A small business

A woman named heather wants to start a small business which makes and sells budget priced jewellery. She is aiming her jewellery to the teenage fashion market. In the following text I will firstly have to recommend where Heather should locate her business (either in Tonbury or Dyton).
Secondly I will have to recommend which method of distribution Heather should take and how she what she will distribute through; shop, market, internet, mixture and finally I will recommend the promotional strategies that heather should use when starting her business I will also discuss how her promotional methods ill need to adapt and evolve as her business grows. Because more people in Tonbury work in lower socio-economic groups they are more likely to want to purchase budget priced jewellery. Tonbury’s average annual income per worker is i??
24,000 (i?? 4000 less that that of Dyton) this again means that they are more likely to purchase budget priced jewellery. Although Tonbury has a smaller population and therefore a smaller population of teenagers (Heathers Target market) Tonbury’s population is set to rapidly increase by 9000 for 2012. Out of this 9000 increase the teenage population will increase by 2000 (1500 more than Dyton). My research has shown that most teenagers purchase jewellery for themselves so an increase of teenagers will be good for business.

Another reason for locating in Tonbury is that there is less competition with only 4 other jewellery shops in town However the population of Tonbury will still be smaller than that of Dyton in 2012 and although it is rapidly increasing it will take a long time for it to equalize and even in 2012 there will be less teenagers in Dyton than in Tonbury. Another drawback is that the market is only on twice a week and even if you choose not to distribute through a market stall the market would attract more customers to the town.
On an average market day there are only 18,000 visitors (which is almost half that of Dyton). Brief description of Dyton As you can see as in Tonbury, most of Dyton’s population works in the C1 socio economic group however what is different to Tonbury is that the second largest group is B which shows that Dyton’s population is angled more towards the better socio-economic groups. Dyton’s average annual income per worker is i?? 28,000 (i?? 4000 more than Tonbury).
Advantages of locating in Dyton Because Dyton’s residents earn more money they are more likely to buy larger quantities of jewellery and also but the more expensive jewellery in the store. Another reason to locate in Dyton is that fact there are 3000 more teenagers there than Tonbury it is also estimated that even in 2012 there will be more teenagers in Dyton than in Tonbury. Dyton’s market is open 3 days a week and on average attracts about 30,000 people on a normal market day.
Disadvantages of locating in Dyton Because Dyton’s population is richer they are less likely to want to purchase budget priced jewellery. Although the market is on three times a week there are 8 other jewellery shops in the town this would mean you would have a lot of competition from other shops. Heather should locate her business in Tonbury because although Tonbury has a smaller population its residents on average earn less than people from Dyton this means that they will be much more likely to shop at heathers store than people from Dyton.
Tonbury has a smaller population than Dyton however its growth rate is much faster than Dyton’s in 3 years Tonbury’s population is expected to rise by 9000 however Dyton will only increase by 3000. Tonbury has only got 4 jewellers in its town this will mean there will be a lot less competition which help the business grow faster on the other hand Dyton has 8 jewellery shops which would make competing in the jewellery market extremely difficult.

Effects Drugs Have on Urban Communities

{draw:rect} Did most urban communities start out as nice as most suburban communities are today? Yes, they did. The government built subsidized housing complexes for low income households; today they are called “the projects” or the ghetto. These communities have been run down over the years by vandalism, and crime, most of these criminal activities that take place in these urban communities are drug related. Even though drugs can be bought out of any community, the urban communities are the most effected by drug activities. Drugs are destroying the urban communities.
Children can buy drugs off almost every street corner and most of the youth in the urban communities are or have been in jail for drug sales. {draw:frame} Crime rates have gone up in urban communities because of drug activities. Every day an article can be read in the newspaper about crimes in urban communities. Most of these crimes are drug related. The drug dealers that are on the streets get busted for selling drugs almost every day and charged with sale charges and possession charges. Police departments set up sting operations to catch these dealers in the act.
Addicts are arrested daily as well. They get caught with drugs they have purchased and receive possession charges. Drug dealers often rob each other for their supply,which results in breaking and entering charges, burglary charges, and sometimes even murder charges. Addicts tend to steal and rob to support their habit and usually get caught and arrested for these crimes. Drug addicts will rob stores, strangers in the street, even family members to get money for their drugs. That is not the only crimes addict commit.

While under the influence of drugs some people commit acts they normally would not do, such as killing, stealing, or driving which could result in people getting hurt. They get high and do things without thinking. With all these problems in the urban communities, it becomes difficult to sell property at its book value. It becomes an undesirable place to live. People who are looking for reasonable priced housing get discouraged because of the environment that surrounds these houses. Nobody wants to live in these areas with all the drug related crimes and drug activities that go on.
These issues cause the property values to go down in urban communities. Below is a bar graph to show the difference in property values between urban communities and suburban communities. Average Property Values {draw:frame} Even though drugs can be bought out of any community, the urban communities are the most effected by drug activities. Drugs are destroying the urban communities. Children can buy drugs off almost every street corner and most of the youth in the urban communities are or have been in jail for drug sales.
I think if the public paid more attention or cared a little more about the drug related problems that are over powering our urban communities, these communities can be taken back from the criminals that have run them down so bad that they are so obsolete in the government’s eyes. Then maybe instead of spending thousands of dollars into communities that don’t really need it, that money could get put to good use in an urban community that really needs improvement. Hernandez, R. (2010). VCStar. com. Scripps Interactive Newspapers Group. Retrieved from http://www. cstar. com/news/2010/feb/09/suspect-went-on-drug-related-crime-spree-tells/ Jonathan Butler. (2004). BROWNSTONER. Retrieved from http://www,brownstoner. com National Drug Intelligence Center. (January 1, 2006. ). National Drug Intelligence Center. Retrieved from http://www. justice. gov/ndic/pubs5/5140/index. htm Secretary of the Publications Board. (2010). United nations. Retrieved from http://www. un. org/esa/socdev/poverty/subpages/iyephab. htm The world bank group. (2010). Urban poverty. Retrieved from http://: http://go. worldbank. org/QH7WZFCPK0

practical connection research paper

Practical Connection – Research Assignment – ITS835

ITS835 – Enterprise   Risk Management

Conduct a literature review in Enterprise Risk Management
Conduct a literature review on enterprise risk management and   challenges faced by the organization using and developing risk management   frameworks.
You are to review the literature on Enterprise Risk Management and   discuss problems and gaps that have been identified in the literature. You   will expand on the issue and how researchers have attempted to examine that   issue by collecting data – you are NOT collecting data, just reporting on how   researchers did their collection.
As you read the literature, it will become apparent that there are   multiple issues, pick one issue that stands out in the literature.

Include   your name and project title
Table   of contents: 
Use   a Microsoft Enabled Table of Contents feature.
Describe   the issue, discuss the problem, and elaborate on any previous attempts to   examine that issue.
Research   Questions:
In   your identified problem area that you are discussing, what were the research   questions that were asked?
What   approach did the researcher use, qualitative, quantitative, survey, case   study? Describe the population that was chosen.
Data   Analysis:
What   were some of the findings, for example, if there were any hypotheses asked,   were they supported?
What   was the conclusion of any data collections, e.g., were research questions   answered, were hypotheses supported?
Here   you can expand on the research and what the big picture means, how do the   results found in your literature review help organizations in the Enterprise   Risk Management areas. What do you see as long-term impacts and what further   research could be done in the field?
Include   at least five scholarly references in APA format.

Musharraf Era: Pakistan Flourishes

Compiled By: Mirza Rohail B ©Our leader – Musharraf http://presidentmusharraf. wordpress. com/ All this is all the more amazing when one considers that just six years ago, Pakistan was on the verge of bankruptcy, with only a little more than $1bn in foreign exchange reserves and its stock market teetering at 1,000 points (worth $5 billion only) and foreign debt servicing at 65% of GDP. Our exports were at a pitiful $7. 5 billion. The once ever-declining rupee stood stable at around 60-61 to a dollar since Musharraf took over. Of the 184 member countries of the IMF, Pakistan’s rate of economic growth 7% is one of the best in the world.
The Karachi stock market is now above 13,000 points and worth around $65 billion. Now foreign debt servicing has lowered to become 28%. Our exports increased to become $18 billion. 1. Pakistan economy is among the fastest growing economies in the world as its economy has reached the size of $170 billion from a mere $70 billion in 1999. Pakistan attracted a record FDI of $8. 6 billion in 2007-08. 2. 2007: National revenues had swelled from Rs 308 billion during 1988-99 to around Rs 800bn in 2007; and FBR estimates now 2. 8 million Income Tax payers.
Year Total CBR Direct Indirect Custom Sales Central excise 1998-99 308. 5bn 110. 4bn 198. 1bn 65. 3bn 72bn 60. 8bn 2005-06 712. 5bn 224. 6bn 487. 9bn 138. 2bn 294. 6bn 55bn 2008-09 810. 3bn 305bn – 105. 3bn 319. 3bn 80. 5bn (2008-09 Progressive) 3. Public sector development program (PSDP) has also grown from Rs 80 billion in 1999; to Rs 520 billion in 2007 and increased further to Rs 549. 7 billion in 2008. 4.

FACT: The rate of growth in Pakistan Large Scale Manufacturing (LSM) is at a 30-year high. Construction activity is at a 17-year high. LSM: 1999-00 was 1. 5% and 2004-05 was 19. 9% and 2006-07 was 8. 6% and 2007-8 is 5%. 5. FACT: The Infrastructure Industries Index, which measures the performance of Seven industries, i. e. Electricity generation, Natural gas, Crude oil, Petroleum products, Basic metal, Cement and coal, has recorded a 26. 2 percent growth in Industrial sector of Pakistan. 6. FACT: Jan 14: Pakistan now has a total of 245,682 Educational institutions in all categories, including 164,579 (i. . 67 per cent) in the public sector and 81,103 (i. e. 100 per cent) in the private sector, reports the National Education Census (NEC-2005). The census — jointly conducted by the Ministry of Education, the Academy of Educational Planning and Management (AEPAM) and the Federal Bureau of Statistics (FBS) — reveals that the number of private-sector institutions has increased from 36,096 in 1999-2000 to 81,103 in 2005, i. e. by 100 per cent. 45,007 Educational Institutions have increased in Musharraf Era. 7. FACT: Pakistan is 3rd in world in Banking profitability, a report of IMF said.
On the IMF chart, Pakistan’s banking profitability is on third position after Colombia and Venezuela. On the IMF chart India is on 36th position and China is on 40th position. Pakistan’s Banking sector turned profitable in 2002. Their profits continued to rise for the next five years and peaked to Rs 84. 1 ($1. 1 billion) billion in 2006 8. 11 May 2009: By producing 7. 746 tonnes of gold during the last five years – 2004 to 2008 – Pakistan joins the ranks of gold producing countries. According to the data with the Saindak Metal Limited – during the last five years – Pakistan has produced 86,013 tonnes of copper, 7. 46 tonne gold and 11. 046 tonne silver, besides the production of 14,482 tonnes of magnetite concentrate (iron), bringing in a total of $633. 573 million. 9. In 1999 what we earned as GDP: we used to give away 64. 1 % as foreign debt and liabilities. Now in 2006, what we earn as GDP: we give ONLY 28. 3 % as foreign debt and liabilities. Now we are SAVING 35 % of Our GDP for economic growth. According to Department of Finance, External debt & liabilities (EDL) and DAWN: 1988 – $ 18 bn —–> 1990 – $ 20. 5 bn —–> 1999 – $ 38. 9 bn —–> 2000 – $ 35. 48 bn —–> 2001 – $ 37. 2 bn —–> 2002 – $ 34. bn —–> 2003 – $ 35. 4 bn —–> 2004 – $ 35. 3 bn —–> 2005 – $ 35. 8 bn —–> 2006 – $ 37. 6 bn —–> 2007 – $ 40. 5 bn —–> 2008 – $ 45. 9 bn —–> 2009 – $ 50 bn 10. According to Economic Survey 2005. Poverty in Pakistan in 2001 was 34. 46%. And, now after 7 years of Musharraf; Poverty in 2005 was 23. 9%. Poverty DECREASED by 10. 56%. Overall, 12 million people have been pushed out of Poverty in 2001 -2005! 11. Literacy rate in Pakistan has increased from 45% (in 2002) to 53% (in 2005). And, Education now receives 4% of GDP and English has been introduced as compulsory subject from grade 1. 2. 12-4-07: The IT industry, which was virtually non-existent seven years ago, has grown to be worth $2 billion of which $1 billion is export related. It rregistered a 50% growth. 55 foreign IT companies have already entered the market. Now the sector employed 90,000 professionals. 13. 30-1-08: The government has decided to set up a modern hospital cum Medical University in collaboration with the Harvard Medical International, USA, at a cost of Rs 18 billion. The university will be built at the Defence Housing Authority (DHA), Islamabad.
A total of 2,500 students will be taught at the graduate level, while additional 600 seats will be available for postgraduate research courses. 14. Nov 2006: President Musharraf says that Pakistan will set up Nine Engineering World Class Science and Technology Federal Universities by 2008 with foreign assistance. He said the institutions of higher learning would be established in collaboration with Italy, South Korea, Japan, France, Sweden, Netherlands, Germany, Austria and China. The Cost of building these Foreign Universities will be above Rs 96. 5 billion.
The Vice Chancellors, Heads of department, Professors and Faculty of the planned university will be from these Foreign Universities; while the Examination system, Quality assurance followed and the Degree awarded will also be from these Foreign Universities. 15. Government has approved to give at least 4% of GDP to Education in 2007 budget. 16. In 1999-2000 there were 31 Public Universities. Now 2005-2006 there are 49 Public Universities. HEC setup 47 Universities. a) Air University (established 2002) b) Institute of Space technology, ISB (established 2002) c) Sardar Bahadur Khan Women University, Quetta (established 2004) ) University of Science & Technology, Bannu (established 2005) e) University of Hazara (founded 2002) f) Malakand university, Chakdara (established 2002) g) Karakurum International university, Gilgit (established 2002) h) University of Gujrat (established 2004) i) Virtual University of Pak, Lahore (established 2002) j) Sarhad University of IT, Peshawar (established 2001) k) National Law University, ISB (2007) l) Media University, ISB (2007) m) University of Education, Lahore (2002) n) Lasbella University of Marine Sciences, Baluchistan (2005) o) Baluchistan University of IT & Management, Quetta (2002), etc. 7. 6-member delegation of Australian Department of Education, Science & Technology and AusAID, is visited Pakistan on the request of PM Shaukat Aziz to help Pakistan in its efforts to realign its TVET (Technical and Vocational Education and Training) according to the market needs. Chairman NAVTEC Altaf Saleem informed the delegation about NAVTEC plans to increase the capacity to train one million people annually by 2010 from the present annual capacity of 320,000. 18. Defense Exports of Pakistan have crossed the $200 million mark as the country’s robust Defense manufacturing industry continues to expand.
This was disclosed by Major General Syed Absar Hussain, Director General, Defense Export Promotion Organization; after IDEAS 2006 Karachi . 19. President Musharraf inaugurated an over Rs. 1. 36 billion 18 Mega Watt Naltar hydro power project. The project, completed in four years at Naltar near Gilgit. 20. Pakistan is now in Large-scale Nuclear expansion. The reactor under construction… could produce over 200kg of weapons-grade plutonium per year, assuming it operates at full power for a modest 220 days per year.
At 4 to 5 kilograms of plutonium per weapon, this stock would allow the production of 40-50 Nuclear weapons a year,” the report said. 21. The Karachi Port Trust (KPT) and Hutchison Port Holdings (HPH) of Hong Kong will sign a concession agreement tomorrow for setting up a US$1 billion Deep-water container port, the first in Pakistan. KPT will invest $450 million for infrastructure development for the project. HPH will invest $557 million. In the first phase, a 1,500m quay wall will be built with a designed dept of 18m. 22. GILGIT: President Musharraf inaugurated the dry port in the border town of Sust, 200km north of Gilgit.
The Dry port, a Pakistan-China joint venture, was built in 2004 at a cost of Rs90 million. It is 10,000-foot high Sust Dry Port. 23. Dec 2006: President Musharraf said many canals, including the Thal and Raini canals, were being constructed for better utilization of the water available. He said Rs66 billion was being spent on brick-lining of 87,000 canals in the country, adding that 6,000 new canals would be brick-lined next year. 24. The Private Power Infrastructure Board (PPIB) has approved expansion of Tarbela dam power project that would generate 960 MW costing $500 million. 25.
President Musharraf Thursday inaugurated the Mirani Dam. Mirani Dam in Kech area of Mekran district with a catchment area of 12,000 square kilometre has been built in four years at a cost of Rs6 billion that includes Rs1. 5 billion in compensation to the affected people. It will have a storage capacity of over 300,000 million acre feet of water. 26. Gomal Zam Dam: This project started Aug 2002 and is expected to be completed early 2008. It is located in the Damaan in NWFP. It is 437 feet high and will irrigate about 163,000 acres of land. The total costs amounts to Rs. 12 billion.
Having a gross storage of 1. 14 MAF. It will produce 17. 4 MW of electricity. 27. Mushrraf says the government is constructing the Rs40 billion Katchi Canal and Punjab had been gracious to provide land for its 350 kilometre stretch that will pass through the province. 28. The Economic Coordination Committee decided to set up a $2-billion mega Oil refinery at Khalifa Point in district Hub, Balochistan. The refinery, commissioned by 2010, would have a maximum refining capacity of 13 million tons of petroleum products – higher than the country’s total existing capacity of 12. million tons. 29. Pakistan Steel Mills Corporation (PSMC) during the quarter July-Sept 2007 recorded the highest ever-sales figure of Rs 9. 3012 billion. 30. The Compressed Natural Gas (CNG) sector of Pakistan has attracted over Rs 70 billion investments during the last five years as a result of liberal and encouraging policies of the government. Presently, some 1,765 CNG stations are operating in the country, in 85 cities and towns, and 1000 more would be setup in the next three years. It has provided employment to 30,000 people in the country. 31.
The Securities and Exchange Commission of Pakistan (SECP) has registered 1,135 companies during the first quarter (July-September 2007). With the new registrations the total number of registered companies with SECP as on September 30 has reached 50,125. 32. Telecom sector has attracted an investment of $ 9 billion in last three years. It created of 80,000 jobs directly and 500,000 jobs indirectly. 33. Corrupt & Incompetent Nawaz Sharif made one motorway M2 (Lahore – Islamabad). Under Musharraf 6 Motorways completed or under construction: M1 (Islamabad to Peshawar) – (Rs. 3 bn) – [155 km] – (started 2003 – Completed Oct 2007) M3 (Pindi to Faisalabad) – (Rs. 5. 6 bn) – [53 km] – (started 2002 – Completed 2004) M8 (Gwadar to Ratodero) – [1072 km] – (started 2004 – will complete 2009) M9 (Karachi to Hyderabad) – (Rs. 6. 3 bn) – [136 km] – ( M10 (Karachi Northern bypass) – (Rs 3. 5 bn) – [56 km] – (completed 2007) M11 (Lahore to Sialkot) – (Rs. 23 bn) -[101 km] – (started 2006 – under construction) 34. Under Musharraf various Highways under construction throughout the country. Including N5, N-25, N-35, N-45, N-50, N-55, N-65, N-70, N-75, N-80, S-1, etc. 35.
General Pervez Musharraf inaugurated the Makran Coastal Highway (N-10) project in August 2001, consisting of Karachi-Gwadar, Pasni-Gwadar, and Ormara-Liari (Balochistan) Highways. The Liari-Ormara Highway costed Rs3. 9 billion and Pasni-Gwadar Highway Rs2. 8 billion respectively. The total length of Makran Coastal Highway is 533 kilometers. ” 36. 2-12-07: Sialkot International Airport Limited (SIAL) completed. The 1,002-acre airport is 13 km west of Sialkot and is linked by a road to Gujranwala, Wazirabad, Gujrat, Narowal, the Export Processing Zone (EPZ) and the Sialkot Dry Port Trust. 7. Ghandara International Airport (Islamabad) the first-ever green-field airport being built at a cost of $400 million; with a renowned international consultant, Louis Berger Group of USA. President Musharraf laid the foundation stone of the project on April 7, 2007 and will be completed by Dec 2010. Its total area is 3700 acres (15 km? ). 38. Major Industrial estates are being developed under Musharraf’s vision: M3 Industrial estate, Sundar Industrial estate, Chakri Industrial, Port Qasim Industrial estate, etc. 39.
Oct 2007: In the current fiscal year the Mining and Quarrying sector has registered a growth rate of 5. 6 percent. Increased growth was propelled by strong growths recorded in magnetite (30 percent), dolomite (26. 1 percent), Limestone (25. 2 percent) and chromites. 40. The government has already started various initiatives, to discover and develop world-class copper-gold deposits in Chagai Baluchistan; by Australian Firms that would fetch $500 million to $600 million per year. 41. Major reserves of COPPER & GOLD in Baluchistan’s Rekodiq area have been discovered in early 2006.
It has ranked Rekodiq among the world’s top seven copper reserves. The Rekodiq mining area has proven estimated reserves of 2 billion tons of copper and 20 million ounces of gold. According to the current market price, the value of the deposits has been estimated at about $65 billion, which would generate thousands of jobs. 42. Executive Committee of National Economic Council (ECNEC) on Wednesday approved 45 developmental projects in its meeting, including six revised projects with a total cost of Rs 154. 1 billion with a foreign exchange component (FEC) of Rs 36. billion. 43. Rs 9. 8 billion have been allocated for 91 different mega projects at Public Sector Universities across the province, said Sindh Governor Dr Ishrat-ul-Ebad Khan. 44. Oct 2007: A fully functional TMS (Tax Management System), including profiling, withholding, return/payment filing, rectification, refunds, audit, and legal tracking is scheduled to be operational by 2007 in Pakistan, to process the tax year 2007 returns, according to World Bank. 45. The government is providing Sui Gas facility to areas of South Punjab at a cost of Rs 1. 311 billion.
A total of 1,138 kilometre gas pipeline is being laid. The districts benefiting from these schemes mainly include Multan, Khanewal, Bahawalnagar, Rajanpur, DG Khan, Vehari and Muzaffargarh. 46. The KHI city government’s rehabilitation of Industrial zones and improvement plan for all those four industrial zones, of the city needs to be completed in 7-8 months. Projects worth Rs 2. 5 billion and beautification Rs 4. 5 billion. 47. 27-11-07: Pakistan Navy Ship Zarrar, the first of Multi-Role Tactical Platform (MRTP-33), was commissioned into Pakistan Navy at a ceremony at PN Dockyard. 48. 9-12-07: City Nazim Mustafa Kamal said the construction work of 47-storey IT Tower in the vicinity of Civic Center at a cost of $200m would start soon. Around 40,000 youth would get employment in the IT Tower. It will have 10,000 call centers of which 6,000 have been booked so far. 49. The President approved the project of laying of 940-kilometre-long “standard gauge” Railway track between Gwadar and Quetta that would cost Rs 75 billion. A German firm won the contract. 50. To increase the income of Farmers, the Government is investing Rs7. 80 billion under which a Food Security Program will be launched.
Initially it will be launched in 1,000 villages. He said Rs 3. 60 billion would be invested in live-stocks and dairy sectors. About 1,200 model dairy farms and 2,950 cattle breeding farms will be established under this investment. 51. Pakistan will launch a Self-controlled Remote Sensing Satellite System (RSSS) at a cost of Rs19. 3 billion to ensure strategic and unconditional supply of satellite remote sensing data for any part of the globe over the year. SUPARCO will implement it over a period of six years. President Musharraf has approved the project in principle. 52.
Governor inaugurated the DUHS Medical Research City with Dow Diagnostic Reference and Research Laboratories and Jinnah Genome Centre as its important components. He also laid the foundation stone for a library and sports complex which houses different constituent institutions of the university. 53. President Musharraf also inaugurated a 50-bed state-of-the-art Workers Welfare Fund Kidney Center. The first-ever kidney center in Baluchistan, constructed on 7. 5 acres at a cost of Rs385 million and having the diagnostic, dialysis, surgical and lab facilities will help the people of this area. 4. Karachi: The building of the 50-bed Kidney Centre in Landhi has been completed. Minister Muhammad Adil Siddiqui . He said that the building of this centre had been built at a cost of Rs70 million. 55. CM Pervaiz Elahi inaugurated Pakistan’s first Software technology park (STP) on Ferozpur Road to be implemented by Punjab IT Board (PITB). The Rs 1. 5 billion project is set over area of 32 kanals; will be completed in 12 months and is expected to create direct 10,000 jobs and generate economic activity of Rs 9 billion per year. 56.
In what is considered a major leap for Pakistan, a Polytechnic Institute is being established to produce skilled workforce that will rescue the manufacturing industry from the clutches of foreign dependence. Being built in Korangi at a cost of Rs450 million, this government-funded institute will start operating in January 2007 and prepare 500 workers by the end of first year, besides producing 22 different types of dies and moulds for aviation, telecom, pharmaceutical and other industries. Experts from Germany, Japan and Thailand assisted in developing curriculum. 57. Police Act 1861 replaced by Police Order 2002 after 141 years.
Police force divided into three separate wings: Watch and ward, Investigation and Prosecution. 58. Federal Minister for Commerce in order to modernize tobacco farming in the country; is setting up a state-of-the-art Tobacco Research Center in Bunner. Annually 8 million kilograms of Virginia tobacco (fine quality), worth Rs 9. 2 billion is cultivated in Bunner. Under construction. 59. The government has formed “Pakistan Gems and Jewellery Development Company (PGJDC)” with a cost of Rs 1. 4 billion, to increase the export of gem and Jewellery from $25 million to $1. 5 billion by 2017. 60.
In 1999, Pakistanis could only afford to buy a total of 32,461 locally assembled Cars. The latest annual figure stands at 115,000. Currently, there are 1. 3 million cars on Pakistani roads as opposed to 815,000 cars some five years ago; a 60 percent jump in car ownership. 61. In 1999, a total of 94,881 new Motorcycles were sold in Pakistan. In 2005, Pakistanis bought or leased some 500,000 new motorcycles. 62. ISB: To convert the Karachi Fisheries Harbour Authority (KFHA) in a style of Sydney Fish Market, the government proposes an action plan worth $10 million so as to make the KFHA a profitable authority.
Estimated, Pakistan has a fish and seafood industry worth $1. 2 billion. Exports alone are worth nearly $200 million per annum. More than 0. 8 million people rely directly or indirectly on the industry for their livelihood. 63. FACT: Pakistan globally ranks 10th among the countries which were among the most active in perusing pro-business policies. A report “Doing Business in 2006? co-sponsored by World Bank and International Finance Corporation (IFC). (c) ECONOMIC PAKISTAN and PRESIDENT MUSHARRAF http://economicpakistan. wordpress. com/2008/01/09/pakistan-flourishes/ http://presidentmusharraf. wordpress. com/

3-4 pages with references please no plagriazm

Assignment Details
You are a sociologist, and you notice that the juveniles in your area are starting to cause legal problems and are beginning to overload the juvenile court system. There are several theories that explain why juveniles become delinquent. Some of the sociological theories include anomie, social disorganization, drift theory, and differential association theory. Locate a sociological theory (it does not have to be one of the theories listed previously), and explain that theory with its relation to juvenile delinquency. Please note that sociological theories relate to society and external influences over a juvenile, not psychological influences (which relate to internalization within a person) or biological influences (which concern physical problems).

Once you decide on a theory, describe how it relates to juveniles by explaining what the theory believes causes the juvenile problems.   
Explain what you could do in your position to aid in alleviating these problems. 

Write an essay of 800–1,000 words (3–4 pages) in APA format. The first half should define the sociological theory, and the remainder should provide details about alleviating the problem. Be sure to reference all sources using APA style.

Broken Windows Theory Persuasive Essay

The notion that serious crime is stemmed from minor disorders and fear of crime was a well-developed hypothesis in the 1980s by James Q. Wilson and George Kelling (Hinkle & Weisburd, 2006). Wilson and Kelling (1982) had coined this theory as “broken windows”. Broken windows theory states that disorder in a society causes the residents of the society to develop fear (Hinkle & Weisburd, 2008). The authors go on to state that fear is the fueling source behind delinquent behavior, which resulted in higher rates of serious crimes (2008).
The main concept of this theory illustrated that if police were to target and eliminate minor disorders through community policing, it would have an overall impact on the reduction of crime rates (Gau & Pratt, 2008). Broken windows theory was not accepted by all, in fact it sparked a great deal of controversy (Wilson & Kelling, 1982). The opposing views of broken windows theory argued that it was too weak because of the lack thereof empirical evidence proving the correlation between implementation of broken windows policing methods and decrease in crime (Harcourt, 1998).
The purpose of this essay was to compare and contrast the two different perspectives on the broken windows theory. This paper shall also conclude whether the broken windows theory can be successfully used within a community policing model. In my opinion the broken windows theory had enough substantial groundwork presented that it was successfully used within community policing. To begin, according to Clyde Cronkhite (2004) the theory was true. Cronkhite connects “disorder and crime as part of a developmental sequence” (2008, p. 46). The main concept that Kelling and Wilson stated, was that if small minor disorders such as littering, public drinking, graffiti etc. were tolerated in a society than it would spiral out creating more serious crimes (Cronkhite, 2004). Cronkhite (2004) gave reasoning behind their theory stating that serious crimes stem from criminals assuming that once there was social acceptance of minor delinquent behaviors, the community became vulnerable and were less likely to act against such behaviors. Broken windows entails a process whereby unchecked visible disorder signals to residents that community lacks social control. This assumption is that the law-abiding citizens and the criminal alike are attuned to this signal” (Gau & Pratt, 2008, p. 164). Gau and Pratt (2008) gave an explanation as to why criminals tend to flood the streets when minor disorders are present in society. The authors reasoned that it is because the general public sought shelter or safety off of the streets which in turn allowed criminals to occupy the area (Wilson & Kelling, as cited in Gau & Pratt, 2008).

From personal experience in third year of University I attended a midnight street walk of downtown Toronto, which allowed me to draw on the same conclusions as Gua and Pratt. During the street walk it was clear that certain geographical areas provided an outlet for further crime to exist based on social senses, such as Regent Park. Also, based on physical evidence that remained on George St in front of Seaton House; needles on the floor, graffiti on the walls and empty alcohol bottles not only concluded that this area was a favorable environment for crime, but that indeed some form of illegal acts had occurred.
Furthermore, Gua and Pratt (2010) discussed how the perceptions of disorder in a community instilled fear into its members and how fear created social disengagement from the community. The broken windows perspective outlined the cognitive thought behind what individuals viewed as disorders (Cronkhite, 2004). In other words, disorder was always in the eye of the beholder, which in this case was the community. The way the community interpreted the delinquent behavior for example littering, determined whether the community was going to reject or accept it into their societal values.
Based on the community’s decision we must consider an outsider’s perspective on such behavior as well. James McCabe (2008) goes on to talk about how it was not the physical aspect of the act (litter in itself) but rather the symbolism it created that lead to increase in crime. McCabe also stated that if individuals saw littering as a threat to social order, this threat would no longer be overlooked or considered unimportant, instead littering would be viewed as a key catalyst to a chain of negligent behavior (2008).
Fear was a result of the negligent behavior, fear also generated attachment to the visible characteristics of delinquency, helping outsiders derive a negative stigma about a community (J. Irwin, personal communication, Oct 3rd, 2012). Tepperman and Curtis (2011), provided an explanation as to why crime occurs based on the social functionalist approach coined by Emile Durkheim “in order to have a well-functioning society it requires values, cohesion and social control” (p. 19).
This theory was based on the principal that social problems are socially created (Tepperman and Curtis, 2011), the social functionalist approach supported the original work on the broken windows theory, which stated that minor disorders are classified and looked at based on individual perception (source). Structural functionalist approach established that problems in a society originate from the observation of others’ consequences (Tepperman and Curtis, 2011). In this particular case the consequences of the minor delinquent acts created greater chaos.
To combat the growth in crime rates in any geographical area, “broken windows philosophy entails addressing the minor problems in a community before they create conditions that welcome and/or permit more serious offences” (McCabe, 2008, p. 291). McCabe (2008) also theorized that if you were to control the disorder you could then control the crime. The outcome this theory had on police response was that it created the order maintenance policing strategy (Cronkhite, 2004). This was the gateway introduction to community based policing.
Broken windows theory demanded that there be community involvement (McCabe, 2008). The positive correlation between community policing and reduction of crime rates, was not necessarily in the affects the police have on the disorder itself, but rather the sense of order being restored into the community through hands on approach (Sampson & Raudenbush, 2004). When the community saw active policing, and a restored sense of community, people began to feel safer within society and were more inclined to help with community restoration initiatives (McCabe, 2008).
The order maintenance strategy operated based on a community policing model, which is known as The Ontario Association of Chief of Police (OACP) Model (G. Hanna, personal communication, Sept 26th 2012). Wilson and Kelling’s theory was based on the social science experiment of Phillip Zimbardo, who had studied the snowballing effect on vandalism at the Stanford University Campus parking lot New York City in 1969, once a vacant car was left unattended to (McCabe, 2008).
Kelling and Wilson (1982), indicated that disorder and crime have a strong positive correlation based on the yielded results from Zimbardo’s experiment. The first to implement the order maintenance approach was the New York Transit Authority (NYTA) (Corman & Mocan, 2005). The NYTA tackled the Subway vandalism problem head on, they eliminated graffiti, and arrested those who tried to cheat the subway fare system (Corman & Mocan, 2005). Bratton the main leader in organizing the initiative, stated that the theory was accurate (Corman & Mocan, 2005). Bratton went on to explain that there was a dramatic drop in rime rates committed in the subways following this approach, thus backing up the broken windows theory (date). After realizing the positive results of aggressive order maintenance strategy, the broken windows theory was then put to the test by the NYPD (Corman & Mocan, 2005). The NYPD were also only reaping the benefits from this decision. Deploying this strategy had an impact on the offender’s belief that the risk of apprehension was high, thus the NYPD sent a clear message to the community that law and order prevail over petty and serious crimes (Sampson & Cohen, 1988).
Immediately after the implementation of order maintenance, NYPD saw significantly decreasing numbers in serious crimes such as homicide, robbery and rape (Corman & Mocan, 2005), the city ended up reaching its all-time low. Kelling in his later work wrote, “Both experience and substantial formal research demonstrated that disorder left untended ultimately leads to serious crime… Fighting disorder, by solving the problems that cause it, is clearly one the best ways to fight serious crime, reduce fear, and give citizens what they actually want from the police force”. Kelling 1999, p. 29 as cited in Gau & Pratt, 2008, p. 167). Another Dutch researchers conducted an experiment that revealed how visible social disorder increased an individual`s temptation to indulge in delinquent behaviour (Kaplan, 2008). A Dutch researcher, Keizer tested this theory by; “placing an envelope containing a 5 euro-note hanging from a mailbox… when the mailbox was clean, 13 percent of passers-by stole the envelope. When the mailbox was surrounded by trash, the percentage jumped to 25 percent, and then 27 percent when it was covered by graffiti. (Kaplan, 2008, p. 1). It was evident that the presence of litter (minor disorder) increased the rate of crime double fold. This Netherland experiment bolstered the broken windows theory (Kaplan, 2008). On the contrary, these results fueled the debate of whether the broken windows theory was the driving force behind crime reduction in the area. While researchers tried to determine the root causes to a particular crime, the macro-social approach shed light on crime originating from “poverty, unemployment, racism, class conflict, etc. ” (McCabe, 2008, p. 92) Kennedy and Moore (1995) believed that the police did not have direct impact on these crime causing issues, therefore no direct impact on crime. Harcourt was the main author to challenge the broken windows theory. He scrutinized the theory as well as the data gathered by author Skogan, statingthat although there were several measures of serious crime (assault, sexual assault, and burglary) available in Skogan’s research, he only disclosed the findings on crime correlated to robbery (Harcourt, 1998). This made Skogan’s work discreditable and biased.
Another reason why broken windows was said to be invalid is due to people`s perceptions on the relationship between crime and disorder; whether or not they are separate entities (Corman & Mocan, 2005). “If disorder and crime seem to be different in the eyes of neighborhood residents, then order maintenance policing may have a fighting chance at crime reduction. If however, the two phenomena merge into one in the minds of those residents, then broken windows theory and its accompanying order maintenance policing strategies will need to be rethought. (Gau & Pratt, 2008, p. 170). Furthermore, the main concept of broken windows theory was attacked. The idea that if disorder is not found frightening, citizens remain on the streets, therefore streets are not being opened to criminals, thus criminal behaviour would not take place (Hinkle & Weisburd, 2006). Interestingly, the studies conducted against the theory have not given much attention to the relationship between disorder and fear, which was surprising given its importance in the model. (Hinkle & Weisburd, 2006).
Studies based on broken windows are too inconsistent to be able to draw a definite line as to whether or not the theory was accurate and the possibility of integration into community policing. Researchers have stated that there are statistically better predictions of crime such as community stability and collective efficacy of the neighborhood, therefore police should not focus their time into “fixing” the broken windows theory but rather dedicate their time to other predictors (Weisburd & Braga, 2007).
Consequently, if police were to dedicate their time on the other factors rather than on minor disorders there would be less objectivity in regards to police involvement (Weisburd & Braga, 2007). The authors point out that although all individuals would be in favour of collective efficacy, it was hard to address and improve upon (2007). Making it easier said than done. These other statistical predictors of crime were rational and helpful in regards determining all possible causes of crime, but they were far too ambiguous of concepts to be solved through practice (Weisburd & Braga, 2007).
Thus broken windows theory was a practical option, it was applicable to any community and it was able to be implemented quickly. According to the OACP Model order maintenance policing would be considered as part of the community mobilization and crime prevention sector. This sector allows the police to take charge and impact minor disorders preventing future crime while encouraging community members to get involved, thus transitioning toward safer communities and to the ultimate goal of low need for police assistance (G. Hanna, personal communication, Sept 11th, 2012).
In conclusion, the macro-social approaches, lack thereof empirical evidence, relationship between fear and disorder as well as perceptions on social disorders were the critiques made against the broken windows theory. Despite these critiques, the theory proved to be true through real life application. Therefore I draw to the conclusion that it was and continues to be successfully incorporated into the current policing model. If police services in Ontario dedicate more time to target the social disorders visible in our communities, they will help build positive relations in the community.
By restoring order in our communities we are another step closer to eradicating serious crimes (Wilson & Kelling, 1982). References Corman, H. , & Mocan, N. (2005, April). Carrots, sticks, and broken windows. Journal of Law and Economics, 48(1), 235-266. doi:10. 1086/425594 Cronkhite, C. (2004, March 1). Illusions of order: The false promise of broken windows policing (Book). Criminal Justice Review (Georgia State University), 29(1), 245-248. Retrieved October 1, 2012, from http://web. ebscohost. com. subzero. lib. uoguelph. ca/ehost/pdfviewer/pdfviewer? id=50642dd3-c8cc-4a96-aa51-1baee6674c01%40sessionmgr114&vid=1&hid=107 Gau, J. M. , & Pratt, T. C. (2008, May 1). Broken windows or window dressing? Citizens (in)ability to tell the difference between disorder and crime. Criminology & Public Policy , 7(2), 163-194. doi:10. 1111/j. 1745-9133. 2008. 00500. x Gau, J. M. , & Pratt, T. C. (2010, August). Revisiting broken windows theory: Examining the sources of the discriminant validity of perceived disorder and crime. Journal of Criminal Justice, 38(4), 758-766. Retrieved October 1, 2012, from

Extempore Speaking

Important Topics for extempore speaking (in MBA admission process) Why you should be selected? Focus on what strengths you bring to the table. These should be consistent with the four things most Institutes are looking for in students during the admission selection: competence, adaptability, enthusiasm, and never say die attitude. Remember, they are looking for chemistry between you and your future employer. Be prepared to summarize in short time why you are the best candidate for the seat. Also, let the institute know you want the admission and you will enjoy being with them.
A lack of interest in the program may indicate a lack of enthusiasm for the institute as well as your future. Now that you’ve had a chance to learn more about us, what would you change about our institute? Be careful here. Most institutes don’t want you to come in and shake up the place. At the same time, they don’t want someone who says, “Nothing, everything looks great here. ” Seek a middle ground by focusing on one or two non-threatening issues that may have come up in your discussions. For example, From our discussion of the problem with slow placement due to economic downturn, I think we should look into the possibility of giving more practical knowledge and exposure to the students. It will make the students more employment ready. I also think, we need to do a thorough analysis of what the companies are expecting out of the students and try to fill the gap existing between the expectations and reality. ” Such an answer indicates you are open to making changes but you also have a certain non-threatening decision-making style. Your response should sound sensible and innovative.
What’s your dream job? This is your ideal chance to sell your aptitudes that fit the job description you would be offered after completing the program. Show an interest in finding new ways of using the skills you will acquire during the course period and also that you can be put to use in new roles with additional responsibilities. “My dream job would include the execution of all of the theoretical and practical knowledge I will gain from the program. Also, all the responsibilities and duties in the position of a manager will be handed over to me in my dream job.

I also thrive in a fast-changing environment where there’s business growth. Your plans include attracting international placement during the next year, and this would satisfy one of my ultimate goals of being involved in an international corporation. ” What color is your brain? Be aware that you’ll probably be asked to speak on such topic. The point is not to stump you, but to find out what makes you tick. When the standard extempore topics are presented, people are prepared and it’s harder for the recruiter to get to know the real person. An MBA admission panel, for example, tries to avoid repeated topics.
But, different and conventional topic like the one above has no right or wrong answer. In fact, the panel won’t even really care what your answer is. He or she just doesn’t want to hear something like, “I don’t know, I guess it’s blue because that’s the way I imagine it. ” The point is to see how creative you are and how you think. Be sure to explain why you answered the way you did. “My brain is red because I’m always hot. I’m always on fire with new plans and ideas. ” Consider the following scenario: You are placed in a company after completion of your program. One evening you are working late and are the last person in the office.
You answer an urgent telephone call to your supervisor from a sales rep who’s currently meeting with a potential client. The sales rep needs an answer to a question to close the sale. Tomorrow will be too late. You have the expertise to answer the question, but it’s beyond your normal level of authority. How do you respond? This response shows that the candidate is confident in his or her ability and can be counted on in an emergency. Similarly, your answer should indicate that you’re not afraid to be the decision maker in a tough situation, even if the situation’s beyond your normal level of authority. I’d get all the pertinent information, taking well-documented notes. I’d answer the question based on my knowledge and the information provided. I’d leave my supervisor a note and fill him or her in on the details the next morning. I’d be sure to explain my decision, as well as the thought process behind it. ” “What is change management? ” Such type of question is asked, generally to check your coping mechanisms for responding to changes. It tests how systematic your approach could be in dealing with change, both from the perspective of an organization and on the individual level.
A somewhat ambiguous term, change management has at least three different aspects, including: adapting to change, controlling change, and effecting change. A proactive approach to dealing with change is at the core of all three aspects. The response could be “Change management is a term used to refer to the introduction of new processes in an organisation, or the management of people who are experiencing change. Successful adaptation to change is as crucial within an organization and the individuals in them inevitably encounter changing conditions as they are powerless to control.
The more effectively one deals with change, the more likely he or she thrives. Adaptation might involve establishing a structured methodology for responding to changes in the business environment. ” Online learning In today’s world, many adults find themselves unsatisfied with their college and institution and wish for something more but demands on their time and schedule make this seem impossible. The good news is that the Internet has many online learning opportunities available that allows one to gain a higher education, learn new skills, and become more marketable.
And the great thing about the benefits of online learning and online education is that one can get an education according to their own schedule and can do it from the comfort of their own home. In fact, thousands of working professionals have been able to increase their knowledge and jobs skills without ever having to enter a classroom, thanks to online classes. By asking you to speak on this topic, the panel might check your understanding on technology and current trends.
Your response towards online learning could be favorable or unfavorable, but don’t be indifferent towards this topic as this shows that you have no idea about the latest revolutions. Your response could be, “Online Learning could be considered as learning in the virtual classroom. While there are indeed many solid career opportunities available today, the market place is extremely competitive, making higher education that much more vital to successfully landing the job of one’s own dreams. But one of the leading concerns for students, as well as working class, is to consider entering the world of expensive education.
Fortunately, there are plenty of distance learning courses that make it possible for willing students to learn from the comfort of their own home without having to worry about many other expenses like commutation expenses, lodging and boarding expenses, etc. Plus, these distance learning programs have been gaining a good degree of credibility throughout the professional world, so one can be confident of receiving an education that will be acknowledged by major companies. ” Are MBA Salaries Still on the Rise? These questions help the panel in understanding ‘what is your actual aim- Knowledge or mere Money? If you crave for mere Money, i. e. you are driven by the high salary hype, you will not be considered a good candidate as money minded people generally don’t concentrate on effectiveness and quality. But if you are truly driven by your inner force of learning, you will certainly get that chance by securing a seat in your desired college. Your response to this question could be, “This depends on the situation of the individual student and other factor such as, the type of industry they are in, the company for which they are employed, and the prior skills they bring with them into the workforce.
Attending an MBA school still has the potential to raise your value and increase your personal bottom line, but it is not a guarantee. However, the economy has already begun to turn around, and many financial organizations are posting large profits again and have begun to recruit MBA graduates for a variety of positions. MBA holders work in a variety of positions, including financial controllers, senior financial analysts, project managers, marketing directors, and of course as CFOs and CEOs. Salaries for these elite positions can be much higher than mid-level jobs. How has the Economic downturn changed the Outlook for MBA’s? This topic again will introduce your actual thoughts to the panel. In reality, the economic downturn has actually changed the outlook for MBA’s. Those who were sheer driven by the money behind MBA degree have taken a U-Turn and made way for those who are in real wanted to pursue this course for making an established career. This topic can earn you a definite seat in you dream college. So your response could be positive like, “It is still as good a time as any to earn an MBA.
In fact, as the economy begins to turn around – and all indications point to that process already beginning – more opportunities for management specialists will be available. Most companies were forced to decrease their staffs using steps such as early retirement and lay-offs in order to survive the economic downturn. As the economy begins to swing upward, these companies will be seeking managers that are not only experienced, but are also knowledgeable about the many legal changes that have been instituted uring the crisis. This means if one undergoes earning an MBA today, he or she will likely be taught the legal changes as they are implemented. The goal of the MBA is to provide the company with the experience and knowledge that will put oneself in high demand in corporate world. MBA programs around the world are adapting their curriculums to reflect the changes made in today’s business world. An MBA will strive to provide the company with a better understanding of the new economy. ”

Week 8 Assignment 1

Week 8 Assignment 1
Statistics Tracking
Assignment 1. Linear Programming Case Study
From your real-world of your business* formulate a linear programming project for this assignment according to the following specifications.
It will be a problem with at least three (3) constraints and at least two (2) decision variables. The problem will be bounded and feasible. It will also have a single optimum solution (in other words, it won’t have alternate optimal solutions). The problem will also include a component that involves sensitivity analysis and the use of the shadow price.
You will be turning in two (2) deliverables, a short writeup of the project and the spreadsheet showing your work.
Your writeup should introduce your solution to the project by describing the problem. Correctly identify what type of problem this is. For example, you should note if the problem is a maximization or minimization problem, as well as identify the resources that constrain the solution. Identify each variable and explain the criteria involved in setting up the model. This should be encapsulated in one (1) or two (2) succinct paragraphs.
After the introductory paragraph, write out the L.P. model for the problem. Include the objective function and all constraints, including any non-negativity constraints. Then, you should present the optimal solution, based on your work in Excel. Explain what the results mean.
Finally, write a paragraph addressing the part of the problem pertaining to sensitivity analysis and shadow price.
As previously noted, please set up your problem in Excel and find the solution using Solver. Clearly label the cells in your spreadsheet. You will turn in the entire spreadsheet, showing the setup of the model, and the results.

*if a real-world business study is not possible, you may work with a fictional one you make up…just make the story 



Choose one of the discussion questions below to focus on for your discussion contribution.

Once you have completed your initial post (2-3 paragraphs), read and respond to the posts of at least 2 of your peers.

Your initial post and your peer responses should be substantial and original. Clearly cite any outside sources incorporated in to your original thoughts using MLA. For questions, reference the MLA guidelines.

Discussion questions:

Suppose that in year 2025, the US economy enters once of its worst recessionary gaps in history. Address these two related questions below:

Compare and contrasts how fiscal policy and monetary policy could be used to help address this economic downturn. Explain.

The US government is currently trillions of dollars in debt. If economists view reducing this debt to be critically important, do you think fiscal or monetary policy is a better response to the economic downturn? Explain.

You are considering buying a house by borrowing money from a bank. Of course, you would prefer that interest rates would be low when you borrow money. Address the three related questions below:

If you expect the Fed to raise the discount rate in the near future, would you be better to borrow money now or wait? Explain.

If you expect the Fed to raise the required reserve rate in the near future, would you be better to borrow money now or wait? Explain.

If you expect the Fed to engage in open market purchases (e.g. buying government bonds) in the near future, would you be better to borrow money now or wait? Explain.

Ebooks Are Inferior to Real Books

1. Good evening chairperson, ladies and gentleman. It is one thing to down load an eBooks and read it at your convenience but is this experience the same as lying out on the beach reading the latest publication from your favourite novelist with the worry of the device failing | 2. Your expensive device may be stolen while you’re in the surf or sand could enter your devices interface. Ladies and Gentlemen reading from an eBook is simply not the same as reading from a physical printed book as all electronic devices are subject to failures. 3. The topic before us this evening is that “eBooks are inferior to real books” Not one member of the affirmative team will deny that eBooks have been a great innovation however there are many disadvantages associated with the use of eBooks which would support our team’s argument that traditional books are superior and therefore by definition eBooks are inferior. | 4. We as the Affirmative team define eBooks as electronic copies of books, usually read through an e-reader or computer and real books as physical printed paper copies of books.
Tonight we will be discussing this on two key levels: I will discuss the social aspects and my second speaker Tom will address the disadvantages of eBooks from an economic perspective. | 5. Firstly I will address the inferior qualities of eBooks with regard to them denigrating the culture of reading and secondly the notion that print books promote a more holistic and equitable circumstance for people to have a greater access to literature both contemporary and traditional. | 6. Now to my first point, addressing print books and their significant contribution towards promoting a culture of reading.
E-Readers are far less capable of presenting artistic illustrations in the same capacity as real books. | 7. Very complex, design-heavy books such as comics do not translate well into eBook format, and in many cases people in possession of older e-reader devices, fail to support all of the technologically advanced features that are included within newly released eBooks and e-readers. | 8. Ladies and Gentleman how are we to cultivate a love for books with future generations if all we have access to is unexciting and uninteresting, dull, black and white text.

Think of the long held reading traditions which families employ when raising their children. | 9. Young children will always be interested in beautiful three dimensional illustrations adorned in colour and exciting imagery, not walls of text. The artistic value and interactivity of the children’s books we grew up with is something you certainly cannot replicate with an e-reader. | 10. This is a crucial part of the culture of reading that can and will engage our youth in reading from an early age. For centuries book lovers have enjoyed browsing the shelves in a book store, reading the blurbs and thumbing through the illustrations.
This is an important part of the culture of reading, a culture promoted by print books and a culture degraded by eBooks. | 11. This is further vindicated as statistics from over 250 000 surveys conducted by Amazon have revealed that 55% precent of e-books purchased from the kindle or amazon online catalogue have been planned purchases and only 5% of buyers have actually browsed the online catalogue like you would in a real bookstore. | 12. Print books are often utilised for decorative purposes in a home.
They can define ones interests’ and even a person’s profession, for example doctors and lawyers often have large libraries of books in their homes. Furthermore print books are often culturally and historically significant for various reasons, can form part of collections, or represent sentimental significance. Ebooks do not have that same utility. | 13. According to Jan Noyes and Kate Garland’s scientific report released in 2008 addressing the cognitive advantages and disadvantages of eBooks; it was discovered that screen reading was found to increase stress and exhaustion levels.
Finally, the technology of an e-book can also prove to be a disincentive for prospective readers. | 14. Add to these, the health issues of eye strain, the anxiety of worrying about battery life, damaging the screen of a reading device, its lack of portability in extreme or remote environments, problems of viruses and software bugs and the incompatibility of formats across devices are not issues that the reader of traditional books encounter. | 15.
RSI and long periods looking at a screen, plus the possibility that an e-book can be hacked and edited so that the original text could be censored or lack authenticity thus creating several more reasons why e-books can turn people off reading. | 16. All of these significant points refer to the culture of reading which is vital to society as we know it. This now brings me to my second argument that print books promote a more holistic and equitable circumstance for people to have a greater access to literature both contemporary and traditional. | 17.
EBooks are often a non-inclusive medium as it is a significant financial investment for individuals to purchase an E-reader. It is difficult for people without substantial financial means to make that investment when their primary focus is directed at providing for their families and their needs. | 18. Traditional books are always more accessible to the general public, in many cases through a library. Libraries provide a free and easy way for people of all socio-economic backgrounds to access books of all varieties and in addition libraries can be accessed locally as there is one in most suburbs. 19. Also, opportunities to read are enhanced because books are a tangible asset that can be easily exchanged, passed on from generation to generation and discarded for other people to pick up cheaply at fetes, book fairs and second hand bookshops. | 20. They are also a valuable resource to be collected and donated to institutions, waiting rooms, schools and third world countries. In other words making them accessible to the general population. Ladies and Gentleman you cannot do this with an eBook! | 21.
The reliance of e-books on technology conjures the frightening prospect of a world without literature, recorded historical data, in fact, all of the knowledge and entertainment that is currently held in the traditional manuscript of books and digital media. | 22. What happens if the gadgets and software we need to decode e-books malfunctions, there is a lack of electricity or our digital world collapses? We need traditional books to protect future access to reading for everyone. | 23. Tonight Ladies and gentleman I have argued the social aspects of why eBooks are most definitely inferior to real books. 24. My first point tonight detailed how print books significantly contribute towards promoting a culture of reading whereas eBooks damage that culture and my second point addressed how print books, through libraries promote a more holistic and unified circumstance where it is much easier for people who have less, to gain a greater access to more. | 25. Ladies and gentleman when DVD’s came out people thought that would be the end of cinema. There will always be a place for real books and if eBooks are such remarkable products why are we still publishing books?
Comparing e-readers to books is similar to comparing a modern contemporary rock song to a cover, which is never as good as the original. | 26. Every now and again you might get a cover version of a song that is perceived as better than the original but generally speaking more often than not the cover is never as good as the original. You can manipulate it and improve it but when it all comes down to the crunch it is the original that stands the test of time. The same is true for the traditional book which will pass the test of time. |