on with his life. The client
wants the worker to help him with accepting the decease of his female parent and moving
on with his life.
Degree centigrade: I do n’t desire to go on this manner. I want to be able to non be depressed all
the clip. I miss my female parent but I do n’t desire to experience the manner that I do. I want
to hold my life back.
W: I can feel how frustrating and hard it must be for you even stating
these words. You must believe that traveling on with your life agencies
about your female parent, but it does non. I am glad you want to work on traveling
on and we can make that together. We have to work together in order to
achieve that end. I do n’t hold all the replies and if I did, you still have to
make your portion in order to accomplish that end.
Skill: Empathy, exposing apprehension of client ‘s feelings, making for
feedback about assisting procedure, seting client ‘ mute feelings into
Reading the client: I do n’t wish this feeling. I want to travel back to feeling
the manner I did before my female parent passed. I am ready to work on my
grieving and travel frontward, but I do n’t cognize how.
Reading worker: I think the hebdomads of us run intoing are get downing to payoff. I
feel like he is truly ready to work on the grieving. I feel good, like I am
really making something right. I think from here I will experience more confident
about the work.
Measure your action: I believe I was on mark. I addressed the client
desiring to work on his grieving and acquisition to set to the life passage. I
besides reminded the young person that we have to work on this together.
Another Attempt: I am happy to hear that you want to work on this issue.
We can work on it together. Are you unfastened to us working on this
Label New Skills: Reaching for feedback about assisting procedure.
Discussion of Your Practice Observations
The client decidedly wanted to work on the life passage. He accepted guidance and came on clip and every session. He did non defy like some clients but opened up about his feelings. He expressed his feelings and was unfastened about many things. Yet, there were times where he was disputing and did non look to desire to work on the life passage. The client appeared stuck on the denial and sometimes bargaining face ( Shulman, 2006 ) . He was overwhelmed with feelings of desperation and guilt. Other times, he wanted to concentrate on peripheral issues and non face the life passage. At one point, the client decided to assail the work and his competency alternatively of concentrating on the work. Yet another clip, he decided that he did non desire to work on the life passage, but instead work on his relationship with his male parent.
The client besides at times used turning away behaviour or verboseness to avoid speaking about the painful life passage ( Germain & A ; Gitterman, 1996 ) . For illustration, in one session the client decided to alter topics suddenly and inquire what the worker thought about the school. Another clip the client decided to speak on and on about the Miami Heat hoops squad. Besides, whenever the topic of the client ‘s past experiences came up, the young person either changed the topic or did non desire to speak about it.
The worker besides fell abruptly in some countries. The worker should hold referred the young person for household guidance or at least attempted to prosecute the male parent and other members of the household in some guidance through the bureau. The mode should hold included a multi-approach that included single, household, and group guidance. The worker should hold besides used more of the exploring and clear uping accomplishments mentioned by Germain and Gitterman ( 1996 ) . For illustration, the worker should hold explored the feelings of ambivalency and how that affected the curative relationship. The worker should hold identified more resources available to the client and connected that client with the resources. For illustration, the worker should hold explored more with the young person linking with the spiritual leader in his community for support. The young person mentioned the spiritual leader attempted to make out to the young person, and the worker should hold explored this option farther. In add-on, the worker should hold employed the accomplishment of sessional undertaking more frequently ( Shulman, 2006 ) . There were times where the worker did non re-contract with the client in every session, and during those Sessionss the client normally avoided or switched topics on the worker.
At the clip of expiration, the job was non to the full worked out. The client has non reached the credence phase. The client continues to fight with the loss of his female parent, although he does go on to work at the job. The client came a long manner. In the beginning, the client was in choler phase. The client still needs to go on working with a counsellor to assist him accept the loss of his female parent. However, he has come a long manner and before expiration the worker and client were working on accepting the loss and go oning with his life.
The expiration procedure was hard for both worker and client likewise. The worker was hesitating about ending because so much work demands to been done. The worker besides experienced what Germain and Gitterman ( 1996 ) refer to as the “ workers shared feelings of unhappiness at dividing ” ( pp. 323 ) . The worker felt a sense of loss because so much clip and energy was vested in this client and the relationship is stoping. The client was sad besides. However, the client besides employed turning away tactics hebdomads before the stoping stage ( Germain & A ; Gitterman, 1996 ) . For illustration, the client would alter topics whenever expiration was mentioned. Besides during the last session, the client acted as though he forgot this was the last meeting. The client besides asked if the curative relationship could go on for a few hebdomads longer.
The worker believes the stoping procedure might hold had a negative impact on the client ‘s life passage. The client seems to see the stoping procedure as another loss. For illustration, the client had mentioned to the worker that the worker was the lone 1 he truly had in his life that he could talk to about the loss of his female parent and other issues. The client seems to experience like person else that he confides in and trusts is go forthing him. The client even mentioned that he will largely likely non happen person once more to show his feelings and concerns with. In add-on, he said that he does non desire to get down all over once more with another counsellor. The worker should hold practiced prevenient empathy and considered the impact of expiration before the last session ( Germain & A ; Gittermain, 1996 ) .
The last few semester have thought this societal work intern a batch. The societal work houseman has learned many new accomplishments for pattern with persons, household and groups. The societal work houseman has besides honed in accomplishments that were already at that place but the worker did non cognize they were accomplishments or did non cognize the accomplishment label. The societal work houseman has learned to research issues with clients and non to rapidly supply replies or redresss. Prior to the internship the worker thought that one was suppose to calculate out the job and supply a solution. However, the worker has learned that clients already know what the job is and that provide the reply does non authorise the client.
The worker has besides learned empathy and non sympathy. The worker ever thought that understanding was the right emotion to expose with a client. However, the worker has learned that empathy is more powerful and is a great tool to fix the worker for Sessionss with clients. The worker has learned that until one can use anticipatory empathy, the worker will non be prepared for many issues that come up in the session. The accomplishment of empathy has had a enormous affect on this workers pattern. Of the many accomplishments this worker has learned, the accomplishment of empathy has had the most impact in pattern and the most impact on this worker.
The worker sees his function as a professional societal worker otherwise now. Prior to the internship the worker idea of a societal worker as person who refers clients to other services or person who provides all the replies to a client ‘s jobs. The worker now sees the function of a societal worker as a p builder and spouse in helping people with their concerns. The worker has besides learned that there are some countries this worker needs to better on. For illustration, larning to disputing clients and face them on their issues. The worker besides needs to larn how to be soundless during Sessionss and allow the client do most of the speaking.

An analysis of Charles Dickenss David Copperfield

Dickens is known world wide for his unique style of writing. Dickens, in his writing seperates his novels into two different societies, the congenial and the obstructive. In David Copperfield, Dickens shifts back and forth between both societies.Dickens portrays many examples of a congenial society in his book David Copperfield. Along with the congenial views he also includes obstructive views to balance the book out.

” David Copperfield’s life before his mother married Mr. Murdstone was pleasant, he lived happily with his mother and their servant Peggotty.From the period when his mother married Mr. Murdstone to when his aunt took him in was terrible for him. He was sent away away to a run-down boarding school where he and his new friends Tommy Traddles and James Steerforth are beaten.

His mother died after giving birth to a child that was fatherd by Mr. Murdstone. After this incident David is sent to work at Mr. Murdstone’s wine factory where he is taken in by Mr. Micawber where he grows to love the Micawbers. Shortly after Mr. Micawber is sent to debters prision, David runs away from the factory. He then goes to his great-aunt Betsy. She takes him in and sends him to Dr. Strong’s school in Canterbury.
David lives in Canterbury with Mr. Wickfield who is a lawyer. There he meets the wicked Uriah Heep who takes advantage of Mr. Wickfield’s drinking problem, and makes himself a partner in the firm. He also meets Agnes, they form a very close relationship.After finishing school he goes to work at Mr. Spenlow and Jorkins law firm. He there becomes engaged to Dora Spenlow.
When Em’ly runs away with David’s friend Steerfoth. Mr. Peggotty goes out to find her. While all this is happening, David’s aunt is suddenly sent into financial ruin. David starts doing extra work to support her. He eventually marries Dora, but she proves herself inept at house work. Then he finds out that Mr. Micawber is working as a clerk for Heep and that Heep wants to marry Agnes.
Dora becomes ill after the birth of their child and dies, as does the child. With the help of Martha Endell, David and Mr.Peggotty succeed in locating Em’ly; the Peggottys plan to leave for Australia to begin a new life. After exposing Uriah Heep as a criminal and a fraud–and forcing him to make reparations for all the money he embezzled–Mr. Micawber also plans to move his family to Australia. Steerforth is killed in a shipwreck, as is Ham–Em’ly’s cousin, who loved her–and David remains deeply saddened by Dora’s death. He travels abroad for several years but returns at last, realizing that he loves and has always loved Agnes Wickfield. Now a famous writer, David marries Agnes, and the two live happily ever after, so do their friends in Australia. ”
“David remains essentially the morally reliable centre who feels and expresses the right opinions about Uriah Heep and Anne and Mr. Peggotty and the rest: even his ready acceptance of Steerforth is insisted on as a good fault, the result of too much love. So in the event David inevitably becomes a prig and his lack of moral growth means that he himself can be little more than a recorder of things that happen to him (or to others) without deeply affecting him” (Gomme 174).
“Told in the first person, it is Dickens’s great internal – what used to be called ‘psychological’ – novel, a Proustian novel of the shaping of life through the echoes and prophecies of memory…In this sense David Copperfield, the least socially integrated of Dickens’s novels, is the most ‘real’. In part, as with Proust’s Marcel, this is because with D.C. (David Copperfield) we are so close to the reality of C.D. (Charles Dickens).
But it is so even more because of Dickens’s superb artistry in the management of the narratives, of the echoes and overtones of memory…And yet at the end of it, I think, there is a disagreeable sense that this most inner of Dickens’s novels is also the most shallow, the most smoothly-running, the most complacent – indeed, in the pejorative use of that word, the most Victorian…
He has mocked at romantic love, at the distorting power of passion, and he makes his case; yet the complacent domestic fireside of Agnes seems an empty thing to put in its place. He has inveighed against the cruel Calvinist creed of the Murdstones and he more than makes his case; yet a Christianity of ‘doing good’ seems somehow as empty without grace as his wonderful social observation does when denied the total view of society” (Wilson 213-14, 216).
David Copperfield is a novel of Passionate jealousy, sniveling hypocrisy, cold hearted fraud, selfish exploitation and much more; but the final impression is one of joy tempered and mellowed wisdom. ”There is perhaps no person living who can remember reading David Copperfield for the first time. Like Robinson Crusoe and Grimm’s Fairy Tales and the Waverly Novels, Pickwick and David Copperfield are not books, but stories communicated by word of mouth in those tender years when fact and fiction merge, and thus belong to the memories and myths of life, and not to its esthetic experience” (Woolf 75).
By the time that Dickens began writing David Copperfield he was already a profound author with great popularity. I believe he wanted to portray life as best he could, he wanted to show what life was to him: and what better way than a biography closely related to Dickens himself. We could call it a ‘Novel of personal memory’ but we have to keep in mind the full original title: ‘The Personal History, Adventures, Experience, and Observation of David Copperfield, the Younger, of Bluderstone Rookery. (Which he never meant to published on any account.) This complete title strongly suggests that this is one man’s story written for himself. It was also supposed to ‘never have been published on any account.’
Later in chap 42 this condition is repeated: ‘this manuscript is intended for no eyes but mine.’ Of course this is part of the fiction, after all we are reading David’s story ourselves when we reach this sentence. What is David Copperfield about? I pose myself this question to help illustrate how much of an autobiography this book really is, the simplest answer is of course that it is about David Copperfield himself and his development as a man.
Although after having read several biography’s done on the author Charles Dickens, I was led to believe that this book is very near Dickens own life, for example his father, John Dickens does seem to have been a warm and pleasant father, but his lack of responsibility, especially with money, later led his family into serious difficulties. This is very much like Mr.Micawber. Infact his unhappy loves in life were portrayed also, similarly he wanted to become a journalist and later as David Copperfield a well-known author.
‘Passionate jealousy,’ this can be seen majorly in Uriah Heep who throughout the entire novel displays a strong jealousy towards David. Hidden behind his ‘umbleness he despises society and is very disagreeable therefore he applies to most negative words used in the discussion title. One example of his jealousy was when he thought that David was trying to steal the love he dreamed of: Agnes. So Heep forced his own mother to spy on David.
Another character who came across as having passionate jealousy was Ms.Dartle who loved Steerforth dearly all her life even though he had been cruel to her and even ruined her beautiful face by breaking her nose when he was younger. When Steerforth fled with lill’Emily, Ms.Dartle took it to heart that Em’ly had stolen her Steerforth. There was a lot of jealousy from Rosa Dartle’s part.
‘Sniveling hypocrisy,’ again we see Heep classified under this category but more so there are two other very evil characters which are very hypocritical: Mr.Creakle, the cruel headmaster of Salem house school. Initially he is the cruelest most disrespectful headmaster alive but towards the end of the novel he has turned into a very nice, polite warden at a jailhouse who has respect even for the greatest criminals such as Heep and Littimer, Steerforth’s despicable servant. Similarly Mr. Murdstone seems at the beginning to be very polite and a great gentleman; until he gets what he wants! He marries rich young widowed women whom he slowly destroys with his odious ‘firmness’
‘Cold-hearted fraud’ this is probably the most serious offense that is committed in David Copperfield because it actually means: trickery or scheme to deceive. In other words it is a crime, there were only a few occasions where this occurred and mostly they were to do with Heep: firstly the way the evil and slimy character deceived Mr. Wickfield accounts on several occasions with the faking of his signature to transfer documents, once he even managed to take all of Aunt Betsey’s money that was supposed to have been her life savings afsnd ‘all’ she had. In addition, under serious offense we see Littimer’s name appearing once again for his robbery to the bank of England, it is even suggested that both Heep and Littimer were in on things together. But luckily, with the help of Mr. Dick and the spiritous Miss. Mowcher they are both caught and put into Mr. Creakle’s prison.
‘Selfish exploitation’ is done by quite a lot of characters mainly: Steerforth-thinks he’s at the top, Heep-disguised beneath his ‘umbleness he’s actually very conceited, Jack Maldon-the way he thinks only of himself and takes full advantage of Doctor Strong’s caring heart, the Old Soldier (Annie’s mother)-again taking selfish advantage of Doctor Strong, and lastly Mr. Murdstone-thinking only for what’s best for him; he even abandoned David to his Aunt Betsey whom was a complete stranger for him, just because he wanted to get poor David out of his life. Would an unselfish stepfather do that?
“The spiritual presence of the hero organizes all these recollected events, through the powerful operation of association, into a single, unified pattern which forms his destiny. At first David, as a child, can only experience isolated fragments of sensation, without any power to put these together to form a coherent whole: “I could observe, in little pieces, as it were,; but as to making a net of a number of these pieces, and catching anybody in it, that was, as yet, beyond me.” But in the end the protagonist can boast that he has fabricated his own destiny by living through these experiences, and holding them together with the magnetic field of his mind. Without his organizing presence the world might fall back into disconnected fragments” (Miller 814).
‘the final impression is one of joy tempered and mellowed with wisdom.’ This is very true and it is what has given this book the success that it has: when we begin to read David Copperfield we start to feel as if the bad luck is all happening to him, his mother re-marries a cruel man, he goes to an awful school, his mother, he has to work unfairly ect… Steerforth’s servant Littimer once calls David ‘young innocence’ (chapter 32). This name is appropriate. David is sensitive, honest and loving as a child, and remains so all his life. “David comes to an understanding of the world – an understanding, at least, of the large and representative world which this novel describes. It is this understanding and the activity of putting together by which the understanding is achieved, that is David’s destiny, David’s career as we know it” (Hornback 95) He is intelligent and observant, but he learns the harder facts of life very slowly.
That is why we can say all those describing terms about this novel are correct and that is why we can say it ends marvellously with great expected achievment from david. In fact, also because it was written as a series rather than a novel, Dickens manages to settle everything left hanging between characters, in the last chapter. So in conclusion I can say that I profoundly agree with the initial statement because it properly describes this masterpiece of life.
Works Cited
1.Phillips, Brian. SparkNotes on David Copperfield. 22 April 2002.
2.A.H. Gomme, Dickens (London: Evans Brothers, 1971), p. 174.
3.Bert G. Hornback, “Noah’s Arkitecture”: A Study of Dickens’s Mythology (Athens: Ohio University Press, 1972), repr. in Charles Dickens’s David Copperfield, ed. Harold Bloom (New York: Chelsea House, 1987), p. 95.
4.J. Hillis Miller, Charles Dickens: The World of His Novels (Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1958), repr. in Buckley, Norton edition, p. 814.
5.Angus Wilson, The World of Charles Dickens (Harmondsworth: Penguin, 1972), pp. 213-14, 216.
6.Virginia Woolf, ‘David Copperfield’, in The Moment and Other Essays (London: Hogarth Press, 1947), p. 75.