Nursing

 Reflect on the topics you are examining in this course and consider how they relate to your selected problem. 
Plan to analyze the problem using principles, theories, and concepts related to leadership and management, as well as other pertinent course themes. 

• Review evidence-based literature for data related to your selected problem. You will need to use at least five current (not more than five years old), peer-reviewed articles. Your Instructor may provide some guidance for your literature search.

 • Synthesize findings from the research literature and/or drawn from other sources of evidence. 

• Develop evidence-based recommendations for addressing the problem.  

 Write a 5- to 6-page paper (not including title page, references, or any appendix) that addresses the following: 

• Introduction/Statement of the problem (1/2 page) 

• Review of the literature for potential solutions to the identified problem

 • Synthesis of the evidence as applied to the stated problem. 

• Strategic plan for suggested courses of action based on your evidence and including application of a change theory. 

• Conclusion/Summary Reminder: The School of Nursing requires that all papers submitted include a title page, introduction, summary, and references. 

Attach is the outline to follow along with problem statement. 

needs to be perfect APA format with citations

ANY QUESTIONS PLEASE EMAIL: [email protected] NEED A+ ON THIS PAPER

Influences of Family Dynamics on Childhood—Self Review

 
Reflect on the family dynamics that were prevalent in your own home (such as your temperament, gender, placement in the sibling group, parent’s life stage, marital quality of parents, traditions, and expectations). Based on this reflection, respond to the following:

Looking back at your own experiences and influences, which dynamic would you say had the biggest impact on your own development during childhood and adolescence and the role that you played in your own family? Give reasons for your answer.
Think about your role in the context of your family. How is it explained by the various family dynamics such as your temperament, gender, placement in the sibling group, parent’s life stage, marital quality of parents, traditions, expectations, and so on?
Using the module readings, Argosy University online library resources, and the Internet, research your findings further. Incorporate information from at least two of these academic sources to support your statements and ideas in your response to the following:

How does your biggest impact align with the research?
Who are the major proponents (theorists past or current) of your chosen dynamic and how did they reach these conclusions?

Ask two adults what or who had the most impact on them. Compare this data with your experience and your research about prominent dynamics.

Write a 2–3-page paper in Word format. Be sure to include separate title and reference pages. Apply APA standards to citation of sources, including use of in-text citations and full references. Academic sources could include your textbook, required readings for this module, or academic journal articles found in the Argosy University online library.

Oral Presentation

Help write  notes to prepare for  5-10 minute  Oral Presentation submitted via video is required and will be delivered the last session of the class. Students will be required to discuss [1] two key theories which have been most helpful explore, [2] at least one assessment taken during the class and the insights gained, [3] summarize your current leadership style, along with best practices you will use to lead and motivate followers, coupled with leadership pitfalls you will take measures to avoid, [4] the importance of diversity and the relationships you will build and manage with your followers, [5] and how your leadership style compares when viewing it from a global landscape (you will complete and summarize your results, after completing The Dimensions of Culture Questionnaire on pages 463 – 468).  The Two Theories will Servant and Spiritual Leadership.  Please use text prescribe only source for required: Leadership: Theory and Practice  8th Edition,  by Peter Northouse 
 ISBN-13:  978-1506362311 
ISBN-10:  1506362311    
Book not provided.  I work as Senior Analyst for FLC San Diego.  I feel  my style works well with    in the global landscape.  I have attached my questionnaire to assist in the writing as well as provided my scores for Dimensions of Culture Questionnaire on pages 463 – 468).  That we give my fit in the global landscape:
U/A: 5.5, Power: 3.5, I/C:4, IG/C: 6.5, Gender: 5.5, Assertive: 4.5, Future: 5.0, Performance: 5.5 and Humane: 4.

                                                                                                                                     

The Punishment of Oedipus the King

The Punishment of Oedipus the King At the end of Sophocles’ Oedipus Rex, Oedipus, king of Thebes, ends up banished forever from his kingdom. Additionally, Oedipus physically puts out his own eyes, for several reasons which will be discussed later. The question is: Did Oedipus deserve his punishments? There are many factors that must be considered in answering this, including how Oedipus himself felt about his situation. His blinding was as much symbolic as it was physical pain.
After all factors have been considered, I think that only Oedipus’ banishment was the necessary punishment.. It is important to keep in mind the whole basic reasoning for Oedipus’ search for Laius’ killers: he wished to put an end to a deadly plague, and that plague would only be stopped when said murderer is killed, or driven from the land (pp 4-5). Thusly, when it is revealed that Oedipus himself murdered Laius, then banishment seems to be the only option. Death, in my mind, is not valid simply because of what it might do to the kingdom’s people.
Even though it seems that Oedipus has not been a particularly good monarch, in fact his only major accomplishment seems to be killing the Sphinx all those years ago, having a king put to death could have serious repercussions on the rest of the kingdom. So in the end, the only way to cure the plague and keep the kingdom stable seems to be the banishment of Oedipus. In this case, the question of whether or not he deserved to be punished seems irrelevant; Oedipus’ only goal was to stop the plague and by leaving, he has accomplished that goal. Banishment was the only choice.

But what exactly was Oedipus being punished for? Even after re- reading the play, this still seems to be a gray area. Incest? Immoral, to be sure, but Oedipus was obviously ignorant to his actions, and to my knowledge, in Sophoclean times, there was no written law against it and therefore no punishment for it. Oedipus’ punishment may have been for killing Laius, but how could you punish someone for being a victim of fate? Greeks believed at the time of the play’s writing that a man’s life was ” woven” by the 3 fates (Clotho, Lachesis, and Atropos) and that he was irrevocably bound to that destiny.
Knowing this, and knowing that Oedipus became king of Thebes only because it was his destiny to murder Laius and kill the Sphinx, how could he rightfully be punished? Even Oedipus himself knows that his actions are not by choice, but by acts of the gods, he mentions this twice in the play: “Some savage power has brought this down upon my head. ” As well as “My god, my god — what have you planned to do to me? ” Such quotes clearly show that Oedipus knew that he had no choice in his actions. In this manner and in this manner alone, Oedipus is undeserving of said punishment.
Oedipus may not have been a particularly good man, but in the end he knew what was best for his kingdom: “Out of this kingdom cast me with all speed” … for only that would save his former subjects. Were that Oedipus’ only punishment, the play might have been quite a bit simpler (and this essay quite a bit shorter), but Oedipus, in a fit of rage, stabs his own eyes with Jocasta’s dresspins. This was Oedipus’ way of trying to punish himself, as well as an escape. Oedipus would no longer gaze upon the faces of his subjects, his brother (uncle? Creon, or even those of his children. He is plunged into a world of darkness. It must be noted that this was more than simply a punishment, though I’m sure that it was one of the ways Oedipus intended it. The physical pain alone seems to prove that. There are much easier ways of becoming blind to the world than stabbing one’s eyes out. As I have stated before though, Oedipus was blinded by his foolish pride long before the beginning of the novel. He only realized the truth behind Laius’ murder when it was right in front of his nose.
He was by no means stupid, in fact he came off as quite a clever man, but his was a world of blindness because of pride and power. I have been concentrating on the two most obvious of Oedipus’ punishments, but there is another one that may not seem so clear. Keeping in mind that Sophocles made it very clear that Oedipus was a man of so much pride that he may have thought himself to be akin to a god, was not Oedipus basically stripped of that pride at the end of the play? The true punishment has been revealed.
Oedipus’ life was based on pride. It was what led to the murder of Laius, which in turn led to the killing of the Sphinx, which led to his becoming king. As he continues on his particular thread of life, Oedipus becomes more and more powerful, and as such, his pride also increases proportionately. He threatens both Tiresias and Creon, and single-handedly tries to unravel the mystery of Laius’ death. What must go on inside his mind when he finds out that not only did he murder his father, the king, but he also slept with his mother?
Knowing full well that his kingdom would eventually find out his acts, how could he hold his head up when walking through the city streets? How could his subjects respect and revere a king who was a murderer and commiter of incest? Oedipus is thusly stripped of his pride, the driving force behind his whole personality. He has been crushed, and that which he had so much of before has been denied him. Where he was once at one extreme (hubris), he is now at the other. To take away the very thing that drives a man is worse than any physical pain or even death itself.
That is truly, as Sophocles intended it, Oedipus’ ultimate punishment. When the curtain falls and the lights go out on Oedipus Rex, the king’s punishments total three. Though in my mind at least, one far outweighs the other two, they are all important and they all contribute to the total experience of the Greek tragedy. In the end, I do not feel that Oedipus truly deserves the punishments he is handed, but that is only because of the fact that I place myself in the time period that this was written in, using the beliefs of that time for my own.
Were this story to have taken place in modern times, Oedipus certainly would have deserved his punishment, but this idea is irrelevant because, quite simply, this did not take place in our “advanced” civilization. Oedipus was a victim of fate, incapable of free will, and as such he should have not been punished, save banishment only to cure the plague. The Punishment of Oedipus the King (Oedipus Rex)

Kap Report Endline September 2012

KNOWLEDGE ATTITUDES AND PRACTICES (KAP) END-LINE ASSESSMENT On Water, Sanitation and Hygiene LOLKUACH Village, IDPs of Akobo September-2012 DRC-Gambella WASH Team Conducted in the frame of an ECHO funded project “Improving access to short-term food security, safe drinking water, hygiene and basic household items in Ethiopia” Wanthowa Worda, Gambella, Ethiopia September 30, 2012 i TABLE OF CONTENTS 1 2 3 3. 1 INTRODUCTION SUMMARY OF FINDINGS METHODOLOGY Objectives of the Survey 1 2 3 3 4 4. 1 FINDINGS General Background Information 4 4 5 5. 1 5. 2 5. 3 WATER RELATED INFORMATION
Water Sources Water collection and storage Household Water Treatment 5 5 9 11 6 6. 1 6. 2 HEALTH AND HYGIENE Diseases Washing Hands and Good Hygienic Practices 12 12 15 7 7. 1 7. 2 SANITATION Defecation Waste and Waste Management 18 18 20 8 9 CONCLUSION RECOMMENDATIONS 23 24 25 10 REFERENCES i 1 Introduction The 2012 report states that as of end of 2010: Over 780 million people are still without access to improved sources of drinking water and 2. 5 billion lack improved sanitation. If current trends continue, these numbers will remain unacceptably high in 2015: 605 million people will be without an improved drinking water source and 2. billion people will lack access to improved sanitation facilities. An estimated 801,000 children younger than 5 years of age perish from diarrhea each year, mostly in developing countries. This amounts to 11% of the 7. 6 million deaths of children under the age of five and means that about 2,200 children are dying every day as a result of diarrheal diseases. Unsafe drinking water, inadequate availability of water for hygiene, and lack of access to sanitation together contribute to about 88% of deaths from diarrheal diseases (UNICEF, WHO, 2012: 2; Center of Disease Control and Prevention, 2012).
As to Andrea Naylor: although worldwide there have been thousands of projects to address water and sanitation issues as they relate to public health with continued improvements since the 1980’s, research has shown that due to lack of evaluation surveys on the effectiveness and success of these interventions, many are not sustainable . To this end, the essence of conducting end-line survey is very critical to gauge the effectiveness and success of the interventions of DRC-Gambella. The Gambella Region has an approximately population of 332,600 people, with 49,457 living in Akobo and Wantawo Woredas.

These populations are subjected to water shortage and floods. Moreover the population is prevalently pastoralist and follows seasonal migration patterns for cattle grazing and protection of livestock from drought and floods. The perennial attacks by the Murle tribe, coupled with intra-clan conflicts among the Nuer tribes of Ethiopia and South Sudan, aggravates a situation of chronic displacement, making populations of bordering areas, especially Akobo, susceptible of massive and prolonged internal displacements.
Conflicts, drought and floods are the key challenges to the populations in Akobo and in Wantawo. The consequent perennial movement makes the community vulnerable to food insecurity, disease and water shortage. It is in view of this that Danish Refugee Council seeks to address in the short term the basic needs of these populations by providing access to clean drinking water, and tools to improve hygiene and to build the capacity of the community to respond to these challenges. From the period of July 2011 to June 2012, DRC implemented a Water, Sanitation and Hygiene project, funded by ECHO, with the goal of rehabilitating 7 hand pumps (and subsequently chlorinating the water), distributing NFI kits, hygiene kits, and implementing hygiene promotions. DRC decided to conduct two in-depth KAP surveys (as a baseline and endline) to evaluate the impact brought by the implementation of the project in the targeted area.
The baseline survey was conducted in the month of May 2012 and the end line survey was conducted in the second week of September 2012. In the period between the two surveys, a number of activities covering water, sanitation and hygiene were implemented in the frame of the project. 2 Summary of Findings Project outputs and behaviour and knowledge change (as indicated by the pre and post implementation KAP surveys) indicate the following key findings: o o o o o o Seven hand pumps were rehabilitated/ disinfected Hygiene promotion targets were surpassed. planned: 5,490 beneficiaries; 10,950 reached) Hygiene kit distributions were surpassed (planned: 2,250 beneficiaries; 8,870 reached) NFI kit distributions were surpassed (planned 6,300 beneficiaries; 7,470 reached) The number of respondents who use hand pumps as source of water increased from 4% to 75% Knowledge and practice of feasible water purification practices such as boiling, filtration or adding tablet/sachet has been greatly improved Instance of diarrhoea has decreased from 60% to 24% of respondents stating that they had had diarrhea in during the 3 weeks prior to the survey Knowledge that rain water is a safe drinking water source has improved from 24% to 62% of respondents, however, the use of rain water remains limited.
Knowledge of the causes of unsafe drinking water (including germs, visible particles and bad taste) increased from 40% to 81%. The practice of open defecation has reduced from 100% to 15% of respondents. Hand washing at critical times has increased from 34% to 85% of respondents. 2 o o o o o o o Appropriate waste disposal mechanisms improved from 39. 2% in baseline to 75% of respondents.. Although there has been an improvement in the knowledge of respiratory and eye infection transmission/protection, there is still room for improvement 3 Methodology A cross sectional, qualitative study was conducted through house to house interviews, taking 150 respondents randomly as study subjects. The sample represents nearly 10% of the total targeted household 1 n Lolkuach village (1,500 household). The questionnaire (See Annex I) was employed to collect data on general background information, knowledge, attitude and practices of the IDPs of Lolkuach village. However the results can also be considered pertinent for the host communities if considering the cultural and environmental homogeneity. Verbal consent from the respondents was obtained after explaining the purpose of the study. Data was collected from 13 to 14 September 2012. The data from the questionnaires was entered into SPSS software (version 13) by the principal investigators for further analysis. Data reliability was assured using different techniques such as: ?
Properly designed questionnaires were prepared and pretested. ? Data collectors were hired locally and tested during the training on the contents of the questionnaire. Constant supervision was done by DRC WASH Team Leader, and problems encountered at the time of data collection were reported immediately and appropriate actions taken. 3. 1 Objectives of the Survey ? To identify gaps in knowledge regarding health and hygiene practices and existing practices leading to negative impact on health. ? ? To describe the socio demographic, cultural information of respondents and villages. To find out the information on incidence of communicable disease due to unhygienic practice. 1
It is estimated, on the base of IOM Akobo IDPs database, that the number of households currently living in Lolkuach is 1500 and average family size is 5. 3 ? To assess the effectiveness and impact of the DRC water, sanitation and hygiene promotion activities. 4 Findings 4. 1 General Background Information The beneficiaries of the programme, and KAP survey respondents are all part of the displaced NuerGajok population from Akobo Woreda now living in Wantawo. Among the KAP survey respondents, the majority (about 65 %) were female, whereas 35% were male. Females were particularly targeted for the KAP survey, as they were the primary recipients/participants in the DRC project, and are traditionally responsible for child care and household WASH issues.
This survey was conducted near the end of the rainy season, in Lolkuach IDP settlement. Respondents reported moving between the river banks temporary camps and dry land permanent villages according to seasonal variations. During the dry season, the majority of the respondents live in Dimbierow village (79%), and Nyawich village (17%), while only 4 % of the respondents indicated that they live in Lolkuach village throughout all the year. However there are frequent movements among the settlements throughout all the year. Most of the respondents (86. 2%) indicated that they arrived at Lolkuach between February and June 2009 following a recurrence of conflict with Lou Nuer in Akobo woreda.
Minority of the respondents arrived during the same period of 2008 (12. 8%) or 2010 (1 %). Most of the respondents therefore have been displaced since 2009. When respondents were asked if they plan to return to their villages of origin, a pronounced number (55%) indicated that they don’t have any plans to return due to security problems (expressed as ‘war’, ‘conflict’, ‘insecurity’). The remaining 45% of the respondents indicated that they plan to return back in the future if the security situation is restored and the construction of the road from Mathar to Akobo is finalized. In this regard, as it can be observed from the baseline survey, no significant difference noted in the end line survey.
However looking in detail at the positive answers (from the 45% of respondents), 21% expressed a plan to go back within six months and the remaining 34% indicated a time longer than six months. Moreover even the respondents who indicated that they have a plan to return back to 4 Kebele of origin also mentioned their fear about the security situation (expressed as ‘if peace come back’, ‘if cattle raiding ends’, if the construction of the road to Akobo is completed and similar). 5 Water Related Information 5. 1 Water Sources Before the project interventions, the baseline data indicated that almost 100% of the respondents were accessing unsafe drinking water from the river, which is contaminated from the presence of livestock and open defecation. At the end of the project implementation, the hand pump aintenance/rehabilitation/water chlorination, coupled with pure sachet distributions, bucket distributions, and hygiene promotions resulted in a significant positive change. As you can observe from the Figure 1, the majority of the respondents are now using water from newly maintained/rehabilitated hand pumps. Due to seasonal movement however, the proportion of respondents using hand pumps during the dry season reduces, as many of the beneficiaries move to areas without hand pumps. The following graph outlines both the shift in hand pump use (pre and post intervention), and also the relation of this use in terms of seasons. There are still not sufficient hand pumps in Lolkuach area to support the population however, which explains why 100% of the respondents are not using these protected sources.
Considering that the 7500 inhabitants of Lolkuach, Thore and Lolmokoney have only 7 hand-pumps (hand dug wells), this is insufficient as per SPHERE standards)2 , highlighting the need to construct new hand pumps. 2 Considering the maximum number of users for 1 hand pump should be 500, at least 15 hand pumps would be needed in Lolkuach 5 Seasonal Use of Protected Water Sources – Pre and Post Intervention 100 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 Dry Season Rainy Season % of Respondents Seasons Baseline Endline Figure 1: Shift in Use of Protected Water Sources (KAP baseline an d end-line) Seven hand pumps in Lolkuach and surrounding villages were disinfected and beneficiaries received pure sachet as well bucket and filter.
From the findings, the graph below states that it is only 27% of the respondents indicated that the main problems with their water source are water is dirty and it tastes bad. Whereas 40. 7% of the respondents also signified that the water source is far. Problems Related to Water Supply 100 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 Dirty Water Bad Taste Irregular FlowSource is Dried Distance to No problems Up Source % Respondents Baseline Endline Water Source Issues Figure 2: Main problems related to water supply. 6 Consequently 63% of the respondents consider the water they are using is safe for drinking, and 33% consider it is unsafe instead (Figure 3).
This represents a reduction in the proportion of respondents who stated that they were using unsafe water from 77% in the baseline to 33% in the end-line survey. Of these 33% of respondents who noted that they were drinking unsafe water, 8% of the respondents were using hand dug wells (Which were rehabilitated by DRC) as source of water for drinking. Figure 3: consideration of water safety Figure 4: reasons why 33% declared water is unsafe In relation to the safety of water, the reason why 33% of respondents declared that they are using unsafe water is mainly because the water contains germs, is not filtered and not cleaned. This shows that their understanding about the causes of unsafe water has improved since the baseline (Figure 4).
When it comes to use of rainwater as source, though improvement is registered, much needs to be done to bring about significant change. Considering the shortage of safe water sources in the area observed by DRC, and the abundant rain-fall in Gambella region3, reasons for not using the rainwater (which is almost distilled4) were assessed more closely. Although the number of respondents who believe that 3 The annual rain falls in Gambella region ranges between 800 and 1200mm, but about 85% of rains are concentrated between May-October (Woube, 1999). 4 In this regards, Dev Sehgal, indicated that rainwater harvesting is an easy method to collect drinking water, and the quality of the water is almost distilled.
First when the water touches the catchment surface it usually gets contaminated (Dev Sehgal, 2005). 7 rainwater is unsafe has reduced from 76% to 38% of respondents, more can be done to raise awareness on this water collection method. Of the 38% of respondents who would not collect rain water given the choice, the principal reasons were given as follows: Figure 5: Investigation about unused rain water When questioned on their knowledge of safe drinking water and water pollution causes, respondents were given the option of providing more than one answer. The number of respondents who indicated that drinking water shouldn’t have germs, visible particles and/or bad taste, increased from 40% at the baseline to 81. 3% at the end-line.
The respondents who indicated that the proximity of a latrine to water sources can cause water contamination increased from 7. 2% in the baseline to 15% in the end-line survey. In this regards, water quality and health council indicated that especially the proximity of latrine to water sources can cause Removing the first harvested water, so-called first flush, can prevent this. When the rain starts to fall the first water cleans the catchment surface and fills up the first flush diverter, by the time it is full a ball closes the opening and leads the water to the main tank. The downside of rainwater harvesting is that it requires double storage, as it is hard to purify water at the same speed as it rains (Gould, J. & Nissen-Petersen, E. , 2005). 8 contamination .
The majority of the respondents (85%) also indicated that garbage disposal or animals feces containers near a water source, or unprotected source can cause water contamination (Figure7). 5 Knowledge of Causes of Water Source Pollution 100 90 80 % Respondents 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 Defecation Nearby Garbage Nearby Dirty Container Causes of Pollution Figure 7: Knowledge of Water Source Pollutants Baseline Endline Although only a small proportion of respondents acknowledge that water can be contaminated through the ground from a latrine constructed too close to a water source, 95% of respondents are now aware that defecation near a water source is a pollutant, resulting in a change of behavior in which open defecation has reduced from 100% in the baseline to 15% in the end-line survey. 5. 2 Water collection and storage
From the Figure 8, it can be observed that nearly 50% of respondents less than 50 minutes to fetch water during dry seasons6, meaning that SPHERE standards for these respondents are met for watersource distance because of the rehabilitations of the hand pump in the vicinity of the village. Concerning rainy season, it can be observed that respondents spend more time getting water. As it is observed, respondents need to travel some distance to fetch water and during the dry season respondents also move to river banks. Hence, this can make the access to hand pump difficult. So besides constructing 5 The causes of water pollution vary and may be both natural and anthropogenic.
However, the most common causes of domestic water pollutions includes : garbage disposal and defecation near water sources, animals feces, sharing the same sources with animals, use of dirty or open water container can affect the safety of our water . Use (Water Quality and Health Councils, 2010; CAWST, 2009; Laurent, P. , 2005). 6 According to SPHERE key indicators, the maximum distance from any household to the nearest water point is 500 metres 9 new hand pumps, encouraging the community for rain water catchment strategy is very essential at household at household level. 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 0-50 50-100 Min 100-250 Min More than 250 Dry Season Rainy Season
Figure 8: Average time spent to collect water Given that water collection requires women and girls to walk distances to find water sources, there may be heightened protection issues for these family members, although protection was not assessed in the KAP. Question posed to respondents on what devices that they are using to store and collect water indicated that 55% of the respondents are using plastic jerry cans to collect water and 34% of the respondents use plastic bucket for water collection. For storing water, nearly 33% of the respondents use traditional clay pot and plastic jerry cans; the rest 36% of the respondents indicated plastic jerry cans or buckets with lid.
DRC distributed NFI (Contains 2 Jerry cans each 20 litters among others) and Hygiene kits (Contains 2 Buckets each 10 litters among other) to 302 and 283 households respectively living in Lolkuach areas. To this end, most of the respondents own more than one container. But still those who didn’t receive water storage and collection device also were among the respondents who took part in the survey, we can 10 observe that 70% of respondents meet the minimum SPHERE7 requirement for water collection container, and 74% meet the requirement8 for water storage. Whereas in the baseline, it was noted that only 50% of the respondents met the requirement for water storage and collection devices. 5. 3 Household Water Treatment
The knowledge of practical purification methods like boiling, filtration or adding tablet/sachet was assessed. As it can be observed from Figure 12, there is great leap in knowledge of the basic methods of household water treatment. For instance, use of purifying sachet/tablet increased from 8% at baseline to 85% at the end-line survey. The findings also suggested that the majority of the respondents (more than 75%) know the use of feasible practices like boiling, filtration or adding tablets/sachet for water treatments9. This figure was only 25% in the baseline survey. After the baseline survey, it is worth to note that DRC-Gambella has been distributing purifying sachet and providing demonstrations for those villages with no access to hand pumps. 7
According to SPHERE key indicator: Each household has at least two clean water collecting containers of 10-20 litres, plus enough clean water storage containers to ensure there is always water in the household. The amount of storage capacity required depends on the size of the household and the consistency of water availability e. g. approximately 4 litres per person would be appropriate for situations where there is a constant daily supply 8 Requirement for storage is calculated according to certain specificities, but considering the minimum of 4lt/person/day, for an average household of 5, should be at least 20 lt. 9 Different researchers suggested some feasible practices like boiling, filtration or adding Figuret/sachet and chlorination for water treatment (CAWST, 2009; Davis & Lambert, 2002). 11
Knowledge of Household Water Treatment 140 120 % Respondents 100 80 60 40 20 0 special container Boiling Use of sachet Cleaning Filtering container with cloth Covering sunlight Baseline Endline Figure 12: Knowledge of household water treatment methods 6 Health and Hygiene 6. 1 Diseases Respondents were asked about the diseases their family experienced during the three weeks before the interview. The number of respondents who caught diarrhea in the three weeks prior to the interview reduced from 60% in the baseline to 27. 3% in the end-line survey. Hence, you can see from the end-line survey that hygiene conditions and practices are improving.
When it comes to the causes of diarrhoea, more than 85% of the respondents referenced unsafe drinking water, children feces, germs/bacteria, open defecation, poor hygienic practices and flies as causes of diarrhea (Figure 16), indicating that the hygiene promotion has resulted in an increase in knowledge. 12 Figure 16: Knowledge about diarrhea transmission Interviewees were asked to indicate in a multiple choice question, which action to be taken to protect their families from the different diseases that they suffered from. The respondents who indicated that they can be protected from malaria by sleeping under mosquito net increased from 40% to 75%. Keeping the environment clean and good hygienic practices also attributed as a method of prevention of malaria by many respondents (Figure 14). 13 Knowldge of Malaria prevetion measure 120 100 Respondents 80 60 40 20 0 Keeping environment Clean Safe water Good hygienic practice Use mosquitonet Wash cloth Wash hand Baseline Endline Figure 14: knowledge of malaria prevention measures When it comes to skin diseases, most of the respondents indicated that good hygienic practice as way of prevention of skin diseases (Figure 15). 14 Figure 15: Knowledge of skin diseases prevention measur es Nearly 51. 2% of the respondents indicated that good personal hygiene, keeping the environment clean, use of safe water for drinking, washing hands, washing clothes and hanging them in the sun can protect their families from respiratory and eye problems.
The above results indicate that the knowledge of the people has improved with regards to respiratory illness and eye infection transmission and protection, however there is still room for improvement. 6. 2 Washing Hands and Good Hygienic Practices General question about hygiene and more specific ones about hand washing were posed. Keeping food away from flies, bathing regularly, keeping compounds clean, protecting food and washing hands are considered as good hygienic practices by the majority of the respondents in the end-line survey. This means that the figure increased from nearly 51% at the baseline to nearly 85% in the endline. 15 Figure 18: Knowledge about keeping good hygiene
Likewise, when respondents specifically asked if they wash their hands, 89% of the interviewees gave affirmative answer in the end-line Survey. People who wash hands reported to be doing it in order to eliminate bad smell and prevent diseases. Similarly more details of the hand washing practice can be seen from Figure 20, and it can be concluded that more than three fourth of the population who wash their hands, are doing it at the appropriate times. 16 Figure 20: Frequency of hand washing practice While the vast majority of the respondents (95%) stated they would like to bathe once a day, when it comes to practice, 29% of respondents expressed they have problems in taking bath regularly mainly because of lack of container and soap (Figure 21).
Hygiene practices were also considered to be a major issue by nearly 40. 6% of the respondents, these respondents indicated that poor practices are due to both a lack of access to hygiene items, and a poor attitude brought on by a lack of knowledge. So the majority of the respondents signified that the distributed hygiene kits solved some of their problems and they were adhering to good hygienic practices. 17 7 Sanitation 7. 1 Defecation Before the DRC intervention, the majority of the adults practiced open defecation. Because changing habits is not easy, the baseline assessment was designed to understand the risk practices that were most widespread and identify those that could be changed.
From the point of view of controlling diarrhoea, the priorities for hygiene behavioral change included hand washing at critical times and safe stool disposal. To this end, the efforts of the organization brought significant behavioral change. From the end-line survey it is noted that 85% of the respondents use traditional latrines, which is up from 0%. Similarly, when asked to indicate the best option for defecation, 85% indicated the latrine. On the other hand, privacy, water pollution, presence of bad smell and flies, as well as spread of disease was reported as the main problem related to open defecation practices (Figure 23). Respondents were also asked about post defecation cleansing habits and mostly indicated pieces of paper. Figure 23: Problems related to defecation practice 18
Considering the majority of respondents indicated that a latrine is the best option for defecation, and that the main issue with defecation is privacy, disease, water pollution, smell and environmental pollution, it was observed that the traditional latrine which is constructed by the participation of the communities has been welcomed and used by the community. In the baseline survey it was found out that inadequate sanitary conditions and poor hygiene practices played major roles in the increased burden of communicable disease within the village. Similarly, the baseline information stated that beneficiaries had problems with access to safe water and sanitation facilities. To this end, DCR Gambella set a strategy to solve the problems through community participation. DRC- Gambella inculcates the basic principles and approaches Sanitation) of into CLTS the (Community newly Lead Total PHAST designed Participatory hygiene and Sanitation Transformation) training. As both approaches opt for communities’ participations and empowerment and focus on igniting a change in sanitation and hygiene behaviour, a PHAST training manual that encompasses both PHAST methodology and catalysts for change in sanitation behaviour was prepared and distributed. After community based health promotions work, and community conversation establishments at each village, the accessibility to sanitation facilities and sanitation practices improved. 1446 households who completed hand washing points and traditional pit latrine (See the figure on the right side) were awarded NFI to recognize their efforts of behavioral changes.
Hand washing after stool contact and safe disposal of stool have been priorities in hygiene and sanitation promotion interventions in Wanthowa Woreda. By understanding that for the quickest and widest adoption of good hygienic practices it is often more cost-effective to rely on social ambitions rather than health arguments to encourage change, DRC linked hygiene promotion works with social and cultural values, norms as well as NFI distributions, such that all hygiene promotions were linked with cultural problems of Nuer society and social values. As a result good improvements in both hand 19 washing and safe stool disposal were registered. This can be confirmed by looking at the end line KAP survey results. 7. Waste and Waste Management The majority of disease measures are related to environmental conditions: appropriate shelter, clean water, good sanitation, and vector control, personal protection such as (insecticide-treated nets, personal hygiene and health promotion). Appropriate waste disposal mechanism is vital to avoid environmental pollution and breading place for vectors and pathogens. In this regards, the majority of the respondents (75%) indicated that they are now burning the household solid wastes on timely bases (Figure 24). The number of respondents who had been disposing solid wastes in open space and river significantly decreased after the interventions.
Figure 24: waste disposal practice 20 The problems concerning waste were indicated in flies, bad smell, breeding place for mosquitoes. Majority of the respondents understood that appropriate solid waste disposal plays a vital role in minimizing the breading of vectors and other pathogens (Figure 25). Figure 25: Problems related to waste disposal The majority of respondents indicated that the practice used to dispose household waste is burning. Improvement in waste disposal and keep the villages clean is observed by DRC field staffs. Similarly the views of the majority of the respondents on the attributes of clean and health village is improved.
It is noted that availability of safe water, cleanness of the village and availability of latrine considered by more than three fourth of the respondents as the attributes of clean and health village in the end-line survey. But those we stated the same were nearly 50% in the baseline survey. 21 Similarly, the benefits of keeping a village were mainly identified as decrease of diseases occurrence, improved beauty of village, minimized presence of mosquitoes and flies by more than three fourth of the respondents in the end-line where as this nearly 53% in the baseline. From end-line survey, it can be inferred that majority of respondents indicated that important public health factors such as availability of safe water and atrines, absence of stagnant water and mosquitoes among the attributes of an healthy village. They also noted that this has great impact in reduction of infection disease prevalence. Hence, it can be concluded that the understanding of the majority of the respondents on disease transmission, transmission routes and its preventions tremendously improved after the interventions. 22 8 Conclusion Diarrhoea causes dehydration and kills approximately 2. 2 million people, mostly children, every year. Children are more likely than adults to die from diarrhea because they become dehydrated more quickly. In the past 10 years, diarrhea has killed more children than all of the people lost to armed conflict since World War II.
Its occurrence is closely related to the opportunities that poor people (especially poor mothers) have to improve domestic hygiene10. Diarrhoea does not only cause disease and early death in children, but also affects children’s nutritional status, stunting children’s physical and intellectual growth over time. Skin and eye infections are especially common in arid areas. Both diarrhoea and other infectious diseases have health as well as socio-economic consequences. Washing more often can greatly reduce their spread11 . Similarly, the training manual of Amhara region indicated that improved hygiene, particularly hand washing at critical times can reduce diarrhea by one third and reduce malnutrition12. Soiled hands are an important source of transmitting diarrhoeas.
Recent research also suggests that hand washing is an important preventive measure in the incidence of acute respiratory infections, one of the top killer of children under five. 13 This KAP survey was conducted in order to compare its results with the results of the baseline survey, to identify whether the hygiene promotion activities conducted in the frame of the ECHO funded project had been effective. The baseline and end-line survey results revealed that positive results have been achieved in the overall hygiene situation. In the baseline survey the situation was poor i. e. lack of safe water, poor sanitation facilities, poor hygiene practice etc. At the end of the project, an improvement was noted in the overall hygiene and sanitation behaviour.
Though improvements were noticed after the implementation of project, it should not be forgotten that it takes time to consolidate behaviour changes, so more follow up is necessary for further improvement. 10 11 12 (Curtis et al. , 2000). Brian Appleton and Christine van Wijk (IRC), 2003. Amhara Regional State Health Bureau, 2011; Isabel Carter, 2005 13 See for instance the study of Ryan et al. published in 2001 23 9 RECOMMENDATIONS Although the WASH project can been seen as a success, the team noted some recommendations for future interventions. ? ? Construct 15 shell wells in Lolkuach village so that inhabitants meet SPHERE standards Assess whether it is possible to dig wells in the locations where people move to during the dry season ?
Introduce rain water harvesting techniques, which are easy sources of potable water and would reduce the distance travelled to access water, thus improving the protection status of the women and girls that are responsible for this task. ? ? Follow up on well water quality in rehabilitated wells Although respondents recognized that animal feces can contaminate water, only 15% in the end-line noted that the proximity of a latrine to a water source can contaminate drinking water. This could be stressed and improved in future hygiene promotion activities. 24 10 References 1. Amhara Regional State Health Bureau (2011). Training Manual on Hygiene and Sanitation Promotion and Community Mobilization for Volunteer Community Health Promoters (VCHP)/ Draft for Review. Online Available at: http://pdf. usaid. gov/pdf_docs/PNADP828. pdf 2. Andrea Naylor.
Development and Implementation of Sanitation Survey Using a Knowledge Attitudes Practices (KAP) Model. University of South Florida (Tampa): CGN6933 “Sustainable Development Engineering: Water, Sanitation, Indoor Air, Health” and PHC6301 “Water Pollution and Treatment”. 3. Brian Appleton and Christine van Wijk (IRC) (2003). Hygiene Promotion Thematic Overview Paper. IRC International Water and Sanitation Centre 4. Boot, Marieke T. and Cairncross, Sandy (1993). Actions speak: The study of hygiene behaviour in water and sanitation project. The Hague: IRC International Water and Sanitation Centre. 5. CAWST (Centre for Affordable Water and Sanitation Technology) (2009) Household water treatment and safe storage factsheet: natural coagulants.
Online Available at: http://cawst. org/en/resources/pubs/file/38-hwts-fact-sheets-academic-english 6. Davis, J. and Lambert, R (2002) Engineering in emergencies – A practical guide for relief, workers 2nd edition, Rugby: Practical actions publishing 7. Dev Sehgal, J. (2005) A guide to rainwater harvesting in Malaysia. Online Available at: http://www. wasrag. org/downloads/technology/A%20Guide%20to%20Rainwater%20Ha rvesting%20in%20Malaysia. pdf 8. Esrey, S. A. (1994). Complementary strategies for decreasing diarrhea morbidity and mortality: water and sanitation. Paper presented at the Pan American Health Organization, March 2-3. 9. Gould, J. & Nissen-Petersen, E. 2005) Rainwater catchment systems for domestic supply. Rugby: ITDG publishing. 25 10. Green, C. E. (2001). Can qualitative research produce reliable quantitative findings? Field Methods 13(3), 3-19. 11. Isabel Carter (2005). Encouraging good hygiene and sanitation. A PILLARS Guide. Tearfund. A company limited by guarantee. Regd in England No 994339. Registered Charity No 265464. 12. Laurent, P. (2005) Household drinking water systems and their impact on people with weakened immunity. MFS-Holland, Public health department. Online Available at: http://www. who. int/household_water/research/HWTS_impacts_on_weakened_immun ity. pdf 13. McKee, Neill (1992).
Social mobilization and social marketing in developing communities: Lessons for communicators. Penang: Southbound. 14. Nichter, M. (1993). Social science lessons from diarrhea research and their application to ARI. Human Organization 52(1), 53-67. 15. Ouagadougou: Ministere de la Sante du Burkina Faso. Curtis, V. A. , Cairncross, S, Yonli, R. (2000) Domestic hygiene and diarrhoea, pinpointing the problem. Tropical Medicine and International Health 5(1):22-32. 16. Pru? ss, A. , Kay, D. , Fewtrell, L. & Bartram, J. (2002). Estimating the global burden of disease from water, sanitation, and hygiene at the global level. Environmental Health Perspectives 110(5), 537–542. 17.
Ryan, M. A. K, Christian, R. Wohlrabe, J. (2001). Hand washing and respiratory illness among young adults in military training. American Journal of Preventive Medicine 21(2):79-83. 18. Saade, Camille, Bateman, Massee, Bendahmane, Diane B. (2001). The story of a successful public-private partnership in Central America: Handwashing for diarrheal disease prevention. Arlington, BASICS, EHP, UNICEF, USAID and World Bank. 19. UNICEF (2000). Learning from experience: Evaluation of UNICE’s water and environmental sanitation programme in India, 1966-1998. New York, UNICEF Evaluation Office, Division of Evaluation, Policy and Planning. 26 20. Verma, B.
L. & Srivastava, R. N. (1990). Measurement of the personal cost of illness due to some major water-related diseases in an Indian rural population. International Journal of Epidemiology, Vol. 19, No. 1: 169-175. 21. Water Quality and Health Councils (2010) Water storage tips to assist in emergency preparedness. Online Available at: http://www. waterandhealth. org/drinkingwater/water_storage. php3 22. WHO (World Health Organization) (2008a) Safer water, better health – Costs, benefits and sustainability of interventions to protect and promote the health. Online Available at: http://whqlibdoc. who. int/publications/2008/9789241596435_eng. pdf 23.
WHO (World Health Organization) (2008b) Guidelines for drinking-water quality- Third edition Incorporating the first and second addenda. Online Available at: http://www. who. int/water_sanitation_health/dwq/fulltext. pdf 24. WHO(2002). Water Supply. Environmental Health in Emergency. Online Available at: http://www. who. int/water_sanitation_health/hygiene/emergencies/em2002chap7. pdf 25. WHO/UNICEF (2005). Water for Life: Making it happen. http://www. who. int/water_sanitation_health/waterforlife. pdf . 26. WHO & UNICEF (2006). Meeting the MDG Water and Sanitation Target: The Urban and Rural Challenge of the Decade, WHO, Geneva and UNICEF, New York. 27. WSSCC (2004).
The Campaign: WASH Facts and Figures. Online Available at: Online Available at: http://www. wsscc. org/dataweb. cfm? edit_id=292&CFID=13225&CFTOKEN=70205233. 28. Wijk, Christine van (1998). Gender in water resources management, water supply and sanitation: Roles and realities revisited. Technical paper No. 33-E). The Hague: IRC International Water and Sanitation Centre. 29. http://www. unicef. org/media/files/JMPreport2012. pdf: UNICEF, WHO: Progress on Drinking Water and Sanitation update 2012 UPDATE. 27 30. http://www. cdc. gov/healthywater/global/wash_statistics. html : Centre of Disease Control and Prevention (2012) Global WASH Fast Facts 28

Assignment 1: Data Management

You have just been hired as the Data Manager for a small university that is attempting to consolidate and update its data resources into a modern data repository. In addition, the university leadership is interested in developing analysis tools to support data driven efforts to target courses and faculty that are not meeting current expectations. You have been tasked with managing all content including storage, reporting, and access by all organizational stakeholders (i.e. Board of Directors, senior administrators, faculty, staff, etc.).
How do you tackle this assignment? How are the issues surrounding content different for each part of the organization? Make sure to include not only your ideas (25%), but the rationale behind each idea (10%) as well as the potential benefits to the organization (15%).
The remaining 50 points will be awarded as specified in the grading rubric:

Idea presentation & clarity of thesis statement, 20%;
Organization and coherence of thought, 10%;
Use of outside support for the thesis statement, 10%;
Writing style and word usage, 5%; and
The Mechanics of formatting, spelling, grammar, and punctuation, 5%.

Please limit your response to 1200-1500 words, double spaced. Include a title page and any references you cite (including the textbook) in your response. Submit your work to the drop box provided in Canvas.
Rubric
Assignment 1: Data ManagementAssignment 1: Data ManagementCriteriaRatingsPtsThis criterion is linked to a Learning OutcomeApproach to Assignment25.0 ptsExcellent20.0 ptsSatisfactory13.0 ptsWeak0.0 ptsUnsatisfactory25.0 pts
This criterion is linked to a Learning OutcomeRationale for Ideas10.0 ptsExcellent8.0 ptsSatisfactory5.0 ptsWeak0.0 ptsUnsatisfactory10.0 pts
This criterion is linked to a Learning OutcomeBenefits from Initiative15.0 ptsExcellent12.0 ptsSatisfactory8.0 ptsWeak0.0 ptsUnsatisfactory15.0 pts
This criterion is linked to a Learning OutcomeThesis and Idea Presentation20.0 ptsExcellent15.0 ptsSatisfactory10.0 ptsWeak0.0 ptsUnsatisfactory20.0 pts
This criterion is linked to a Learning OutcomeDocument Organization10.0 ptsExcellent8.0 ptsSatisfactory5.0 ptsWeak0.0 ptsUnsatisfactory10.0 pts
This criterion is linked to a Learning OutcomeOutside Support for Proposals10.0 ptsExcellent8.0 ptsSatisfactory5.0 ptsWeak0.0 ptsUnsatisfactory10.0 pts
This criterion is linked to a Learning OutcomeWriting Style5.0 ptsExcellent3.0 ptsSatisfactory2.0 ptsWeak0.0 ptsUnsatisfactory5.0 pts
This criterion is linked to a Learning OutcomeMechanics5.0 ptsExcellent3.0 ptsSatisfactory2.0 ptsWeak0.0 ptsUnsatisfactory5.0 pts
Total Points: 100.0

Fifth Business – Reaction to Adversities

Adversity is the most important factor in shaping character and/or identity. Assess the validity of this statement with reference to Fifth Business. Identity is individual characteristics by which a person is known or recognized. In Fifth Business, a character’s reaction to adversity is the foundation to shaping identity. Others may not know what the adversity is but they observe the way a person is acting. The composure held in rough situations allows people to formulate opinions based on these reactions.
This is shown through the challenges of dealing with guilt, trying to achieve being better than others and trying to escape their past identities. A main adversity faced in Fifth Business is guilt. The guilt that the characters Dunstan and Boy feel mainly revolve around the snowball incident with Mrs. Mary Dempster. Everybody had heard about the snowball incident however only Dunstan and Boy knew the truth about who threw the snowball. Although Dunstan was truly not at fault he felt responsible because the snowball was meant for him.
His mother then began making him invest time into caring for the Dempster’s and he did it without protest because he felt he need to make the situation right. “We knew your Ma must have sent you. She couldn’t do anything publicly, of course, but she sent you to look after them. Everybody knew an’ honoured her for it. ” (p99) The people saw that his mother and his actions were honourable. As Dunstan ages, people’s perception of his dealings with Mary Dempster changes and his link to her makes him seem queer.

Eventually even his mother was upset with Dunstan’s obsession with Mrs. Dempster. She was very upset that Dunstan would bring this woman into their home. “What under Heaven had possessed [Dunstan] to turn to that woman, not only to their home but to the very beside of a boy who was dangerously ill? ” (p55) Then, Dunstan had “insisted that Willie had indeed died. No pulse; no breathing. ” (p. 55) He had expressed how he felt about Willie’s “death” and was disregarded by people telling him to let it go.
Dr. McClausland says to Dunstan “I think you may safely leave it to me to say when peopled are dead, Dunny. ” (p55) Milo Papple even says “Do you remember when you said that Mrs. Dempster raised Willie from the dead? God, you used to be a crazy kid… “ (p99) He continued on to find 2 more miracles by Mary Dempster. This revelation guided him to begin studying saints and in turn his reputation was jeopardized. “It’s this saint business of yours. Of course your books are splendid. But if you were a father would you want to send your son a school headed by an authority on saints? (p187) That is what Boy had said to Dunstan regarding why he was being let go from being Headmaster.
Alternatively, Boy’s key role in making Mrs. Dempster simple forced a different reaction from him. Boy as a kid chose to ignore the fact that it was his fault. Dunstan views him as a coward and ruthless. “I knew that he was afraid, and I knew also that he would fight, lie, do anything rather than admit what I knew. ” (p17) He spends so much energy on pushing the situation out of his mind that by the time he is older, he has no recollection of her all together. [Dunstan] could hardly believe he spoke the truth, but as we talked on I had to accept it as a fact that he had so far edited his memory of his early days that the incident of the snowball had quite vanished from his mind. ” (p251)
Boy’s indifference to the situation benefited him in a sense that because he knew that if he acted like he had no connection with Mrs. Dempster that his identity would not be compromised. The reactions from Dunstan and Boy are almost completely opposite and so people viewed them differently. Paul Dempster also treated his guilt differently than the other two.
As Paul Dempster he ran away from home and people saw this as something that was prone to happen because his mother was simple. Although they did not recognize that it was because “[his] father thought it was his duty to tell [Paul], so [he] could do whatever possible to make it up to her. ” (p251) As he created a new persona for himself he also found a new way to cope with his guilt by sending her money and Dunstan “was able to transfer Mrs. Dempster from the public wards of that hateful city asylum to a much better hospital near a small town. (p220) This shows that he is a good person and with success he still holds composure.
Another challenge in the novel involved trying to be better than others. Boy Staunton was the golden boy from Deptford. He was always very successful and recognized. During the first war he became an officer and “was wearing a few medals, the admirable D. S. O. but otherwise minor things. ” (p93) Boy went on to pursue a very successful career in the sugar business. As well, he struggled to pursue a career in politics although unsuccessful he did later become Lieutenant Governor. Old Doc Staunton’s annoyance at being outsmarted by his son had given way to his cupidity.. ” (p142)
All his successes sprung out of wanting to be better than his peers and his father and he succeeded. Another part of his image involves Leola being as educated and cultured as she possibly can. “She had learned to curtsy very prettily… and do other courtier things required by Boy. ” (p119) Yet still he still faced the challenge of her not being able to keep up. “She was trying hard but she could not keep with Boy’s social advancement. (p143) People see Boy as the golden Boy and Magnus Eisengrim even says “I remember you very well. I always thought of you as the Rich Young Ruler. ” (p249) In the end, he took the challenge of being more successful and dominated it and in the end he was known and respected. “[Denyse] did achieve a very fine turnout of important people, and others who were important because they represented somebody important. ” (p243)
This refers to Boy’s funeral and this shows how he had finished his life as a successful man. Paul was constantly teased by kids because they would say things like “’Hey Paul, does your Ma wear pants? and stuff like that. ” (p99) Milo Papple tells Dunstan that Paul ran away with the circus and “it made him kind of a hero after he’d gone. ” (p99) He became a very successful magician and people thought he was magnificent. They never knew that his success came from him trying to erase the image of him being simple Mary Dempster’s son because “[he] could call up in an instant what it felt like to be the child of a woman everybody jeered at and thought a dirty joke” (p 251) Paul had to get away to ensure that he made a better name for himself.
Their success is attributed to their obstacle to be better than others. Lastly, the challenge of separating their past identities also shapes their current identities. The three central characters use a name change to represent their new identities. They try to change the person they are and in turn people do view that as different people. Dunstan was originally named Dunstable Ramsay but after the war he met a Diana, a nurse whom he had his first real relationship with, who decided to change his name. Diana said “it’s hard to say for one thing and it sounds like a cart running over cobblestones for another.
You’ll never get anywhere in the world named Dumbledum Ramsay. ” (p85) She felt that his name didn’t represent the successful person that he could be with a better name. Diana said that he represented the Saint Dunstan in many ways because “St. Dunstan was a marvellous person and very much like [Dunstan] – mad about learning, terribly stiff and stern and scowly, and an absolute wizard at withstanding temptation. ” (p85) He likes this persona of himself and “the idea of a new name; it suggested new freedom and personality. (p86) Boy Staunton, formerly known as Percy Boyd Staunton also changed his name.
Somewhere along his army career decided that Boy Staunton was a name more fit for him. The name Boy represents the stellar and young gentlemen that he is. “He was boy Staunton because he summed up in himself so much of the glory of youth in the postwar period. ” (p102) His name shows his success in his glorified youth. “He seemed to have made himself out of nothing, and he was a marvel. ” (p103) Another name change that denotes an air of eloquence is Paul Dempster’s name change to Magnus Eisengrim.
As Paul Dempster he had many misfortunes and zero success. As Magnus Eisengrim he has a wonderful show that awes the public. He says “My name is Magnus Eisengrim that is who I am and that is how the world knows me. ” (p249) His reaction to escaping his past identity when he changed his name “he did not present himself as a funny-man but as one who offered an entertainment of mystery and beauty, with perhaps a hint of terror as well. ” (p192) Dunstan had it right when he said “[they] had all rejected [their] beginnings and became something that their parents could not have forseen. (p252)
The characters past identities did not satisfy how they viewed themselves and their challenge to erase who they were allowed them to create a new name that characterized a new identity. The characters in Fifth Business shape identities when they react to adversities. The way they are recognized is due to the actions they take to face these challenges. The most prominent challenges in Roberson Davis’ novel are the challenge of a guilty conscience, being better than others and escaping past identities. People react to one adversity differently and a good or bad identity depends on their reactions.

Rum and Coke by Julia O’faolain

The short story “Rum and Coke” (1996) written by Julia O’Faolain takes place in Ireland in the higher catholic environment. Our narrator is the son of a catholic Irish senator, who is trying to preserve Ireland as a state in the teaching of the Irish Catholic Church. As the story continues, our narrator discovers that his father is having an affair with a younger woman, Artemis Sheehy, and she is pregnant with his father’s child. The two of them had been arguing and his father had a stroke in Artemis? room.They move his father to his own hotel room, to avoid questions about why the senator was in Ms. Sheehy’s room, and they call a doctor.
The father dies a couple of nights later, while our narrator and Artemis Sheehy are comforting each other in a hotel room nearby. Our narrator and Artemis Sheehy gets close and they marry to cover over his father’s mistakes and to raise the child in proper manner within the Catholic believe. Catholics believe that it is a sin to have an abortion, as it is to have an affair when you have engage in a marriage.The senator has committed both of these sins, and as a senior person, this could ruin his career and his family’s reputation. Our narrator knows this during the episode, and that is probably why he takes responsibility for the child. Through the story, our narrator is unsure if he would become like his father, and make the same mistakes. He wonders if Artemis is attracted to the hope of him becoming as his father was, and that being the reason why she engage in a marriage with him.
The senator is a charming, intelligent and political man, who loves his wife and who teaches his son how to succeed in a higher environment.Our narrator idolizes him, and he is in shock when he discovers his father’s secrets. Artemis is described as a beautiful, but shy young woman. She is working at the same hotel as the senator has his stroke and where our narrator works as a barman. At first, our narrator, after his father’s stroke and his knowledge of their affair, does not know what to think of Artemis. He is confused of the situation, but he decides to do the honorable thing, and brings Artemis to the hospital so that she can say her goodbyes.At the end of the text, after his father’s death and right before his son’s birth, we do not get any knowledge of our narrator and Artemis’ relationship, other than they are happy.

This shows that our narrator’s fear of becoming like his father is unnecessary. He is loyal towards Artemis, as far as we know, and he takes responsibility for his family’s actions by covering over their mistakes. The short story is written in a finer English style. O’Faolain uses many terms and words, which normally is not in a Danish student’s English-vocabulary.This simply supports the story because our narrator is from a finer environment. Julia O’Faolain’s father was also a writer and of higher class, he wrote many famous novels of the situation in Ireland. Julia’s father, Sean O’Faolain, fought in The War of Independence and because of his believe, his novels showed his sympathy for IRA and an independent Ireland.
It is therefore understandable why Julia O’Faolian writes of the secrets behind the finer catholic family, since they, by her understanding, has the wrong ideas for Irelands future. This text was published in 1996, two years before the Belfast Agreement.The Belfast Agreement secured an Irish local government, established cooperation between North and South Ireland, a further protection of human rights, early release of paramilitary groups’ prisoners, and much more. [pic] The first paragraph of the story tells us, that our narrator’s wife is soon to go in to labour and he is going to be a father in a short amount of time. He is not at the hospital because the nurses believed that he made his wife nervous. This is understandable because, a woman, when she is going to give birth, is in a lot of pain, so the reader does not give further notice to it.The reader is not given any hints that our narrator’s wife is giving birth to our narrator’s father’s son, and it is not a thought that you would think yourself, because it is a very unusual situation.
Had the reader gotten the knowledge about Senator Leary’s affair with Artemis, Senator Leary’s stroke and our narrators and Artemis’ convenient marriage right after, before we knew that Artemis was pregnant, the puzzle would add up, considering the importance of a good reputation in a higher standing Irish catholic family.The structure is therefore necessary for the rest of the story, so it does not seem irrelevant that our narrator is telling us this, right before he will become a ‘father’. When a story is based on flashbacks, like this story is, it is called a frame story. And when the story begins in the middle of a situation, like this story also does, it is called an in medias res.

Functional culture

Its mission is to provide accessible and quality healthcare services and drug rehabilitation services and to strengthen the mechanisms for protecting the rights of the children, women, and errors with disabilities of the Maldives. Ministry of Health’s vision is to make the Maldives a good model society of socially protected and healthy individuals who are aware, who value their family ties and live a healthy satisfying lives. Ministry of Health consists of more than 7000 employees including the departments under Ministry of Health and all the Government health facilities all around the Maldives.
Departments include; Health Protection Agency and Maldives Food and Drug Authority. Health facilities includes Regional hospitals, Atoll hospitals and Health centers located in 286 islands. Ministry of Health is a service based organization. Meaning that,the organization provides the most necessity need, which is healthcare service for the people. Page 31 14 Before we dwell further on the cross-cultural spheres or cultures, let’s first review its definition. The concept of culture has been the subject of various academic debate, and there are various approaches in defining and studying the term culture.
According to (Taylor, 1871) Culture… Is that complex whole which includes knowledge, belief, art, law, morals, custom, and other capabilities and habits acquired by man as a member of society. Hence, the culture of a group or an organization can be defined as, the pattern of shared basic assumptions that the group learned as it solved its problems of external adoption and internal I integration, that has worked well enough to be considered valid and, therefore, to be taught to new members as the correct war to perceive, think, and feel in relation to those problems.

In each and every organization, culture matters. It matters because decisions made without proper awareness of the operative cultural forces may have unanticipated and undesirable consequences. According to (Salesman, 2007) when companies “get the culture right” success often seems to naturally flow. The influence of cultural in business can be explored or identified in several cultural I spheres. Various businesses in a same country can also have different cultures based on the location and the type of the industry.
According to Schneider and Barbour (2003), there are mainly five cultural spheres of influence. Page | 14 REGIONAL CULTURE Regional cultures are mainly the cultural differences within states in a country. It is important to recognize both, in order to avoid the assumption that doing business in Rome is the same as in Milan, or the assumption that doing business in Italy is so ere different from Saudi Arabia. Recognizing regional cultures helps us to appreciate why certain industries flourish in different regions, and why trading partners may be more eagerly sought across some borders rather than others.
Regional Culture evolves from time to time. And there are various factors that result in this evolution. These factors include, History, Politics, Economy, Language, Religion and Geography. Functional culture is where there are different cultures in various divisions of an organization. Meaning that, finance, production, marketing, research and development, administration, etc. These different divisions have different cultures based on the work that they do.
The reasons for these differences can be found in the external environment, such as stakeholder demands, and the nature of the task. Different stakeholders influence what is considered to be important and what is considered to be the best way to achieve. CORPORATE CULTURE Corporate culture refers to the shared values, attitudes, standards and beliefs that characterize members of an organization and define its nature. It is also rooted in every organization’s goals, strategies, structure and approaches to labor, customers, investors and the greater community.
As such, corporate culture is an essential component in each and every businesses or organization’s ultimate success or failure. 4. 4 PROFESSIONAL CULTURE Professional culture is related to the principles of workers. This type of culture is about the requirements and situations that the workers face as being members of a different professional group. This also includes the ‘proper behavior’ and distinctive image of a profession. An example of a professional culture could be; a doctor wearing a white coat and a Judge wearing a black robe.

There is a movement brewing in the United States

There is a movement brewing in the United States to make English the official language of the country, but the whole idea seems preposterous. After all, the English and others who speak Her Majesty’s tongue would be the first to explain that what Americans speak is not English. At best, the official language should be American.  But the debate continues regardless. That is why we must do whatever is necessary to prevent English from being declared the official language of the United States.
The debate centers on the concept that a nation needs an official language to be homogenous and that declaring an official language will mean that the government no longer has to print documents in a dozen different languages. Those in favor of the proposal argue that it will also mean we no longer have to push one for English. Proponents claim it will save millions and that it will lead to the entirety of the country forming a single identity. Opponents to the proposal argue that we have operated for 230 years without an official languages and that there is simply no reason to start with one now. They argue that the concept of an official language is racist and attacks the non-Anglo citizens of the country. An official language is unnecessary and should not be enacted.
There is absolutely nothing to be gained by declaring English the official language of the United States. Moreover, it is time to acknowledge that most of the countries of the world do not have one official language, they have multiple. Choosing English as the official language of the United States encourages the xenophobic an.d elitist attitude that Americans have long been accused of worldwide. Americans need to learn additional languages, not force others to learn theirs.  The concept that Americans are so arrogant as to assume that everyone else should have to learn their language is insulting to non-Anglo citizens and the rest of the world as well.

Another reason that declaring English the official language of the Untied States is simply wrong is that a significant portion of the American populace does not speak English or at the very least does not speak it well. Recent estimates are that soon the Hipic population in the United States will make up as much as 25 percent of the total population. Most of the immigrants do not speak English as their first language and so then requiring them to only speak English when dealing with official government documents or calling to conduct any sort of business, is insulting and racist. In addition, in other countries where the majority of the populace speaks multiple languages, the country has more than one official language.  If the proposal were to make English and Spanish the official languages of the country, it would make much more sense.
Finally, the single best argument against making English the official language of the United States is that it is completely contradictory to the entire history of the nation. American history is based on the concept that America is as a melting pot, but that melting pot was never intended to make us all the same.  We are supposed to celebrate our differences and celebrate the variety of different cultures that make up our country, not try to smash them all into the same identical little box. The concept that a country made up entirely of immigrants could then try to decide that the language of one group of immigrants was more important than the language of the other immigrants is completely contradictory to the founding principles of the country. It negates the very theory of freedom of choice and freedom to pursue life, liberty and happiness.
Proponents of English as the official language say that while some countries worldwide have two official languages, right now the United States has none. The lack of an official language means that government documents must be presented in many different languages, adding to the cost of doing business. Furthermore, may countries around the world are adding English to their list of official languages because English is the language of business around the world. If any language comes close to be the language of the world, it is English. Perhaps because of the extent of the British Empire and possibly because of the economic power of English-speaking languages, most business transactions around the world are conducted in English. Therefore, it makes sense that America would make English its official language.
Simply because a portion of the populace has not taken the time to learn the language of commerce, does not mean that they should be used as an excuse to keep the rest of the country from making progress. The fact of the matter is that most of the country’s business is already conducted in English and the excuse that people have not yet learned the language is not a valid argument in favor of avoiding having an official language.
Finally, yes, America has always been the melting pot and the land of opportunity where people can bring their culture and share it with others. But over the generations, those immigrants have always adopted the language of the land and the laws of the land in the process of assimilating into their new country. To say that because we are a nation of immigrants we cannot have a uniform language is to put our individual cultures above our collective culture. It is time for our culture to overcome and create an American identity.
The decision to name an official language remains unnecessary when it forces some part of the American populace to feel that the it is a personal affront. While it may be time for the country to develop a national identity, it should not have to be done at the expense of the other members of the society. In short, American should still be the land of opportunity and those who do not speak English as their primary language should not be discriminated against simply because they have not yet learned the language of commerce.
In addition, the reality is that anyone who has spoken extensively with people who speak the Queen’s English knows that Americans do not speak the same English as the remainder of the world. American and English truly are related languages, but not the same. It is perfectly legitimate to acknowledge English as the language of business and commerce, but there is no overriding reason to make it the official language of the nation. And, the main reason why it is unnecessary is that quite simply, we’ve done without it for 231 years. Why change things that work?