Week 9

Respond 1:

 Substantive tests of transactions are designed to verify the dollar value of transactions, while substantive tests of balances are tests that substantiate the ending balance of a general ledger account. A situation when a substantive test of balances can occur is when an auditor is testing accounts receivable balances. The auditor will verify that the balance in the general ledger agrees with the individual accounts receivable balances through confirmation possible using one of the examples of positive or negative confirmation above. Another example of when auditors may perform substantives tests of balances is when confirming inventory balances at the end of the year and associated accounts receivable balances.

Respond 2:

 Confirmations are type of audit evidence used to determine tests of details for accounts receivable balances.  In general, “a confirmation is a direct written response from a third party in paper or electronic form” (Arens, et al., 2017, p. 537).  With positive confirmation, a letter is sent to the debtor requesting a response if the stated account balance is correct or not.  A negative confirmation, on the other hand, requests a response only if the recipient disagrees with the amount of the stated account balance.  With a positive confirmation, the follow-up may be needed until the recipient responds, hence making it more reliable source of evidence.  With a negative confirmation, no response is considered to be a correct response even though the recipient ignored the letter or simply did not respond.  However, a negative confirmation is less expensive due to the simple process, and therefore, it can be sent to more recipients for the same cost (Arens, et al., 2017).  I believe email confirmations are acceptable considering the ease and speed of communication.  The mail can get misplaced, but email will not.  Email can also be used as a physical evidence since it can be saved on the computer and printed whenever it’s needed.  The oral confirmation may increase a response rate, but I think it is acceptable only if the conversation is being recorded.  

wk 1.2 criminal law

 A central component to any criminal case is the jurisdictional requirement for a court to hear a criminal case. In your examinations this week, focus on the power of jurisdiction and its significance as part of the criminal justice system. Who creates jurisdiction, and why is it so significant? Similarly, a sound understanding of the legal requirements of a crime is essential for all criminal justice professionals. You must be able to dissect a criminal statute to understand what actions and mindset are required to be proved to gain a conviction. Criminal statutes are precise, and your understanding of the elements of crime must be precise as well. 

 

Detail the significance of elements of crimes. At a minimum, your response must detail all of the following:

Define the term elements of a crime in your own words.
What happens when an element (or elements) of a crime are found to be vague or ambiguous?
Why must criminal laws be in writing?

 
Articles
Jeffrey, C. R. (1959). Pioneers in criminology: The historical development of criminology (Links to an external site.)Links to an external site.. Journal of Criminal Law and Criminology, 50(1), 3-19.doi:10.1177/00471178030172005

Understanding the sources of criminal law are essential to any understanding of current, criminal law issues. Not surprisingly, the issues faced by the criminal justice system today have been issues for centuries. This comprehensive analysis of not just the origins of criminal law, but its effectiveness and its accountability are presented for students.

McMunigal, K. C. (2004). A statutory approach to criminal law (Links to an external site.)Links to an external site.. Retrieved fromhttp://scholarlycommons.law.case.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1539&context=faculty_publications

Read pages 1286-89, 1290- 91, and 1293-1295
This article points out the fact that all criminal laws (statutes) must be in writing, and the state must prove each part of the statute (elements of the crime) to gain a conviction Do not get lost in “legal terms” in reading this article. Remember, statute equals criminal law, which creates a crime. All crimes must be clear and provide people with a plain understanding of what is a crime (called notice). If something is not written (created by a legislature), then it is not a crime.

Sterans. A. W. (1936). Evolution of punishment (Links to an external site.)Links to an external site.. Journal of Criminal Law and Criminology, 27(2). doi:10.2307/1135604

The origins of punishment as a means of deterrence or retribution cannot be traced to one singular event. The notions of punishment, and its level of appropriateness, has changed over the years, but understanding this central, criminal justice concept is essential to any understanding of criminal law and its goals.

Multimedia
Welcome to the LAW. (2010, July 1). 002 History of US law and what is the law? (Links to an external site.)Links to an external site.[Video file]. Retrieved from https://youtu.be/IOa2KI59RYs

This six-minute video provides a sound synopsis of criminal law and the Constitution’s effect on the criminal justice process.
Accessibility Statement (Links to an external site.)Links to an external site.
Privacy Policy (Links to an external site.)Links to an external site.

Robbins, K. (n.d.). Criminal justice process: Proceedings before trial (Links to an external site.)Links to an external site. [Presentation slides]. Retrieved from https://yanno.wikispaces.com/file/view/StreetLawChapter+13-1.ppt

This PowerPoint presentation explains the entire process from arrest through pre-trial motions. Jurisdiction for a crime determines whether the police have authority to arrest and where the criminal charges will be adjudicated.  This presentation should be used throughout weeks one through four for reference concerning both substantive motions and for the timing of events in criminal procedure.
An Accessibility Statement does not exist.
Privacy Policy (Links to an external site.)Links to an external site.

Supplemental Materials
Wallace, H. (2000). Federal and state jurisdiction (Links to an external site.)Links to an external site.. In A. Seymour, M. Murray, J. Sigmon, M. Hook, C. Edmunds, M. Gaboury, & G. Coleman (Eds.), 2000 national victim assistance academy. Retrieved from https://www.ncjrs.gov/ovc_archives/academy/chap2-1.htm

Detailed overview of the foundations of jurisdiction and its origins.
An Accessibility Statement does not exist

Evaluating Research Questions, Hypotheses, and Quantitative Research Designs

Discussion: Evaluating Research Questions, Hypotheses, and Quantitative Research Designs
With a clear purpose in place, quantitative researchers have a road map for crafting their research questions and hypotheses that will further focus the approach they will take to investigate their topic (i.e., their study’s research design).

The selection of a research design is guided by the study’s purpose and research questions and hypotheses, and the design then links the research questions and hypotheses to the data that will be collected. You should keep in mind, however, that the research process is interactive, not necessarily proceeding in a linear fashion from one component to the next. Rather, the writing of research questions could, for example, necessitate adjustments to the study’s purpose statement. Nevertheless, when presented together, the various components of a research study should align. As you learned last week, alignment means that a research study possesses clear and logical connections among all of its various components.

In addition to considering alignment, when researchers select a research design, they must also consider the ethical implications of their choice, including, for example, what their design selection means for participant recruitment, procedures, and privacy.

For this Discussion, you will evaluate quantitative research questions and hypotheses in assigned journal articles in your discipline and consider the alignment of theory, problem, purpose, research questions and hypotheses, and design. You will also identify the type of quantitative research design the authors used and explain how it was implemented. Quasi-experimental, casual comparative, correlation, pretest–post test, or true experimental are examples of types of research designs used in quantitative research.

Post a critique of the research study in which you:

Evaluate the research questions and hypotheses (The Research Questions and Hypotheses Checklist can be used as a guide to facilitate your evaluation; it is not meant to be used in a Yes/No response format in writing your Discussion post.)
Identify the type of quantitative research design used and explain how the researchers implemented the design
Analyze alignment among the theory, problem, purpose, research questions and hypotheses, and design

Be sure to support your Main Issue Post and Response Post with reference to the week’s Learning Resources and other scholarly evidence in APA Style.

Use the link below to review the article need to complete this discussion:

https://eds-a-ebscohost-com.ezp.waldenulibrary.org/eds/detail/detail?vid=3&sid=a4a6d376-39a1-4fe1-a9eb-e1835781be5d%40sdc-v-sessmgr03&bdata=JnNpdGU9ZWRzLWxpdmUmc2NvcGU9c2l0ZQ%3d%3d#AN=25929139&db=mnh 

Hishinuma, E. S., Chang, J. Y., Goebert, D. A., Helm, S., Else, I. R. N., & Sugimoto-Matsuda, J. (2015). Interpersonal youth violence perpetration and victimization in a diverse Asian American and Pacific Islander adolescent sample. Violence and Victims, 30(2), 225-249. doi:0.1891/0886-6708.VV-D-13-00043

“Alienation from Self ” Concept Essay in Fahrenheit 451

 Since concepts are closely related to each other, there will be some examples that work to illustrate multiple concepts. Alienation, for instance, includes a feeling of emptiness, so there is overlap between the concept of alienation and the concept of emptiness. One of the challenges of this essay is thinking carefully about concepts in order to make distinctions between them.
There is no rule about how many examples you need to use in this essay. In general, the more examples you have, the better, but remember that you need to carefully explain how each example works to illustrate the concept, so in most cases it is best to have only one example per body paragraph.
The examples should mostly come from Bradbury. Examples of the concept from your own life or your friend’s life or from popular culture should appear only in the introduction or conclusion.
Remember that this paper is meant to explain a concept, not express an opinion. If you have an opinion about the concept you are writing about, you may include it in the concluding paragraph.

Attached are the outline for this essay, and please follow the instruction on the outline. The picture is the concepts you can write in the essay if you want to change other concept to write about, please do so.  

words 1250-1500

Psychosis Portrayed in the Media

Impact of Media’s Portrayal of Psychotic Illness on Viewers Introduction Psychotic disorders are the more serious form of mental illness, particularly schizophrenia. Many multidimensional factors have contributed to the social stigma of psychotic mental illness, deeming it a social problem. According to Landsberg and Rock (2010), stigma and discrimination impacts policy and program response to the issue, causing limitations on our financing. As a result, there is a deficiency of resources provided by macro and micro level systems for individuals battling with the illness despite a recent shift in society’s perception.
Programs such as National Alliance for the Mentally Ill and the Recovery Movement have been trying to increase public understanding of the illness, advocate for government resources, and emphasize supportive networks such as family, friends, and mental health providers (Hertz, 2010). Unfortunately, the complexity of this illness and lack of thorough understanding continues to reinforce and sustain the stigma. Additionally, individuals discharged into the community from institutions have not been well supported by micro-level services. As a result, many commit crimes and end up in jail.
Landsberg and Rock (2010) found that many seriously mentally ill patients are in nursing homes, homeless shelters, and jails because of unmet needs. Community mental health centers have more patients than staff can handle (Hertz, 2010). In spite of various attempts, the mental health system is comprised of programs that “don’t work”, leaving many seriously ill individuals without proper care (Landsberg and Rock, 2010, pg. 258). These wide ranges of factors contribute to viewing serious mental illness as a social problem that is stigmatized as well. In terms of social stigma, there are several misconceptions.

Hertz (2010) found that the public misperceives people with psychotic illness as homicidal. The truth of research indicates that these individuals are more frequently victims of crime perpetrated by others, or, tragically, by their own hands (Hertz, 2010). Unfortunately, the daunting ways in which symptoms may manifest prevent people from establishing any positive associations with such illness. The media portrays psychotic disorders through different perspectives, ultimately sending mixed messages to audiences about the nature and prospects of the illness.
Landsberg and Rock (2010) stated that movies often picture the mentally ill as violent, negatively affecting our society’s willingness to enact needed changes and fund programs. The movies A Beautiful Mind, K-PAX, and The Soloist each portray a character living with a psychotic disorder, particularly Schizophrenia, who also demonstrates strength and resilience in their struggles. The intent of this paper is to discuss characteristics of psychotic illness, critically analyze these movies and their message to audiences, and assess accuracy within their portrayals.
Brief History of Mental Illness as a Social Problem There are conflicting ideologies in terms of how to approach serious mental illness in the United States. While some adopt a “survival of the fittest” perspective and believe affected individuals shouldn’t receive assistance, others act as committed advocates for programs to service them. When looking at the recent history of mental health, several attempts at revolutionizing systems were made, and always seem to only partially work. As a result, more systems that partially work were created.
The 1950’s through the 1970’s emphasized inpatient hospitalization for psychotic patients without much chance for their self-determination and self-empowerment. Solutions were very problem-focused, and patients received their treatment of insulin shock therapy. Socially, there seemed to be more emphasis on regarding anyone with a psychotic illness as “crazy”, and therefore someone to stay away from. The deinstitutionalization movement in the 1970’s and the creation of managed care was an attempt to steer away from “putting people away”. As a result, many hospitals were shut down.
The problem with this system was the lack of funds allocated towards community-based services. Now that the patient’s length of stay at hospitals significantly decreased, patients have been discharged into the streets, and left to their own devices. While many have been receiving adequate services, many are not receiving proper care and result in committing crimes, engaging in other illegal activity, becoming homeless, or just functioning on a very low level. Hertz (2010) stated that the waiting lists for residual programs for the chronically mentally ill are months, if not years long.
This implies the staggering amount of people not receiving proper aftercare. A true solution is yet to be discovered. Background on Psychotic Disorders with an Emphasis on Schizophrenia Schizophrenia is currently affecting nearly 2. 5 million people living in the United States, and 29 million people worldwide (Hertz, 2010). The typical beginning of this illness is during adolescence or early adulthood. Hertz (2010) reported that the onset can be gradual, starting with odd beliefs and mannerisms, while other onsets are acute with a sudden psychotic break.
These research findings imply the complexity in how symptoms manifest, and pose a challenge for practitioners to pinpoint and potentially diagnosis. There exists a social misconception regarding psychotic disorders. Psychotic symptoms may appear in disorders other than Schizophrenia, and the presence of psychotic symptoms doesn’t necessarily indicate diagnosis of Schizophrenia. Hertz (2010) stated that withdrawal from reality marks psychosis, containing two major symptoms: delusions and hallucinations.
Schizophrenia is particularly characterized as a thought disorder which builds on these symptoms to include impaired cognitive functioning such as “loose associations of ideas/thoughts and disturbance of affect” (Hertz, 2010, p. 285). There are several types of schizophrenia, and is defined by positive and negative symptoms which indicate the existence or deficiency of functioning. Hepworth, Rooney, and Larsen (2010) found that positive symptoms include delusions, hallucinations, disorganized speech, and catatonic behavior.
According to Hepworth, Rooney, and Larsen (2010), negative symptoms include flattened affect, restricted speech, and limited initiation of goal-directed behavior. The causes of psychotic disorders are ultimately unknown, and many different theories emphasize different contributing factors. According to Hertz (2010), genetics, heredity, and neuro chemistry determine varying degrees of predisposition to developing psychosis. This research finding implies that environmental and social stressors play a role as well. A Beautiful Mind
John Nash is the main character in A Beautiful Mind who is predominantly battling with the paranoid subtype of schizophrenia. The movie follows the life of mathematician John Nash who is responsible for creating several ingenious theories such as game theory still used in economics today. He attended Ivy League Princeton University in the 1940’s after which he became a calculus professor at MIT five years later. Falling in love with one of his students, Mr. John Nash started a family and continued working on theories and concepts as a product of his mastermind.
Gradually throughout the course of Mr. Nash’s academic and intellectual achievements, the movie directed attention to the display and effect of his psychotic illness. Several aspects of Mr. Nash’s psychotic symptoms were portrayed through different characters and plot points. His college roommate Charles, Charles’s niece Marcee, and Department of Defense agent William Parcher were three characters that were eventually revealed as part of his visual and auditory hallucinations. Agent Parcher also marked Mr.
Nash’s delusional thinking when he invited him to crack a special code of their enemy at the Pentagon. Throughout the movie, viewers periodically see Mr. Nash involved with Parcher in various assignments that appeared prestigious and extremely intellectual. In the beginning of the movie, Charles’s character was designed for audiences to believe he was real, given the strong and realistic friendship that transpired between him and Mr. Nash. However, as the years went by and Marcee stayed the same age, Mr. Nash realized she was a figment of his imagination.
Mr. Nash’s delusions have put his family in danger on numerous occasions. He nearly allowed his son to drown while bathing him, and accidentally knocked his wife Alicia over when agent Parcher told him to kill her. After Alicia had enough of his behavior, she called the psychiatric hospital where he was admitted to receive insulin shock therapy, a common treatment for psychosis in the 1950’s. After agreeing to take anti-psychotic medications, Mr. Nash was released from the hospital. Unfortunately, he ended up stockpiling the medication without aking them, resulting in relapse of his psychotic symptoms. Lesser and Pope (2010) stated that psychotropic medications are effective in ceasing or reducing psychotic symptoms but often have unpleasant side effects. Mr. Nash’s detrimental side effects included reduction in intellectual abilities, and impairments to his relationship with his wife. Ultimately, Mr. Nash has learned to manage his symptoms and live with his illness. The message this movie hopefully sends out to viewers is that serious mental illness can affect bright and well educated people, and that recovery is possible.
Moreover, the movie encourages viewers to realize that even individuals with serious mental illness can excel in certain areas of life, if not reaching levels of genius. While the media, as previously stated, typically portrays individuals with mental illness as violent antagonists, Mr. Nash is portrayed as a protagonist despite his mild violence during psychotic episodes. Viewers likely feel compassion for him and want to see him win his battles. The movie accurately portrayed environmental stressors that may cause unpredictable emotional breakdowns.
Mr. Nash’s character was portrayed as getting frustrated and angry when he thought he couldn’t fulfill the duties agent Parcher has assigned him. He was worried that the Russians are after him, and felt pressure to crack the code that never existed. Moreover, when he was admitted to the hospital, he perceived doctors to be Russian spies, a reasonable portrayal of paranoid schizophrenia. Luckily, Mr. Nash trained himself to transcend his symptoms by acknowledging, followed by ignoring, their existence.
While it has been stated that the real John Nash only experienced auditory hallucinations, A Beautiful Mind seemed to incorporate visual hallucinations for entertainment purposes, inaccurately portraying and exaggerating Mr. Nash’s illness. However, accuracy was shown through the many psychotic breakdowns Mr. Nash experienced, demonstrating emotional and physical breakdowns. Although he put his wife and child in danger on numerous occasions, Alicia served as his main support system. Hertz (2010) stated that supportive networks are a critical variable in determining the quality of life of people with Schizophrenia.
In fact, it is arguable that in this movie, Mr. Nash demonstrated more resilience and strength than is realistically common in the United States for people with psychotic illness. Not everyone has access to the kind of support he did given his prestigious status as a mathematician. Additionally, he had the support of his loving wife who never abandoned him and seemed to be the main source of his resilience. K-PAX Prot is the main character in K-PAX who demonstrates delusional thinking as part of his psychosis. As previously discussed, he didn’t necessarily have Schizophrenia.
Prot was admitted to the hospital after claiming to be an alien from a planet called K-PAX. As psychiatrist Mark Powell begins to treat Prot, he learns of his excelling intellect in the subject of astronomy. Stunned by this wisdom, Mark introduced Prot to some astro-physicists who were puzzled by his recollection of traveling from a different planet by a means of light travel. Prot and Mike’s relationship grew stronger with each treatment session, and Prot revealed his knowledge of life on planet K-PAX. Prot also had a positive influence on other patients in the hospital who believed he was from a different planet.
Prot began to display erratic emotional breakdowns that were indicative of his psychosis. He had an episode during some of his sessions with Mark, as well as in front of Mike’s family when he was invited over for dinner. Prot began to repeatedly mention that he is going back to planet K-PAX on July 27th. Mark started to make connections between what triggers lead to Prot’s hysteria. Additionally, he used regressive hypnosis to discover the significance of the date July 27th, suspecting he suffered from significant loss. He learned that Prot has attempted suicide after his family was killed on July 27th.
When that date finally came, Prot was found catatonic, and the ending of the movie was open to interpretation. This movie sends several messages to viewers. One of them includes the strong impact trauma may have on individuals. Prot attempted suicide without success after his family was killed, marking the onset of his delusions. Hertz (2010) found that suicide attempts are a common and often overlooked occurrence within psychotic symptoms, and often occur during the first psychotic episode when the individual feels bewildered and out of control.
His feelings of bewilderment were likely caused by seeing his family get killed, a realistic reaction to such a tragic occurrence. K-PAX hopefully teaches audiences to realize that many of the severely mentally ill individuals could have experienced significant loss in their lives that was out of their control, leading to their illness. There was nothing substantial provided in the beginning of the movie which aroused sympathy for Prot’s character. It is arguable that audiences could have perceived all his discussions about travelling from another planet as him “joking” around with authorities.
He wore black sunglasses, and seriously spoke about life on another planet. However, as the movie showed several emotional breakdowns, it was evident that he has experienced significant psychological trauma of loss. Hertz (2010) stated that psychotic symptoms are often triggered by a significant loss, and environmental stressors can trigger neuro chemical events in the brain. The movie accurately portrayed the concept of surrounding triggers. For instance, Prot was reminded of the tragedy when the sprinklers came on at Mike’s house, causing flashbacks of his trauma.
Assessing accuracy of his intense reaction is difficult, for, each individual reacts to triggers to varying degrees. His particular reaction involved crying and an appearance of deep sadness. The Soloist Nathaniel Ayres is the main character in The Soloist who is portrayed to struggle with Paranoid Schizophrenia as his psychotic disorder. The movie follows the life of Anthony Ayres, a man who became homeless as a result of his illness. Journalist Steve Lopez was desperately seeking material for a story to meet a deadline. One day he heard someone playing the cello so beautifully that he felt compelled to follow the music.
As a result, he met a homeless man named Nathaniel who claimed to have attended Julliard for his musical talents. Steve tested his word by calling the school, only to find out that Nathaniel has indeed attended Julliard, but has dropped out after his second year. Steve ended up writing his story on Nathaniel. As their friendship progressed, Steve became more interested in Nathaniel’s safety, and wanted him to receive treatment. Flashbacks to the onset of Nathaniel’s Schizophrenia were portrayed to answer Steve’s questions as to why he is no longer in Julliard and living in a shelter.
In response to the published story, readers responded with sympathy, and one woman even sent Nathaniel a Cello. Eventually, Steve convinced Nathaniel to perform in front of an audience which triggered his auditory hallucinations. The end of the movie displayed Nathaniel continuing to struggle with his illness, but no longer living in a shelter, marking progress. His friendship with Steve and his music seem to help manage his symptoms, according to psychiatrists Steve has consulted with. In addition to serious mental illness, The Soloist portrays another social problem that is stigmatized: homelessness.
Hertz (2010) estimated that 60% of people with schizophrenia live in poverty, and 1 in 20 ends up homeless. The movie portrays Nathaniel as someone who has been exposed to treatments such as medications and shock therapy, and doesn’t want anything to do with them. It seemed as though he felt he belonged in a shelter as opposed to an apartment where his symptoms emerge. The message of this film is for audiences to realize that homeless people aren’t necessarily “lazy”, or “can’t get a job”. Conversely, they may have suffered from symptoms which inevitably led to that lifestyle.
Through flashbacks, Nathaniel was portrayed as a productive and gifted member of society who attended a prestigious musical institution, and tried to start his young adult life living in an apartment. Unfortunately, he was overpowered by his auditory hallucinations, making him paranoid and scared. Hopefully audiences will reorient their mentality and not disregard homeless individuals as those that haven’t worked hard enough to attain a job and a place to live. Some of them have truly been overpowered by persistent mental illness.
In terms of accuracy, The Soloist fairly portrayed the possible impact of stressors in the environment that trigger psychotic episodes. For Nathaniel, the pressure of performing well in front of an audience triggered “voices” which led him to run away. Additionally, unless an individual is medicated, it is rare for psychotic symptoms to not emerge. In the movie, Nathaniel was not receiving treatment at the time he became friends with Steve, and it was shown through his inability to have coherent conversations with him. Furthermore, he was unable to hold on to an apartment, and even felt comforted by the city street noises.
His physical appearance was also unkempt and very colorful, reasonably displaying what someone with this disorder could potentially look like. Comparisons and Contrasts between Films There are several similarities and differences in the way media portrayed these characters suffering from serious mental illness. While the etiology, symptoms, and course of their disorders slightly differed, they all share a strong support system which provided them self-determination and potential for growth, similar to the goals of the Recovery Movement. Hertz (2010) stated that the presence of someone who believes in their recovery increase recovery rates.
Mr. John Nash had the privilege of a supportive wife. Realistically, it may be an exception that an affected individual is a coveted professor with a family by his side assisting his struggles. Prot developed a relationship with his Psychiatrist. It is rare, if not unethical, for a patient’s psychiatrist to invite them into their home and introduce them to family members. More importantly, it seems rare for a psychiatrist to invest so much emotional effort into one particular case, especially one that is middle aged and has been in the practice for so long.
Nathaniel formed a strong friendship with journalist Steve Lopez. Most severely mentally ill homeless individuals are not “discovered” by someone who decides to believe in them; most, as previously discussed, are underserved and not receiving proper treatment and care. While the storylines were touching and enlightening, they are very rare. These situations seem to be an exception rather than the rule, making the character portrayals inaccurate in terms of exaggerating the levels of support. Another important similarity accurately portraying psychotic disorders is the fact that there is no known cure.
None of the characters were “cured” by the end of the movie, but rather found their own ways of coping with symptoms. The ultimate message was moderately accurate when showing psychotic mental illness; every single case should be viewed individually despite the one set of guidelines for diagnosis provided in the DSM-IV. Research has been clear about one thing: psychotic disorders remain etiologically perplexing and challenging to treat (Hertz, 2010). As a result, it is fairly easy for media to “play around” with psychotic illness through characters, since there is ultimately no absolute truth to reference, and thereby deem “inaccurate”.
Since symptoms are a product of the person’s psyche, there seem to be no limits as to how creative psychotic symptoms and reactions may become. Interestingly, all three characters in the films are men. Research found that more men than women are given the diagnosis of a psychotic disorder (Hertz, 2010). Also, each movie emphasizes a different aspect of psychotic illness. A Beautiful Mind focuses on illness affecting a genius mind; K-PAX signifies the impact of a traumatic loss, and The Soloist show how symptoms can lead to homelessness. Conclusion
According to Lesser and Pope (2010), psychiatry critic Thomas Szasz believed that the diagnosis of psychiatric illnesses was socially constructed, vary culture to culture, and is society’s way of labeling individuals when their behavior breaks social rules. Nonetheless, the use of the DSM system prevails in the United States, and many individuals “labeled” under its guidelines are in need of services, reinforcing mental illness as a social problem. The deinstitutionalization movement in the 1970’s as an attempt to serve the severely mentally ill has created a new array of social problems given the lack of funding anticipated for these goals.
Hertz (2010) presented that the sickest people in our society are “lost in the cracks” as they are discharged from institutions to poor and inadequate aftercare. The media provides several portrayals of serious mental illness. The three movies chosen for discussion (A Beautiful Mind, K-PAX, and The Soloist) ultimately portray the strength and resilience possible even for the most seriously mentally ill individuals, when provided with emotional and social resources. Implicitly, hope is not lost, and Hertz (2010) proposed a solution to make a shift in our priorities: making a commitment to even the most disturbed members of our society.
As demonstrated in the three films, two of which were based on real life people and events, individuals with even the most serious of mental illness can show strength and resilience. References Berzoff, J. , Melano Flanagan, L. , & Hertz, P. (2008). Chapter 13: The psychoses, with a special emphasis on schizophrenia (pp. 281-310). Inside out and outside in: Psychodynamic clinical theory and psychopathology in contemporary multicultural contexts (2nd ed. ). New York: Jason Aronson. Hepworth, D. , Rooney, R. & Larsen, J. 2010). Chapter 9: Assessment: Intrapersonal, Interpersonal, and Environmental Factors. (pp. 199-226). Direct social work practice: Theory and skills (8th ed. ). Pacific Grove, CA: Brooks/Cole. Landsberg, G. , & Rock, M. (2010). Chapter 9: Mental Health. Social policy and social work: The context of social work practice. New York, NY: Pearson. Lesser, J. G. , & Pope, D. S. (2010). Chapter 17: Chronic illness and disability. (pp. 437-464). Human Behavior in the Social Environment: Theory and Practice. Boston: Allyn and Bacon.

watch the following video and read the questions then write 2 pages

Disclaimer: it is a bit of funny, factual, eye opening, and ridiculousness all wrapped into one.
Your job: Answer the following questions:
·       What is native advertising?
·       What is the separation of church and state as described in the video?
·       Does new media consumption add to the need for native advertising? Why or why not?
·       Should native advertising be regulated by the government? If you think yes, suggest how it might happen. If you think no, explain why not?
·       Is native advertising to adults ethical?
·       Is native advertising to protected groups (children, seniors, handicapped) ethical?
·       If you owned a media company and your rivals generated revenue from native advertising, would you use it?
Write in paragraph format and limit your response to 1.75 to 1.5 page, double-spaced using Times New Roman font size 12 with your name on the first line of the document followed by your essay response (no big headings).

Business Gross and Net Profit

Gross and Net profit Gross profit A company’s revenue, minus the business’ costs of goods For example: If I sold 5000 cheese sandwiches for ? 1 each my total revenue would be 50 x ? 1 = ? 5000 It costs 25p per sandwich to purchase bread, butter and cheese. My gross profit = Revenue – Costs of sales (25p x 5000= ? 1250. 00) = ? 3750. 00 Net profit The business’ gross profit minus expenses For example: My gross profit from my sandwiches is ? 3750. 00 to calculate my Net profit I need to minus the rest of my expenses 385 on rent 80 on advertising 950 on staff salaries My total expenses are ? 1,415 My net profit= Gross profit (? ,750) – Expenses (1,415) = ? 2,335
The difference between gross and net profit The difference between gross and net profit is that gross profit is merely a stepping stone to work out the net profit. Say at the end of a month a business has ? 5000 in the bank, we need to work out the gross profit to know exactly how much we have to pay to the manufacturer and to cover the costs of materials. The same goes for net profit. Say after the business had worked out the gross profit and we had ? 4250 left in the bank, we still wouldn’t know exactly how much money we had made that month until we had worked out the net profit. Cost of sales
Cost of sales is the cost of the materials used to produce a product. This includes any costs included in making the product, this includes:

Shipping costs
Cost of containers

Overhead costs linked directly to the manufacture, like rent for the manufacturing facilities Costs vary dependant on the industry. For example a retail business buys products to resell them at a higher price, but a manufacturer either buys raw materials and turn them into finished products, or buy parts and just assemble them, ready for sale. Expenses Expenses are all the costs that a business or organization has to pay out, this includes

Fixed costs Variable cost
Taxes

All other operating costs How to maximise profits There are several different ways a business or organization can maximise profits, these include:
Lowering the costs of sales by using cheaper materials
Lowering the costs of sales by minimizing manufacturing costs Nike Sports wear and Primark got a lot of bad press by moving their manufacturing factories abroad. They did this to lower their manufacturing costs as the workers have no minimum wage, or even minimum age so they can have their goods made at a very low price.
Increasing the price of sales, (making your product more expensive)

Literature Oregano

Oregano (Scientific name: Origanum vulgare) is also known as Wild Marjoram, Mountain Mint, Origanum, Wintersweet and Winter Marjoram. This erectly spreading plant has strong aromatic characteristics, with leaves and stems that are fleshy. The leaves of oregano are heart-shaped, with toothed edges, and which, grow for up to 9 meters in length. In other countries, the plant is primarily used as a culinary ingredient. However, in countries like the Philippines, Oregano is a known herbal medicine for its strong anti-oxidant properties.
Plant family: Lamiaceae (mint family). Oregano is more popularly known for its aromatic and balsamic flavor and is commonly used as mint flavoring in Mediterranean and Mexican foods. Oregano, as used as herbal medicine, has its earliest beginnings even in early Egyptian times and has been traditionally used as herbal remedy for skin burns, cuts and bruises. Because of the minty flavor of oregano, it is also used as herbal remedy for sore throat, asthma, colds, coughs and flu. Oregano was first used by the Greeks. In their mythology the goddess Aphrodite invented the spice.
Giving it to man to make his life happier. The word “oregano” is actually derived from the Greek phrase, “joy of the mountains”. Just married couples were crowned with wreaths of it. It was also put on graves to give peace to departed spirits. Ancient Greek physicians discovered that the herb had beneficial effects and prescribed it for a variety of ailments. Hippocrates used it as well as its close cousin, marjoram as an antiseptic. The Roman’s, who later conquered Greece, would adopt much of the culture of the region. They tasted oregano and thought that it was good.

The ease of its cultivation coupled with the Roman proclivity for the expansion of Empire would spread its use throughout Europe and much of Northern Africa. In these regions it was used to spice meats, fish, and even as a flavoring for wine. In the middle ages, people continued to use it. Sharp spices were not common at this time. Oregano was one of the few food flavorings available to give variety to the daily fair. The people of the dark age cast about for medicinal properties in whatever form they could find. They would chew the oregano leaves as a cure for rheumatism, toothache, indigestion, and as a cough suppressant.
Oregano found its way to China probably via the spice road that wended through the Middle-East during the Medieval period. Here again it was a medicinal herb. Doctors prescribed it to relieve fever, vomiting, diarrhea, jaundice, and itchy skin. Later, the English found a use for oregano as an additive to snuff (which was generally a tobacco concoction taken through the nose). It was also used as a perfume in sachets. In spite of its use in England, Oregano was little known in the United States prior to the Second World War. Soldiers discovered the flavors and aromas during the Italian Campaign and brought back the spice and the desire for it.
Related Studies Oil of Oregano According to Scott Gavura, the less evidence that exists to support the use of a treatment, the more passionate its supporters seem to be. I learned this early in my career as a pharmacist. One pharmacy I worked at did a steady business in essential oils. And king of the oils was oil of oregano. Not only were there several different brands of the basic oil, they were different forms, including capsules, creams and even nasal sprays. Not aware of any therapeutic benefits, I would ask customers what they were using it for.
I rarely heard the same condition described: skin infections, athlete’s foot, head lice, colds, sore throats, “parasites”, “yeasts”, diabetes, allergies and ringworm were apparently no match against the judicious use of oregano oil. Intrigued, I took a closer look. Long before our scientific understanding of bacteria and antimicrobials, infected wounds were packed with different products in an attempt to minimize the odor, and hopefully speed healing. It’s likely that someone happened upon a fragrant herb and discovered that it seemed to help treat wounds (or at least, cover some of the smell).
Given there have been some amazing drugs with powerful effects that have emerged from natural products, it’s certainly plausible that oil of oregano could have biological and therapeutic effects. Oregano (Origanum vulgare) leaves contain a wide variety of chemical compounds, including leanolic acids, ursolic acids, and phenolic glycosides. Phenolic compounds make up to 71% of the oil. Carvacrol, thymol, cymene, and terpinine and are found in oregano leaves and do appear to have biological effects. It’s these chemicals that are proposed to be the parts with beneficial effects. Effectiveness
When we contemplate administering a chemical to deliver a medicinal effect, we need to ask the following: Is it absorbed into the body at all? Does enough reach the right part of the body to have an effect? Does it actually work for the condition? Does it have any hazardous, unwanted effects? Can it be safely eliminated from the body? These questions are usually answered through a series of investigations, starting with preclinical (test-tube) studies, and moving into animal trials, and then to human clinical trials that start with validating the safety and then progress to investigating efficacy and safety.
The short answer is that there’s little beyond animal studies to demonstrate that the ingredients in oregano oil have any effects. One of the best reviews seems to come from the McCormick Science Institute (yes, the spice company). They commissioned a paper on oregano by Keith Singletary that appeared in the journal Nutrition Today in 2010. Happily, though the journal is paywalled, McCormick is hosting the paper on its own website.

Is oil of oregano absorbed? Some parts of the oregano do appear to be absorbed but the bioavailability of its different chemical constituents has not been verified. So we can’t be certain which components are reaching the circulation.
Does enough reach the right part of the body to have any beneficial effect? It’s not clear where the chemicals in oil of oregano act in the body, as no research, has been done to show that it is adequately absorbed. However, there is some evidence to suggest that oregano may be implicated in inducing abortions in mice, so some parts of the herb must be absorbed if this a causal effect. When applied to body surfaces or skin for topical effect, oil of oregano is more likely to reach high concentrations, at least locally, and then possibly deliver a medicinal effect. This makes topical effects seem much more plausible than ones that require ingestion.
Does it actually work for the condition? There is no published evidence to demonstrate that the oil of oregano is effective for any medical condition or illness. The McCormick review notes that that data for every condition evaluated is “preliminary, inconclusive. ” There is some very limited evidence to suggest that it might be useful for parasite infections — but given the evidence consists of only one study with 14 patients, and no placebo comparison, we really have no idea if the oregano oil itself was effective.

Let’s consider how oil of oregano might treat an infection. Bacteria are killed by antimicrobials based on a specific dose-response relationship. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) must be reached at the site of an infection. Then there’s a concentration range where the bacteria (or viruses, or fungi, or parasites, depending on what you’re treating) are killed, typically in rough proportion to the dose. Keep increasing the dose, and the effect plateaus.
If you can hit the MIC without causing side effects or toxicity, congratulations: you have a potential therapeutic agent. There’s some evidence out there demonstrating that oil of oregano will kill different species of bacteria, etc in the test tube or Petri dish ( in vitro). If I pour a pile of salt, lime juice, Cointreau, or tequila on a Petri dish, it will likely kill most bacteria too — but that doesn’t mean margaritas can treat pneumonia. It’s not difficult to kill bacteria if you change the conditions enough that it cannot live.
So while it’s easy to get high concentrations of oregano in a test tube and subsequent positive effects, these effects are meaningless in the human body unless we can achieve similar concentrations, without any toxicity. And this has not been demonstrated with oil of oregano, or its individual chemical ingredients. 4. Does oil of oregano have any hazardous, unwanted effects? Natural does not mean safe. There are some reports of gastrointestinal upset with oil of oregano. There are also reports of allergic reactions.
There is no evidence to suggest that oil of oregano, used at high (medicinal) amounts, may be used safely in pregnant or breast feeding women. However, when used in cooking, and as part of a regular diet, there is also no evidence that causes harm in pregnancy or breastfeeding. Animal studies show that if you give enough carvacrol, it will kill, though. 5. Can oil of oregano be safely eliminated from the body? So little published research exists on oil of oregano there is no way to determine if oregano oil is non-toxic.
Certainly, at low doses, when used as a food, there is no reason to have any concerns. But at higher doses, and particularly with regular use, there is no data to suggest it’s safe to consume all that carvacrol, thymol, cymene, and terpinine. As we have no idea if and how oregano oil works, we have no information to estimate what a proper dose might be. Doses published by manufacturers are not based on any published evidence. Conclusion Oil of oregano, and the claims attached to it, is a great example of how interesting laboratory findings can be wildly exaggerated to imply meaningful effects in humans.
A few small studies have been conducted, mainly in the lab, and advocates argue this is evidence of effectiveness. The rest is all anecdotes. Despite the hype, there is no persuasive evidence to demonstrate that oil of oregano does anything useful in or on our bodies. And while it is popular, there is no science to support the use of oil of oregano for any medical condition. Suggesting that this herb is can effectively treat serious medical conditions like diabetes, asthma, and cancer is foolish and dangerous. If you’re ill, stick to the proven science, and save your oregano for cooking.

Walmart: SWOT analysis

Walmart is a multinational retail corporation, an American company. The company was founded by Sam Walton in the year of 1962 and incorporated on October 31, 1969. Headquarter is situated in Bentonville, Arkansas. Wal-Mart conducts a chain of discount department stores, hypermarkets, and grocery stores. The Wal-Mart is the world’s largest retail industry. As of 2016, Walmart has 11,527 stores and clubs in 28 countries, under a total of 63 banners. Also, Walmart is the largest private employer in the United States of America. The company operates under the Walmart name in the United States and Canada. An uncommon feature of Walmart is that it is virtually recession proof. The reason behind it is, in times of economic recession, consumers flock discount retailers.
Walmart is the world’s largest company by revenue – approximately $480 billion according to the Fortune Global 500 list in 2016 – as well as the largest private employer in the world with 2.3 million employees.

The SWOT analysis of Wal-Mart elaborates the strength, weakness, opportunities, threats for the company. It will provide a visual overview that will prompt discussion around the company’s strategy, situation, and potentiality.
Strengths
Wal-Mart is a powerful retail brand that represents value and quality. It offers value for money and convenience by offering a wide range of products. Through its associates, the company has developed the one stop shopping policy emulated by other retail stores worldwide. This strength enhances Wal-Mart’s ability- to attract new customers and maintain customer loyalty.
Walmart is estimated to be No.24 World’s Most Valuable Brand with the market capitalization brand value of USD 221.1 billion. High brand value is a clear indication of a solid health of the business, as well as, a high level of consumer loyalty. Furthermore, Walmart’s immense brand value is a clear indication of the relevance of its business model in general and its competitive advantages in particular.
Sophisticated supply chain operations is another point of strengths that contributes to Walmart’s competitive advantage. A set of efficient supply chain principles used by Walmart includes using fewer links in the supply chain, forming strategic vendor partnership and employing cross docking as an efficient inventory tactic. Moreover, Walmart supply chain operations immensely benefit from the economies of scale due to the massive scope and scale of its operations. Walmart can efficiently control and monitor its goods.
Weaknesses
Wal-Mart has also shown a weakness in the area of human resource management practices. Wal-Mart’s pursuit of its low-cost strategy has seen the company adopt some human resource policies that are not favorable to the employees. In several occasions, Wal-Mart has had to deal with labor relation conflicts, especially in the United States market. In many of these occasions, Wal-Mart has been accused of poor remuneration of workers and long working hours. Wal-Mart weak HR policies have had various impacts on the company. One of these impacts is tarnished the image of the company.
The products of Wal-Mart are known as low priced products. And for this low price, it has been dominating the industry. If the price goes up, people will start leaving the products of Wal-Mart. That’s why the company cannot offer bigger price and make more profit. Also, the business model of Wal-Mart is easily understandable. The model can be copied by anyone, even by the new companies who want to enter the market. As a result, it can make more competitors in the market which may lessen the profit margin.
Wal-Mart has experienced numerous lawsuits related to its treatment of employees, including discrimination, unequal wages, unfair promotions, unpaid overtime, poor benefits and poor work environments. This has caused the retailer significant money as well as tarnished its brand reputation.
Opportunities
The stores are currently only trade in a relatively small number of countries. Therefore ?continuing international expansion is a tremendous opportunity for Wal-Mart. This could be done in two forms. Establishing operations in new countries, and increasing market share in countries where it has operations. There are fourteen countries in South America where Wal-Mart has not operations, but it has the expertise obtained from Mexico, Chile, and others, and it has the knowledge to do that. Wal-Mart has not operations in continental Europe, and this is a huge market to be attended. On the other hand, there is actually a great opportunity for growth in developing countries and Asian markets. Increasing market share in these countries could support the Wal-Mart’s growth.
Wal-Mart has the opportunity to expand its online store and presence, including more of the emerging economies that are considering how to do their shopping online. This low overhead strategy can further the retailer’s revenue.
With its vast resources, Wal-Mart has the opportunity to take over, merge with, or form strategic alliances with other global retailers. The Wal-Mart stores are currently in a relatively small number of countries. There are therefore huge opportunities for future business in expanding consumer markets in emerging economic powerhouses including developing countries.
Threats
Wal-Mart is facing stiff competition from a large number of companies in the retail market worldwide including global retailers like TESCO, Amazon, Costco, Target, Carrefour and local stores. Intense competition could adversely affect the revenues and profitability of Wal-Mart. They face opposition and resistance from communities by local and international market like a small retailer in US and opposition of shopkeepers and retailers on introduction of Wal-Mart in India. Growing opposition to opening new stores from local communities and entry into international markets is likely to hold back expansion plans of Wal-Mart.
Wal-Mart’s entrance into the global market exposes it to political problems in the countries that you operate in. Wal-Mart is a global retailer that needs to adapt to foreign regulations and standards so as to penetrate in the global market. The company is vulnerable to the issues that would affect the country it operates in, particularly political and economic issues. Competitors in these countries may use their influence in the government to counter Wal-Mart’s penetration. They may also result to malpractices under government protection to fight off competition.
Another major threat is that of a stronger dollar. A stronger dollar internationally means that the profits will be low for Wal-Mart. The recent years saw dollar grow stronger internationally which meant that the profits of the international division of Wal-Mart had to suffer.
The Wal-Mart’s success is a case that deserves be studied. This company has reached a very strong competitive position and remarkable global-wide operations. The base for this success has been the management who has performed very well the functions of planning, organizing, leading and controlling. The today situation of the company in all of its business aspects is enviable for its competitors. However, the past success does not guarantee the next success, and Wal-Mart has a lot of work to do. Maintaining the first place is as challenging, or more, than getting there. It has great strengths and big opportunities, and its weaknesses and threats are challenging but not overwhelming. These weaknesses and threats require attention and could be turned, by an effective management, in new opportunities and strengths.
References

Walmart Wikipedia [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Walmart] Forbes: The World’s Biggest Public Companies [https://www.forbes.com/companies/wal-mart-stores/] SWOT Analysis Of Wal-Mart [http://www.businessteacher.org.uk/guides/business/swot/swot-analysis-of-wal-mart.php]

Managing Customer Perceptions of the Business Environment

Per Bendapudi and Berry, the environmental influences consumer behavior but does not influence consumers’ trust. Organizations have to research extent of how their marketing environment creates customers’ perceived behavior and also how individual factors of given environment add to that perception. While many other researchers and authors suggest that functional behavior requires perception of trust, authors of this article are suggesting that this may not be obsolete condition. Some organizational environments are more likely to result in dysfunctional or functional behaviors as a result of larger customer perception of dependency.
If customer is perceiving dependence in continuity, competitive advantage is than probably gained through managing customer perceptions of the organizational environment to reduce perceptions of high dependency. This may then reduce the negative impact arising from dependence based dysfunctional behaviors. If customers exhibit functional behaviors when they perceive themselves to have a low dependency upon a service organization then the findings suggest practical steps that those organizations can take to influence customer perceptions of the business environment (Hilton&Jones, 2010).
Analysis Hilton and Jones wrote this article because of the fact that customer perceptions of the organizational environment and its influence on customer behavior is an area that is not researched enough. Customer behavior is a concept of a response to perceptions of organizational environment and they are categorized as functional or dysfunctional behavior based on potential impact on the firm. Authors are arguing that some organizational environments are more likely to result in functional or dysfunctional customer behavior.

Per Hilton and Jones, that is result of greater perceived dependency, irrespective of whether customers trust their service providers, or business partners. There are numerous findings that consumer imagery extends beyond perceived price and company image to the business environment. Businesses that enjoy favorable image generally find that their products are accepted more readily than those from businesses that have less favorable or even neutral image in customers’ perception. This study focuses on the environmental antecedents of dependence.
If a characteristic of the business environment is that it generates customer dependence upon a business partner then it is important for organizations to understand which aspects of their business environment contribute towards the perception of dependence (Hilton&Jones, 2010). Consumers’ selections of stimuli from the environment are based on interactions of their expectations and motives with the stimulus itself. People usually perceive things they need or want, and block the perception of unnecessary, unfavorable, or painful stimuli.
This study was designed to identify, compare and contrast the experiences of commercial and private clients to determine whether the environmental variables identified by Bendapudi and Berry were applicable to the legal service context and, if so, were they also relevant to individual consumers as well as business customers. It is more difficult for consumers to evaluate the quality of services than the quality of products because of certain distinctive characteristics of services (in this case legal service provided by a law firm). Legal services are intangible, variable and perishable.
Customers are usually not capable of comparing services side-by-side. Therefore other significant factors play role in shaping perception and dependence such as quality of office, room furnishing, number of framed degrees and rewards on the wall, pleasantness of the receptionist, all contribute to the evaluation of the organization that provides legal services. Result of the study finds that commercial clients think that their organizations live in turbulent times where outcomes are uncertain but also where decisions, actions and opportunities are time-dependent.
In contrast, private clients do not appear to perceive the legal services environment as dynamic. They suggest that legal matters take a long time, often longer than they expect. These findings cannot be taken for granted. Actual quantity of services can vary from day to day, from service employee to service employee and from customer to customer or case to case. When marketers try to standardize their services in order to provide consistency of quality, downside is the loss of customized services, which many consumers value. Major issue with legal services is that they are first sold and then produced and consumed simultaneously.
An inferior legal service is consumed as it is being produced. There is little opportunity to correct it, negative impression caused by legal services representative is difficult to correct. Consumer evaluation of service quality is usually reflection of magnitude and direction of the gap between the customer’s expectations and customer’s assessment (perception) of service quality. That perception of service quality includes segments of the business environment and built up dependence. We can see completely different research results between commercial and private customers.
This is happening because the expectations of a given service vary widely among different consumers of that same legal service. These expectations stem from word-of-mouth, their past experiences, the promises made about the service in ads and by legal services representatives, available alternatives, and other behavioral factors. In individual customers respond I see significantly increased likelihood of lower perceived service quality due to raised customer’s expectations. Legal services environment serves to influence perceived quality of services and decisions of consumers. Conclusion
Consumer motivation is a highly dynamic construct that is constantly changing in reaction to life experiences. Needs and goals change and grow in response to individual physical condition, environment, interaction with others, and experiences. As individuals attain their goals, they develop new ones. Many needs are never fully satisfied, they continually impel actions designed to attain or maintain satisfaction. And also, people who achieve their goals set new and higher goals for themselves. Expectations of success or failure in reaching certain goals often influence the nature and persistence of individual’s behavior.
Expectations are often based on past experience. Effects of success and failure on goal selection have influence on the marketer. Goal should be reasonable. Advertisement should not promise more than product will deliver. Even solid product will not be approached if it fails to live up to expectations. Law firms’ aggressive advertising is in fact creating dependency. Some of the consumers are attracted by word-of-mouth legal services’ positive (or negative) image created in media and based on their results in previous cases.