Entrepreneurial Business Plan: Learning Disability Service

There are those who seek out opportunities from the very situations where others fear chaos or are lost in confusion. These individuals often act as catalysts to bring about a change that reshapes a market place. They are thought of as Olympic athletes who constantly challenge themselves to surpass barriers, or long distance runners who are undeterred in bearing the agony of running miles, or symphony orchestra conductors who are experts in balancing the skills and sounds of people and instruments respectively in a cohesive unit, or top-gun pilots who endlessly challenge the limits of speeds and daring. From a psychological perspective, these individuals are driven by their quest to achieve or obtain something. They experiment and take risks to accomplish something and often resent authorities of others over them. To economists, these individuals gather resources, people, materials, information and other assets to create a value greater than before. The academia has come to recognize them as ‘entrepreneurs’ and their entrepreneurial activities as ‘entrepreneurship’. Entrepreneurs are important segment of any economy as they often spearhead innovations; many of which turn out to be seedlings of future large corporations. Keeping the importance of entrepreneurship in view, this essay focuses on deliberating an entrepreneurial proposal, with an aim to realize the rigors of formulating a business plan from an idea that creates value in general.

According to Hisrich (2001) “Entrepreneurship is the process of creating something new with value by devoting the necessary time and effort, assuming the accompanying financial, psychic and social risks, and receiving the resulting rewards of monetary, personal satisfaction and independence.” Nafziger (1997 and 2006) states that entrepreneurship is comprised of basic features; coordination of production factors such as land, labor, and capital, decision making under uncertain conditions innovation and creative solutions to problems and fulfillment of a market gap with an input completer. The entrepreneurial business plan proposed in this essay will try to adhere to these definitions and incorporate the aforementioned features.
Business Plan
The business plan is to create an online service for people with learning disabilities. This plan is both entrepreneurial and socially driven and therefore it can be termed as social entrepreneurship. The distinction between business entrepreneurs and social entrepreneurs is that the latter are driven by a social mission while the former is more focused towards wealth generation (Dees and Emerson, 2001).
The online service titled as “LDS”, will allow users to find out what’s going on in their communities, and provide information for the nearest and cheapest available social care support options for them to seek. LDS service would be designed like the “ebay of social care for people with learning disabilities,” It will assist care providers in knowing what services support and funds they are entitled to. Moreover, it will help care providers in planning their budget for a personalized social care support. It will also allow socialization among users in terms of forming communities, organizing events and activities and share information; all with an overall social care agenda.
Business Model
The prevailing business environment is manifested by rapid innovation and diffusion of new internet based information technologies (Bruin and Dupuis, 2003). These technologies create many new windows of entrepreneurial opportunities. The pervasiveness of the internet, which is a “communication medium that allows, for the first time, the communication of many to many, in a chosen time on a global scale”(Castells, 2001, p.2 in Bruin and Dupuis, 2003), presents new ways of working and entrepreneurial opportunities. The LDS is another such entrepreneurial endeavor made possible by the internet based information and communication technologies. It is a complete e-business initiative.
As a social and commercial enterprise, LDS will operate as a commercial entity. It will generate its revenue from the advertisement fees charged to the service providers, individual carers, and product stores who are likely to post their products and services over LDS. It will also generate revenue from a small one time registration fee charged to the users.
LDS will operate partly on a wiki principle. A wiki is a website which is partly user generated i.e. its users are allowed to create and manipulate its content via web browser. Wikis are usually run by wiki software and are typically operated collaboratively by several users. Through its wiki principle, the LDS website will allow users to provide their input; making this service a knowledge sharing portal dedicated towards caring people with learning disabilities. Moreover, it will serve as a portal for users to organize communities of users and clients. In order to monitor the activities of users to maintain focus and direction of the website, level of access will be enforced upon users.
The LDS will be created as an eMarketplace which would help people take charge of their own support. LDS will provide products and services for the social care sector through four interrelated modules. These modules are designed keeping the needs of the different users in mind. They are;
Service Providers
Budget Managers and
Macro Anslysis
More than 1.5 million people in the United Kingdom have a learning disability making it one of the most common forms of disability in the UK. Learning disabilities the most overlooked and least understood disabilities. Thus there is a dire need to spread awareness regarding learning disabilities and its support (LDC, 2012).
In 2004, the government of UK established the commission for social care inspection (CSCI) which has been publishing reports on the state of social care England annually since 2005. According to the data of 2006-07, the councils in UK had spent ?14.24 billion on social services. This is the gross amount spent on social services. As much as 60% of this amount was used in financing services for older people whereas people with learning disabilities received the second largest share which is 22% of total spending amounting to ?3.12billion (LDC, 2012).
The coalition government in UK government brought a major policy shift by reducing social spending in national budgets. The Emergency Budget in June 2010 enforced a reduction worth ?6.2 billion, including cuts in money given to Local Governments by ?1.165 billion. The Emergency Budget also initiated other big changes to the welfare system and Disability Living Allowance. For instance, it was followed by the Comprehensive Spending Review and the settlement for local councils. The Comprehensive Spending Review recognized the persistent underfunding of social care, which resulted in an influx of extra ?2 billion per year for social care services by promised by the government. However, this amount is not enough to cater the increase in the numbers of people requiring support (LDC, 2012).
In response to the aforementioned changes, Learning Disability Coalition, an independent organization, got engaged in supporting people with different learning disabilities. It carried out a survey of local authorities to assess the effects of changes introduced through the ‘Emergency Budget’ and ‘Comprehensive Spending Review’. A similar survey of over 350 disabled people, their families and care providers was carried out to ask them how the policy changes had affected them. It concluded that 90% of local authorities had less funding than before and 84% termed their funding conditions as “difficult”. Out of these, 20% were planning to cut services. As for the individuals with learning disabilities, 20% complained about a reduction in hours of care provided while 19% were faced with reduction support fund. About one third of the disabled people and their care providers had been contacted by their respective councils regarding a change to eligibility criteria (LDC, 2012).
Considering the issues discussed above, it is viewed that LDS will provide an innovative solution to all these stakeholders in utilizing their resources more effectively; thus creating a value for the society and an opportunity for the business person.
The LDS is an open marketplace that can be accessed and used by anyone. It can be:
They comprise of people having learning physical or other mental disabilities, as well as older people.
Local Authorities,
They can range from urban metropolitan authorities to County Councils, all having different structures and strategies, and being at different stages in their move towards personalisation.
Service providers,
They can include national providers, smaller regional providers and local micro-providers.
Broker Organizations, and
Voluntary Sector Organisations.
It is vital to understand that these stakeholders vary in their interests and requirements; therefore an all-around approach will be adopted in order to successfully position LDS, which would help in engaging with each of these target audiences. LDS will engage Local Authorities on a regional basis through the ‘Joint Improvement Partnerships’ (JIPs) as well as ‘Regional Improvement and Efficiency Partnerships’ (RIEPs). Direct engagement will also be targeted. LDS will engage service providers mainly through Local Authorities, which will be effective in utilizing their existing networks and relationships. Proactive service providers would be sought directly.
Market Position
LDS will serve as a platform for numerous service and products related to social care. They could be offered by any stores and service providers – all gathered in one marketplace.
The attraction of LDS to its customers is that it will meet the requirements of each individual customer group i.e. individuals, local authorities, service providers and broker organizations through its multi-facet software system, whilst providing them with a common platform to collaborate in providing/seeking social services. The LDS will be positioned within the social care industry to provide some of the following services leading to various benefits to its stakeholders:
IndividualsAccess to a best value, high quality marketplace;
Ordering and payment process for services;
Tool to manage personalized budget.
Tool to enable employment of personal assistants.Easy setup and planning of budgets;
Reduced administration costs;
Access to best value catalogues;
Easy reporting to funding bodies.
Local AuthoritiesLow cost marketing channel for service providers;
Ability to setup an online retail store & catalogue;
Automated purchase to pay process;Low cost sales & marketing channel;
Easy management of online store;
Automated billing process;

Budget ManagersTool for brokers and/or LAs to setup and manage personal budgets;
Tool for LAs to review and audit support plans and outcomes
Management of budgets and support plans for many clients;
Administration of clients orders and invoices;
Reporting on funding, spend and outcomes.
Easy integration & reporting with existing systems.Macro / micro manage details of multiple clients;
Reduced personal budget administration costs for individual and LA;
Automated financial processes;
Report on funding, spend & outcomes.
Fewer administrative review visits required.
More time available for value added activities.

CommunityUser friendly information tool for individuals;
Content rich marketing channel for providers (beyond being a list);
Easy administration of catalogue for LA;
Reporting on utilisation and trends.
Efficient & effective way to find services & events which form part of support plan;
Free marketing for providers
Low cost admin and maintenance for LA;
Useful information for LA as a market manager.
Marketing Mix
In order to promote LDS and widen its clientele, collaborative relationships will be established with Social Care service providers. Some of the organizations that LDS will be looking forward to collaborate with include;
Association for Real Change (ARC)
BILD (British Institute of Learning Disabilities)
Downs Syndrome Association
Foundation for People with Learning Disabilities
National Autistic Society
National Family Carer Network
People First
Real Life Options
The Hesley Group
The National Forum for People with Learning Difficulties
Turning Point
United Response
Furthermore, LDS will create a promotional calendar to engage with individual and general population. LDS will also carry out promotion activities at relevant national and regional events. Moreover, LDS will make various other marketing materials which would be made readily available to reinforce the brand. These materials will include: electronic newsletters, standardized fliers, presentations, mugs, and key-rings etc. LDS will also try to get media coverage and contribute in several national publications.
Monitoring and Evaluation
Year 1Launch initial pilot program for users
Continued marketing
By the third quarter of the first year, launch a complete version of the program
Bring along atleat 100 different service providers
Engagement with at least 5 Local Authorities
Launch a whole scale application that could be run on a Partner’s website
Year 2Engagement with at least 10 Local Authorities
Achieve target for ?50m spend by service users over LDS by the end of second year
Year 3Engagement with at least 15 Local Authorities
Achieve target for ?200m spend by service users over LDS by the end of second year
Expansion to overseas market
Bruin, A. and Dupuis, A (2003). Entrepreneurship: New Perspectives in a Global Age. Ashgate Publishing, Ltd.
Dees, J. G., Emerson, J. & Economy, P. (2001) Enterprising Non-profits: A Toolkit for Social Entrepreneurs. New York: Wiley & Sons, Inc.
Hisrich, R.D (2011) Entrepreneurship. Tata McGraw-Hill Education
LDC, (2012) Learning Disability Coalition. {online} www.learningdisabilitycoalition.org.uk
Nafziger, E. Wayne (1997), The Economics of Developing Countries, Third Edition, Prentice-Hall, New Jersey
Nafziger, E. Wayne (2006), Economic Development, 4th edition, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge

Normal distribution/probability

Step 1: Survey or measure 10 people to find their heights. Determine the mean and standard deviation for this group by using the Week 3 Excel spreadsheet. Post a screen shot of the portion of the spreadsheet that helped you determine these values. How does your height compare to the mean (average) height of the group that you surveyed? Is your height taller, shorter, or the same as the mean of your group?
Step 2: Give some background information on the group of people you used in your study. You might consider using the following questions to guide your answer.

How did you choose the participants for your study (sampling method)?
What part of the country did your study take place in?
What are the age ranges of your participants?
How many of each gender did you have in your study?
What are other interesting factors about your group?

Step 3: Use the Week 5 Excel spreadsheet for the following.

(Use the Empirical Rule tab from the spreadsheet). Determine the 68%, 95%, and 99.7% values of the Empirical Rule in terms of the ten heights in your height study.
What do these values tell you?
Post a screen shot of your work from the Week 5 Excel spreadsheet.
Week 5 Spreadsheet Example
(Use the normal probability tab from the spreadsheet). Based on your study results, what percent of the study participants are shorter than you? What percent are taller than you?
Post a screen shot of your work from the Week 5 Excel spreadsheet.

Example: If my height is 73 inches, then 20.86% of the relevant population is shorter. The other 79.14%, of course, is taller.

Case Study: Managing The Challenge Of Change. Smith, A. And Langston, A.

Case Study: Managing the challenge of change. Smith, A. and Langston, A. (1999) Policy change has been a large factor in the management change in today’s early years services. Many people are cautious towards change due to the fear of the unknown or the failure that it may cause with implementation; therefore, it is sometimes hard for managers. Day at el. (1998) identified three types of response to change; the rational adopter, the stone age obstructionist and the pragmatic sceptic.
Managers need to be ready for staffs reactions and the way in which change affects each individual, negativity is normal in these situations as for many it means aspects of work will change. Managers should prepare themselves for this and facilitate themselves with the skills required to cope with staff’s reactions towards change. Through the use of communication and interpersonal skills management can optimise their own and their employees performance to implement change and thus ensure all persons involved with the setting are confident and happy.
Hay, S (1997, p13) explains ‘Embracing change and the turbulence it can cause requires maturity in a manager. Faced with the moving target of quality childcare, change is part and parcel of everyday nursery life… ‘ What problems are arising with the proposed changes and why? Many of the staff at the school feel hostile towards the changes that are being implemented in the setting. Staff believe their skills and qualifications are being undervalued, as management are employing staff who are not trained to the same level as themselves and resent the fact that they shall still be working alongside them.

The teacher status, in their opinion is being disestablished and that the childminders are being given undue credit and status. The security of the children in the setting is also being disputed by staff as they feel that the childminders are not competent enough in the issue of child protection as they lack training and may be unaware of factors which could threaten the security of the children.
Edgington, M, 1998, offers three models of early years team;The rigorous and challenging team; characterised by high levels of professionalism and outward looking approach to development, debates with possible disagreements and challenges within a strong belief system and high standards. At present there are possibilities that the team at Damson Lane Primary School will become a ‘turbulent team’ if issues are left unresolved. Established members of the team who are finding the new changes difficult could be referred to as ‘stone age obstructionists’ as they feel comfortable with the way in which they used to work and fear change.
What can Beth do to promote the changes and deal with the conflict? Beth needs to show the appreciation for the staffs work in order for them to feel valued in the setting. She also needs to acknowledge the feelings and concerns of all staff and improve communication ensuring that changes are discussed with staff. The team needs to spend time discussing factors which they are unhappy with and build strong relationships, every individual should be given the chance to voice their opinions and input into the implementation of the changes. Beth should promote co-operation and help resolve any, and hopefully prevent future conflict.
Beth needs to re-assure staff that their ideas and work are valued. The issues raised in regards to the practice carried out need to be dealt with to make staff feel as ease. Beth needs to spend time reflecting on how she feels about the changes in order for her to provide encouragement. If staff are able to see her confidence regarding the changes then this will make staff aware about the positive aspects of change. Smith and Langston (2000, p74) explain,’The degree of peoples resistance to change depends on the kind of change involved and how well it is understood’
It is a necessity as Beths role as manager to lead an effective and successful team, therefore when any change occurs she needs to make a conscious effort to include all staff and make sure they feel comfortable with regards to change.
Day, C. Hall C. & Whittaker, P. (1998) ‘Developing Leadership in Primary Schools. ‘ London: Paul Chapman. Edington, M. (1998) ‘The Nursery Teacher in action: Teaching 3, 4 ; 5 year old (2nd ed)’ London: Paul Chapman Smith, A. & Langston, A. (1999) ‘Managing staff in Early Years Settings’ London: Routledge.

Character of Mrs. Sparsit in Hard Times

MRS. sparsit is an elderly lady who is highly connected and have a huge aristpcratic bvackground. her husband belonged to the family of “POWERLS”. Scadgers…. she is a widow now, fallen yupon evil days to take up job. She works as a housekeeper olf mr. Josiah Bounderby. bounderby treats her in the most polite manner and never fails to pay compliments and regards to her excellent background. Mrs. Sparsit is very much proud of her coonnectipons.
The jnovelist descxribes her as a p;erson haveing dense black Coriolanian eyebrows and a thick roman nose with classical eyes.. o stress on her aristocratic background in a satirical way. dickens have also mafde her the object of satire with reference to her pride and vanity for her high connections. It is because of this pride that sjhe shares her employers contempt for the workers. It is due to this disdain she treats Stephen Blackpool with total lack of symparthy when he comes tp Bounderby to discuss his matrimonial troubles. she even regards him as an “Impiety of people”. Bounderby’s decesipn top marry Loiusa ; Gradgrind’s daughter is obviously unfavourable to MRs.
Sparsits, bu t she dint utterd a word against it,. Bounderby was aware of her dissaproval regarding his marrige so hi took a bottle of smelling salts witrh him under the impression that she wou;d faint on hearing the unwelcomed news. But to the utter surprise of Bounderby she saw no sign of trouble or dissaproval on her face. Instead she looked at him in a pityful manner and extended her goodwishes to bounderby. BOunderby seems to understand mrs. sparsit well therefore he asserted at once dat his housekeeper woyuld not be abel to beer the site of hiss would be wife.

drunk driving

Action Plan to Address Drunk Driving
Drunk driving is one of the largest social problems related to alcohol use. Driving under the influence (DUI) of alcohol is involved in 40–45% of all fatal traffic accidents. As a result, legislators, educators, and law enforcement officers are continually attempting to find ways to prevent driving under the influence of alcohol.
Select one of the following age groups: teens (13–17 years), college-age (18–25 years), adults (26–60 years), or seniors (61 years and up).
For your selected age group, develop a plan to reduce driving under the influence. The plan could include (but not be limited to) educational, legislative, and community support; and social advertising. Present at least three action points in your plan. Be sure to include:

The format of the plan
Who will deliver the information and how
Specific tactics used to target the selected group
Methods used to measure the success of the plan

Be sure to include an introduction and summary for your plan. Support your recommendations using authoritative sources.
Write a 2–3-page plan in Word format. Apply APA standards to citation of sources.

I, Robot: A Review of the Novel by Isaac Asimov

The novel focuses on the conflict between human and robot in many aspects, based on the interviewed with Dr. Calvin, chief robopsychologist of U.S. Robots and Mechanical Men, Inc. It is a framing sequence featuring Dr. Calvin’s life’s work. The book was sequentially published during 1940 and 1950, while the stories are depicted from the birth of Dr. Calvin, 1982, to her death, 2065. Other characters appear in these fiction stories are Powell and Donovan, a field-testing team which finds flaws in USRMM’s prototype models.
It is quite a shock for me after I went through the whole book, since the reason why I chose I, Robot is because the movie we watched in the lecture inspired me to read the original story. Actually, there are a lot of differences between the movie I, Robot (2004) and the novel it is based on. For example the movie focuses mainly on the conflict initiated from a police and a special type of robot, NS-5, while the novel describes in detail the different stages of development of human society together with the increasing need of robots in our daily lives.

But I would say it is somehow a great comparison for both audiences of the movie and readers of the book because the movie itself had to have some modification on the script for commercial purposes, so it is inappropriate to make a conclusion whether the movie was stuck to the novel written by Isaac Asimov or not.
Fun fact is, some predictions from the novel are actually happening in our current era, while some are incorrect. It’s no wonder that the author, a professor of biochemistry, was praised as “a national wonder and a natural resource” [1] for his explanation in this technological age, unveiling that science fictions are no longer merely stories lived on paper but rather turning into reality in the foreseeable future.
Sometimes I would ask myself whether there do exist a higher authority overseeing the human society and more other areas, and if there do, then who they are and how they are going to treat us in those severe conditions, will they give us a hand or will they abandon us. In biological field there is a term called “natural selection” which highlights the motive force of evolution. But how do we know the force is natural or not, or maybe the evolution follows some certain rules beyond our imaginations. The book mentioned a critical idea that the robots are actually not obeying to human but to the Master.
In chapter Reason, the robot Cutie kept mentioning the Master and made an announcement that, first thing first the Master created human beings, the lowest creation, then the Master created the robots, the next higher step, and now it is time to take place of the last humans. “From now on, I serve the Master.” The story was set in 2016 which for us, we know it’s not what really happened as predicted, but who says we are not moving toward this direction? Now the factories need no more employees because the automatic system shows higher efficiency and accuracy, the hospitals are lowering their budget on human resources because robots are gradually taking over the health caring jobs which require enough patience and energy.
I think one thing the book successfully predicted is that a robotic nursemaid, or more commonly babysitter, would be the first artificial intelligence product that walks into the house. At first sight they appear harmless and even show some human like caring behaviors. Let’s look at Siri, Alexa, or any other personal digital assistant (PDA) now available [2]. Once the kids rely heavily on these artificial assistants, there’s going to be a certain degree of risk that they might be isolated from real human society, and the worst thing I can come up with is that who will these kids listen to when they grow up, is it their parents, the robots, or themselves?
And how we are going to explain to the kids that the robots are not real people and you should go play with other kids and those robots will not stay with us forever, not to mention being destroyed in scrap yards. As one may think that once this intimate relationship is established, it is not going to be an easy task to alienate we humans from robots. Does that mean we are going to be controlled entirely or if there is anything we can do to prevent it from happening?
To answer these questions, we have to think of a rather philosophic issue, that what is the cause of robot’s existence. Since any hypothesis must be backed by a certain reason or else it is worthless and meaningless. How can we convince every self-educated and technology- based robots that they are made for some certain reasons, is the key stone we get to carry out before jumping into the generation of robots.
As for my observation, there is some religious ideology in framing robots in the novel, or any other robot related science fictions. In fact, we are playing the role of the almighty god, trying to create a creature from zero and teach it emotions and the ability to wonder. If they, the robots mentioned in books, make any single mistake, are we the ones to be blamed since they are made according to our ideal images?
Some ethical concerns are inevitable if the problem remains unsolved, for example, if we provide a robot an everlasting love while it was manufactured, later give it an order to take part in a war and to kill, this will definitely hurt the robot’s “feelings” and whether the robot has the right to say no to the order is another issue worth concerning. If we look carefully at the Three Laws of Robotics, it’s not hard to find some interesting flaws in the laws. In the chapter Runaround, published in 1942, the robot Speedy just could not come back to the station on the Mercury, forcing the two astronauts risked their lives to look for it and found it moving forward and backward from the mercury pit.
The reason why it made this movement is because the second law and the third law conflict with each other, when Speedy got too close to the poisonous pit it would follow the second law to protect its own existence, but when it got too far from the pit it would follow the second law to obey orders given by human beings, resulting in this inefficient but well balanced movement.
There are more conflicts between the laws as we can refer from the critics, and the author was actually open to them and welcomed everyone to find the defects, since the rules are set to be broken as the old saying goes. An open-ended problem is also revealed in the novel that once the robots possess the ability to think, they will undoubtedly question the rules again and again and who can assure the robots won’t rebel against human and cause further uncontrollable chaos once they found the flaws between the laws.
“Technology has always come from humanity,” a slogan proposed by mobile phone manufacturer over 20 years ago [3], showing the reason behind why we started developing robots. In the 1940s, the decade the author wrote these short stories, people didn’t have too many entertainments comparing with nowadays, the connections between individuals are strong and unalienable, and it was not too difficult to find someone to share the ideas, the pleasure, and the agony.
But since the social division became more and more specific than ever before, we were grouped into smaller and smaller groups with different interests and different goals, which made it hard to find others to share with. And we started thinking of making an artificial product for accompanying, for taking care of the elders and youngsters, for giving us a little comfort whenever we are in need.
So I would say that Isaac Asimov is not a prophet as many indicated but rather an observer who made some almost accurate assumptions of the future world, based on his knowledge of the trend. As for some legal concern we are going to face, let’s examine a postulated situation that a robot accidently (according to rule #1, a robot may not injure a human being) causes a man’s death, then who should be responsible for the accident, is it the scientist and inventor of the robot? I don’t think so.
Because the scientist and inventor simply made their best to solve problems and prevent anything that is possibly harmful. Is it the robot itself who should shoulder all the responsibilities? Again, I would not agree on that, for it is ridiculous to sue a robot, not even a living human, in the court. So after all the possible solutions, we will get a conclusion that the man was died of some mechanical negligence, which is pretty weird but do make sense to me. “Does the robot has free will to make its own decision” is the point that signifies the status of the robot in the trial, but whether there is free will or not is still a debate among almost every areas of study, then how can we apply this idea on the robots?
In the interview with Dr. Calvin, there is a paragraph that really touched me, which goes, “there was a time when humanity faced the universe alone and without a friend. Now he has creatures to help him; stronger creatures than himself, more faithful, more useful, and absolutely devoted to him. Mankind is no longer alone.” It is no wonder that our increasing need for robots is arose from the deepest part of our hearts.
Loneliness is that unpleasant emotion no one would like to experience, but however it is getting more and more familiar for modern citizens. Just go check the news, and one will find the never ending tragedies, associated with lonely people, appearing on television.
Once you see a robber committed crime due to the high unemployment rate, you should be careful of robot competition for human jobs; and when you find the elders and the youngsters are not receiving proper caring because of the population structure can no longer support the long-term care system, you should be aware of companion robot showing up around you in the future house. It sounds really inauthentic for me before I read I, Robot, but now concerning all the aspects the author specified, I would say the truth is that sooner or later, robots will be part of our society and it won’t take long and it is the obvious which is so difficult to see most of the time.
As for the modification of the novel, I think it should be the communication between human brain and positronic brain (artificial intelligence brain for robots as well as the energy storage to work properly in the novel). The positronic brain provides robots society an isolated system of communication, even the brain waves are strong enough to send message to each other, silently and secretly.
Since human cannot be involved in the communication, we are unable to understand what they are thinking if they really are. Nowadays, neural psychology has evolved so quickly and I believe soon there will be a method to connect two different system. But in this case, a bigger concern is arose: if two systems are connected, does this means robots can in parallel understand what humans are thinking also?
Another minor modification I would like to propose is there should be a renewal of spaceships and the astronauts suit. During I read the book, a question kept annoying me is that why don’t they get the spaceship fixed or the suit updated, in this way around half the problems they faced are solved. For the technology nowadays, it is impossible for government or any private industrial companies to sent astronauts without proper and safe suits, since training an astronaut is never an easy task.
One thing I would like to explain is, it is never intended to offense robots by calling them “it” in this article but I can barely find a political correct synonym to represent robots. Anyway, I still look forward to a future shared with robots, because there are already too many problems existed and it’s about the time for robots to give us a hand, and what we have to do is getting prepared to cope with them as well as learning from the lessons we read from the sci-fi.

George Gaylord Simpson, in Science, April 23, 1961 (as quoted by Asimov in In Joy Still Felt (1980), p. 232)
Pamela Falk, “
Is it time for Alexa and Siri to have a “MeToo moment”?,” CBS news, para. 10, May 23, 2019. [Online], Available:
https://www.cbsnews.com/news/alexa-siri-other-artificial-intelligence-voice-assistants-gender-bias-unesco/. [Accessed Aug. 1, 2019].
Jacob Steinberg, “Nokia: Still Connecting People,” seekingalpha, para. 1, Nov. 25, 2013. [Online], Available:
https://seekingalpha.com/article/1860171-nokia-still-connecting-people [Accessed Aug. 1, 2019].

Potential Disadvantages of an Online Business Presence

In this task I am going to describe the potential disadvantages of an online presence and give examples of businesses that may suffer such problems. I am also going to identify and describe the potential difficulties that a business may come across when implementing it e-business operations and the considerations on the desired timescale of change. Potential disadvantages of an online presence Problems relating to exposure When a website goes online it immediately exposes to the wider world. Some of the exposure is good as it attracts new customers and new markets.
On other circumstances the exposures can be problematic, for the reasons I am going to explain bellow. Hostile chatrooms and negative publicity is one of the disadvantages. An online business presence can irritate its customers by poor deliveries, uncompetitive prices and late deliveries. Customers can give negative publicity using chatrooms. A business can find itself under attack in several chatrooms because the public can communicate and express themselves more easily online and to a far wider audience. An Example of business that may suffer such problem is laptopsdirect.
co. uk because it offers poor delivery. The customer fears over payment security and unfamiliar trading conditions over the internet makes a disadvantage of an online presence. Customers are worried to give credit card details online because of fraudsters. Also the customers are worried if they know what to do to buy online. But the media helped the customers to give information and advice how to buy online and recommendations that they use well known stores for security. But new customers prefer buy in local stores instead of buy online.

Also if a customer does not have a credit card, it makes a disadvantage to a business operating online. The problems of defamation are another disadvantage. People can defame a website by saying or writing something untrue or true about the website. If is untrue people may be breaking the law. Also people can publish something on the internet or print off from it. These are the ways which a website may suffer from defamation. The most defamation is from the strong competition which has more power. Examples of websites that may suffer from defamation are laptopsdirect.
co. uk and dabs. com. The last potential disadvantage relating to exposure is the inability to cope with massively increased marked interest. If an online presence website has too many people trying using it simultaneously it can result in the site crashing. This means that the enquiries cannot be answered quickly or the orders cannot be filled because there is few staff to process them. The online presence can lose customers and there is chance that they never contact it again in the future. An online presence that may suffer such problem are zonepoint. co. uk
Vulnerability to hostile attack Large businesses are threatened by phishing, spoof websites or denial of service attacks. Small businesses are more vulnerable to staff misuse of company websites and lack of care in relation of security. But all businesses are threatened by the virus. Businesses can suffer from DOS attacks and other cybercrimes. A DOS attack occurs when a website is overwhelmed with data in a short time. Nowadays websites suffer more from hacking. Hacking is when a person gains authorised access to a computer for the purpose of stealing information.
Cybercrime and DOS attacks cost billions of pounds for businesses. ISP collapses is another disadvantage. Online Businesses presences are dependent upon their ISP stay online. The Internet access can be lost if a system develops a technical fault. This can create huge problems for businesses if the website is “down” for a long period of time. Some examples of online businesses presences that are regularly “down” are pc-wizards. co. uk and maccentre. com Potential unpopularity with staff When people develop an online presence it can create worry and anxiety for staff.
Staff may be concerned that their jobs may change. New staff will be needed with specific skills such as managing the website and keep-up-to date. Also the jobs and the working methods of existing will change. Existing staff will need to learn new skills, dealing with customer queries online, and ways of working. To perform an online presence, staff will need to adapt new skills to their jobs. If the adaptation fails it can create a disadvantage to the online presence. Financial uncertainties This section covers the disadvantages relating to money.
The major disadvantage is to having an expensive online presence which brings few financial benefits. The initial investment cost is very important. An online presence will require extensive hardware, sep-up costs (ISP charge), staff training and marketing and promotion costs. This cost large amount of money. The first stages of an online presence are very feeble as they require to invest lot of money to set up the business. But then, if the customers cope with the business, it would bring many financial benefits. Then the online presence can think about improving the services and the website.
In conclusion, the initial investments of a new online business presence are a disadvantage as they will require to invest a large amount of money to set-up the business. Potential pitfalls associated with e-business implementation When an online business presence goes online there is a big risk not having the right staff, budget, equipment and time. Without these, the business will fail the customer demands. It is very important that an online presence creates a website that stays competitive and helps the business.

Critique-Endangered animals: the Hummingbird

I need this in 6 hours. At least 2 pages excluding title and reference page .
Topic: endangered animals: the Hummingbird 
 There is no length requirement for the article, but it should have enough information so that you can write a full one-page critique. The article should come from a reputable news or scholarly source. See the checklist below, which contains the specific requirements this assignment will be graded on.  
It is required that the article you use for the critique directly relate to the material found in Chapter 4 of the textbook. It is required that your critique contains the following headings: Introduction, Summary, How It Relates, and Conclusion. For your critique, you are going use the headings listed above and answer the following questions under the headings: 1. Introduction: Provide an introduction/ description of the topic. The description should include the relationship between nature and people being addressed in the critique. 2. Summary: Provide a summary of main points/arguments of the author. 3. How It Relates: Discuss how the article relates to at least ONE concept found in the Chapter 4 reading. 4. Conclusion: Your own concluding thoughts on the article and the subject matter. Your paper should be written in APA style and should be a minimum of one page in length (not including the title and reference pages). At least one article source (the article you are critiquing) is required. You may use the textbook and other sources as needed. Note: Wiki is not a scholarly source and is not an acceptable source for this assignment or any following assignments. Following is a list of topics that you may find interesting: Endangered animals/plants, biodiversity and extinction of plants/animals, nature programs, nature reserves, national park program, interaction between humans and nature, global warming, climate change, renewable energy, or oil drilling. These topics are not set in stone; you may choose a topic that is relevant to the concepts provided in Chapter 4 of the textbook. 


Your group will be responsible to conduct a research project on cost accounting issues that are covered in this class. You can choose either a manufacturing or non-manufacturing company. This project is intended to give you familiarity with how managerial accounting systems operate in organizations and it will also help you to develop research skills. 

Here are some guidelines for conducting your research:

1. Select a company of your choice ( Toyota ) and research the following information: 
     The names of its founders, background, history, main products or services, major events influencing the company’s operations, any new products or services, what factors impact the cost of the company’s products or services, the effects of major lawsuits on the company’s operations, current political and economic events that may affect the company’s operations, financial performance over the past three to five years, short and long-term plans, expectations of future performance, major competitors, etc. Also look for similar information about the industry. You may find the above information on the following sites: Yahoo, MSN, Google, or other Internet sites.

2. Explain whether the company is using job costing or process costing. Remember that some companies may use a combination of the two costing systems. 

3. Review the advantages and disadvantages of Activity Based Costing in the textbook. Explain whether your company will benefit from the use of ABC costing. What advantages and disadvantages do you find with the application of ABC costing in this company? Describe both the Activity Based Costing and Activity Based Management.

4. Explain the main components of the company’s operations. Is this a manufacturing, merchandising, or service company? What are the main raw materials used by the company? Explain whether your company is a good candidate for standard costing. Describe the benefits of standard costing to your company from the standpoint of pricing products or services, performance evaluation, and financial reporting.

Written Report:

You are required to submit a written report per group (prepared in Microsoft Word, over 14 pages in length; double-spaced with font size of 12). Your writing should be original and free from plagiarism (referring to the University Catalog’s section on Academic Honesty). If you find useful information in an article or web site and you use it in some form in your paper, indicate where you got the information from by using quotations and proper references. Use of reference material and citations are expected in a research paper.

The report should be divided into appropriate sections by using proper headings (e.g., Introduction, Company Background, Financial Performance, Products or Services, Costing System Analysis, Conclusion). The final copy of the report should have page numbers with a Table of Contents and Bibliography. Charts and tables summarizing your findings may also be included as appendices in your report. 

Pepsi Sales Bubble with Limited Edition Soft Drinks

Week 5 Case Assignment MRKT 5000 PepsiCo: “Pepsi Sales Bubble with Limited-Edition Soft Drinks” Case Summary: Pepsi and their partner, Suntory, are using limited-edition soft drinks to boost market share in the $30 billion Japanese beverage market and keep sales bubbling despite a cola war with Coca-Cola and fierce competition for space on store shelves. No new product is a sure thing, but the Japanese market is particularly challenging.
Of the 1,500 beverages launched there every year, only the tiniest percentage survives the introductory period because the Japanese convenient stores are small and they make room for only the products that will sell off the shelves quickly. Another reason is because the Japanese consumers crave novelty limited-editions products that are for specific seasons, regions, or reasons. Given, the competitive environment, the pressure from retailers to make new products perform, the speed with which consumer tastes change, and the cost of launching a new soft drink, Pepsi and Suntory are being careful not to overuse their limited-edition strategy.
Key Marketing Issues: Line extension – Development of a product that is novelty, but closely related to their existing product line to meet different customer needs, to reach different target markets. Aesthetic modification – Changes to the sensory appeal of a product. Pepsi changed with berry-flavored Pepsi Blue and Ice Cucumber. Product differentiation – Creating and designing products so that customers perceive them as different from competing products.

Pepsi differentiated itself by being offering the Ice Cucumber only during the summer and by limiting the Pepsi Blue. Personal Case Analysis: Case Questions: 1. Pepsi and Suntory cap their limited-edition soft drink introductions at four per year. What effect is this cap likely to have on the new product development process? By Pepsi and Suntory offering their limited-edition drink introductions at a cap of four per year it will have their consumer’s excited anticipating the next introduction, versus offering them more a year and their consumers getting bored quickly.
What we have to remember is that the Japanese market does not respond the same way as the U. S does. The Japanese market, wants novelty and limited-edition and that’s what Pepsi and Suntory is going to give them. When Pepsi and Suntory set out to tap this widespread interest in variety by marketing limited-edition soft drinks, they started with berry-flavored Pepsi Blue. In the United States the Pepsi Blue remained on the market for two years. In Japan, the entire production sold out the same product within a few weeks.
It’s a great marketing plan to allow their limited-edition soft drinks stand out and not overuse their limited-edition strategy. 2. How important is product quality when a limited edition soft drink like Ice Cucumber sells out in a matter of weeks? Product quality is important, but not as important as ensuring that the product meet the needs of the consumers. Consumer needs are most important. Consumers spread the news by use of technology and word of mouth, which is significant for any successful marketing strategy.
Another thing that’s important is the scarcity and seasonality, as mentioned in the textbook these two added to the appeal of high demand. 3. What criteria would you suggest that Pepsi and Suntory use when screening ideas for new limited-edition soft drinks? The most important criteria I suggest that Pepsi and Suntory use when screening new ideas for new limited-edition soft drinks is making sure they match product offerings to customer’s needs, make sure they have effective and consistent branding, good timing is necessary, effective promotions, and sufficient distribution.
I would use the previous technique they used before by taste testing many possibilities, then choosing a flavor, creating samples and waiting for responses by focus groups. This will give consumers something to look forward to every season. Recommendations Works Cited Pride, W. and Ferrell, O. , Marketing, 16th ed. Copyright 2012, Cengage Learning