Project on Shree Cement Ltd.

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT I take this opportunity to present my gratitude to all who helped me during the course of the project for their aspiring guidance, invaluably constructive criticism and kind advice throughout the project work. I am sincerely grateful to them for sharing their sincere and revealing views on a number of issues related to the project. I express my heartfelt thanks to Mr. Gopal Tripathi for their support & guidance at SHREE CEMENT LTD. I would also like to thank my project external guide Mr. R. K. Shrivastava and all the people who provided me with the required facilities of working conditions conducive for my project work.
PREFACE As we are stepping into the 21st century with the era of modernization & globalization, organizations are seeking to bring continuous improvement and required changes in all fields of activities. One key area is to build a pleasant working environment within the organization and to study the behavior of the employees for the purpose of identifying the scope of improvement in the organizational effectiveness. The main objective of this project is to get the hands on experience of the office and management and various systems and procedures on effective working.
INDEX Table of Contents S. No. Contents 1. Acknowledgment 2. Preface 3. Company Profile 4. Vision of the company 5. Research Methodology 6. Objective of Recruitment & Selection 7. Importance of Recruitment & Selection 8. Recruitment – The Challenges 9. Sources of Recruitment 10. Recent Trends in Recruitment 11. Recruitment Policy of Shree Cement Ltd. 12. Selection – The Challenges 13. Selection Process at Shree Cement Ltd. 14. Probation And Confirmation 15. Training and Development 16. Conclusions 17. Bibliography COMPANY PROFILE BACKGROUND:-

Over the last decade, a significant change in business environment has caused organizations around the world to transform their business model in order to maintain leadership. This change is hyper-competition – a state that renders traditional competitive advantage unsustainable. Rapid product introductions to battle the pressures of commoditization is impacting organizational bottom line faster than ever before. Shree Cement Ltd. is an energy conscious & environment friendly business organization.
Having Nine Directors on its board under the chairmanship of Shri. B. G. Bangur, the policy decisions are taken under the guidance of Shri. H. M. Bangur, Managing Director. Shri. M. K. Singhi, Executive Director of the Company, is looking after all day- to- day affairs. The company is managed by qualified professionals with broad vision who are committed to maintain high standards of quality & leadership to serve the customers to their fullest satisfaction. The board consists of eminent persons with considerable professional expertise in industry and field such as banking, law, marketing & finance.
Shree cement a leading cement manufacturer of North India, has been participating in the infrastructure transformation for India for over two decades. It started operation in 1985 and has been growing over since. Its manufacturing units are located in Beawer, Ras in Rajasthan. It also has grinding unit at Khuskera near Gurgaon. It has 3 brands under its portfolio viz. Shree Ultra Jung Rodhak cement, Bangur Cement and Tuff cement. Its record of steady profitability and healthy operating margin was maintain in 2007-08 as well. It registered a growth of 51% in net sales which stood us at rs. 2065. 7 cr in 2007-08. Its net profit increase by 47% to rs. 260. 37 cr. During the year. Shree always strives to sustain it reputation as a respected corporate citizen. Its acknowledges that is operation have multiple impacts on the environment and communities in which it operates. Its business strategies and performance demonstrate a high level of commitment to preservation of environment and social development apart from economic success. HISTORY OF COMPANY:- 1979 – The Company was incorporated on 25th October, at Jaipur. The Company was promoted by members of the Bangur family and others.
Shree Digvijay Cement Co. Ltd. , Graphite India, Ltd. and Fort Gloster Industries, Ltd. took active part in the promotion of the Company. The Company manufacture’s cement & cement products. • To reduce fuel and power consumption, the Company adopted the latest dry process, four stage preheater precalcination technology of clinkerisation and air swept roller mill grinding system for raw material and coal grinding. • The Company entered into agreement with F. L. Smith & Co. A/s Copenhagen, a designer and manufacture of cement plants, its associates F. L. Smith & CIA. Epola S. A. Madrid and with Larsen & Toubro Ltd. , Mumbai for the supply of plant equipment and services for the proposed project. 1984 – 70 No. of equity shares subscribed for by the signatories to the Memorandum of Association. In Oct. /Nov. 1, 53, 99,930 No. of equity shares issued of which 1, 06, 99,930 shares reserved for firm allotment as follows: • 48,00,000 shares to Shree DigVijay Cement Co. Ltd. ; • 11, 00,000 shares each to Graphite India, Ltd. and Fort Gloster Industries, Ltd. And • 36, 99,930 shares to Directors, their friends etc. Including upto 25, 00,000 shares to NRIs With repatriation rights.
The balance 47, 00,000 shares offered to the public of which 18, 80,000 shares offered for allotment on preferential basis to Non-Residents. 1985 – Commercial production commenced from 1st May. 1986 – A diesel generating set of 13. 6 MW was installed for captive power generation 1987 – 46, 00,000 shares issued to financial institutions in conversion of loans. 1991 – Production of clinker and cement declined due to a major shut down of the plant for implementation of modernization/renovation/modification work. • The Company undertook to set up a new cement plant of 0. million • TPA capacity in Rajasthan • 7, 96,000 No. of Equity shares issued to financial institution in conversion of loan. 1992 – 36,00,000 shares allotted to FLT Ltd. a wholly owned subsidiary of P. L. Smith & Co. Denmark under financial collaboration agreement. 1993 – The Company undertook a scheme of implementing second stage of its licensed capacity to increase its capacity to 3300 tones per day. • The Company issued 21975 – 16% each with equity warrants and these will be converted as per institutional guidelines. • 2, 40,021 shares issued in pursuance of scheme of Amalgamation. 994 – The Company issued 10, 00,000-16% Secured Redeemable NCD of Rs 100 each on private placement basis. • A scheme of amalgamation of an existing leasing and finance Company with the Company was prepared for undertaking leasing activities and other financial services on large scale. • M/s. Mannakrishna Investment, Ltd. is a subsidiary of the Company. 1995 – The Company undertook the implementation of new unit of 124 MT capacities per annum named Raj Cement. • 43,95,000 No. of Equity shares on surrender of detachable optional share warrants attached with 16% unsubscribed non-Convertible Debentures of 100 each. 996 – The Company commissioned its second cement plant – Raj Cement with a capacity of 12. 4 lakh tones per annum in Beawer. • 58, 06,204 rights shares issued (prem. Rs 10 per share) in the prop. 1:5. 1998 – Shree Cement, the Calcutta-based PD-BG Bangur group company, has decided to issue preference shares aggregating Rs 15 crore to mobilize long-term funds. • Shree Cement’s expansion in capacity by 12. 4 lakh tones at the new unit in Beawer has made it a leading cement manufacturer in North India. • IC RA has downgraded the rating of the NCD programme of Shree Cement Ltd (SCL) from LAA to LA. The Rs 372-crore 1. 25 million tonne cement plant near Ajmer was commissioned during the year after considerable delay due to an explosion in the electro-static precipitator. • Shree Cements has an installed capacity to produce up to two million tones of cement per annum in Rajasthan and has an equity capital of about Rs. 34 crores. 1999 – The company has been awarded the first prize for energy conservation in 1998 in the cement sector. • SCL, belonging to the house of Bangur’s, is one of the largest cement manufacturers in North India, having the installed capacity of 2 million tones.
Its plants are located in Rajasthan. The new plant was set up at Beawer with the capacity of 1. 24 million tpa in Rajasthan. • Unit I and Unit II of the company receives National Award for ‘Best Electrical Energy Performance’ and ‘Best Thermal Energy Performance’ in the Cement Industry for the year 2000-01. • Decides to change the Accounting year to April – March each year and accordingly the current year is only for nine months. • Appoints Mr. M K Singhi as the Executive Director of Shree Cements. In pursuance to the IDBI, companies approve for early redemption of privately placed under noted cumulative redeemable preference shares. • Change in Management Structure: Mr. B G Bangur re-appointed as executive chairman and Shri H M Bangur re-appointed as the Managing Director for a period of five years. 2003 – Members approve for the delisting of its shares from 4 stock exchanges of Jaipur, Kolkota, Delhi and Chennai exchanges. • Confers the Runner up National Safety Award by the Ministry of Labour, GOI, in recognition of outstanding performance in Industrial Safety achieving longest accident free period. Receives permission for delisting of shares from Delhi Stock Exchange. • The company has been conferred National Award for Excellence in Energy Management 2003 instituted by the Confederation of Indian Industry (CII) and Sohrabji Godrej Green Business Centre. • -Delisting of equity shares from Madras Stock Exchange Association Ltd. 2004- Company conferred ‘BEST PRODUCITY AWARD-2003’ by the Rajasthan state Productivity Council in recognition of productivity measures and productivity improvements achieved. Rajasthan Chamber of Commerce & Industries, Jaipur presents ‘RCCI Excellence Award’ to Shree Cement Ltd in recognition of Overall Best Corporate Governance Practices and Disclosures in Annual Report among all companies having registered office in Rajasthan. • -Delist from The Calcutta Stock Exchange Association Ltd (CSE). 2007- Shree Cement Ltd has appointed Shri. Amitabha Ghosh as Director of the Company w. e. f. May 14, 2007. PHILOSOPHY:- • Let noble thoughts come to us from all over the world. – Rig-Veda Shree Cement Ltd is a professionally managed company.
The company always believes in complete transparency and discharge of the fiduciary responsibilities which has been assumed by Directors as well as by the Senior Management Executives and/or Staff. Therefore in order to ensure the continuity thereof though, not written but otherwise ingrained, the Board of Directors has approved of the following Code of Conduct for all Directors as well as for the Senior Management Executive and/or personnel and other employees. VISION:- • To sustain its reputation as the most efficient cement manufacturer in the world. • To drive down costs through innovative plant practices. To increase the awareness of superior product quality through a realistic and convincing communication process with consumers. • To strengthen realizations through intelligent brand building. BUSINESS ETHICS:- • Enforce good corporate governance practices. • Inculcate integrity of conduct. • Ensure transparency and credibility in communication. • Remain accountable to all stakeholders. • Encourage socially responsible behavior. [pic] METHODOLOGY The cement industry is marked with a high level of attrition and therefore recruitment process becomes a crucial function of the organization.
At Shree Cement Ltd. , recruitment is all time high during May-June and Oct-Nov. The recruitment is high during these months due to the fact that March and September are half year closing and business is high during Jan-Mar. Thus it is only after March that people move out of the companies. Since my summer training was in the months of May-June, it gave me the opportunity of involving myself directly with the recruitment process and analyzing the process so that suitable recommendations can be given. This project is centered on identifying best hiring practices in the cement industries.
It therefore requires great amount of research work. The methodology adopted was planned in advance so as to collect data in the most organized way. My area of focus was the recruitment and selection n training particularly at Shree Cement Ltd. I was directly involved with the recruitment for candidates for the production profile. I was particularly involved with the sourcing of candidates for the regions such as M. P, U. P and Rajasthan. Before any task was undertaken, we were asked to go through the HR policies of Shree Cement Ltd. o that we get a better understanding of the process followed by them. • The first task was to understand the various job profiles for which recruitment was to be done. • The next step was to explore the various job portals to search for suitable candidates for the job profile. • Once the search criteria were put, candidates went through a telephonic interview to validate the information mentioned in their resume. • A candidate matching the desired profile was then lined for the first round of Face to Face interview in their respective cities. Firstly the candidate had filled up the personal data form(pdf). • Then the candidates INTERVIEW EVALUATION SHEET  which is provided by interviewer was crosschecked by the HR team. If they think that the candidate was good to hire or not. • When a candidate cleared his first round, he is then made to take an aptitude test. We created the aptitude test. It the HR department, which has the exclusive rights to assign test, test codes to the candidates. Each code was unique and could be used only once by a candidate. • Once the candidate completed his first assessment, his scores were checked.
If he cleared his cut-off he was given another test. • Since we received many resumes, it was essential that a database be maintained to keep a track. It was convenient method than to stock up piles of papers. SCL has their own database , They update all the records of the new joinees in that tracker. That database containes all the information of a candidate such as name, contact number, location etc. • The external guide maintained a regular updating of the database. • Understanding what kinds of database are maintained and how they help in keeping a record. They maintaining a track of test codes given, the database for employee referrals, Database for the resumes received through mails and response of advertisement. RESEARCH METHODOLOGY Date Source Primary           : – Through Personal Interviews Secondary        : – Through Internet, Journals, News papers and Misc. Sample Area: – Work had done in Beawer regional Office. Sample procedure: – Random sampling. PROJECT SCHEDULE :- First week               : – Training program from the company. Second week               : – Collecting the primary and secondary data. Third and Fourth week    : – Study Recruitment & Selection Process
Fifth week                 : – Analysis of Data Collection. Sixth week                : – Final Report preparation and presentation OBJECTIVES OF THE RECRUITMENT AND SELECTION Every task is undertaken with an objective. Without any objective a task is rendered meaningless. The main objectives of this are: • Attract and encourage more and more candidates to apply in the organization. • Create a talent pool of candidates to enable the selection of best candidates for the organization. • Determine present and future requirements of the organization in conjunction with its personnel planning and job analysis activities.
IMPORTANCE OF THE RECRUITMENT AND SELECTION • Recruitment is the process which links the employers with the employees. • Increase the pool of job candidates at minimum cost. • Help increase the success rate of selection process by decreasing number of visibly under qualified or overqualified job applicants. • Help reduce the probability that job applicants once recruited and selected will leave the organization only after a short period of time. • Meet the organizations legal and social obligations regarding the composition of its workforce. Begin identifying and preparing potential job applicants who will be appropriate candidates. • Increase organization and individual effectiveness of various recruiting techniques and sources for all types of job applicants RECRUITMENT Recruitment is the discovering of the potential applicants for the actual and anticipated organizational vacancies. This being the critical factor, any organization has to have well defined policies & practices aligned with the organization’s mission and vision since it injects fresh blood in the organization. Organizations work hard to find and attract capable applicants.
Their methods depend upon the situations since there is no best recruiting technique. However, the job descriptions and specifications are essential tools, especially for the management in large organizations. THE CHALLENGES: ? Attract people with multi-dimensional experiences and skills ? Infuse fresh blood at every level of the organization ? Develop a culture that attracts people to the company ? Locate people whose personalities fit the company’s values ? Devise methodologies for assessing psychological traits ? Induct outsiders with new perspective to lead the company Search for talent globally, and not just within the country ? Design entry pay that competes on quality, and not quantum ? Anticipate and find people for positions that do not exist yet The process of identification of different sources of personnel is known as recruitment. Recruitment is a process of searching the candidates for employment and stimulating them to apply for jobs in the organizations Recruitment is a process of searching the candidates for employment and stimulating them to apply for jobs in the organizations. It is a linking activity that brings together those offering jobs and those seeking jobs.
Recruitment refers to the attempt of getting interested applicants and creating a pool of prospective employees so that the management can select the right person for the right job from this pool. Recruitment process precedes the selection process, that is, selection of right candidates for various positions in the organization. PROCESS It is a positive process as it attracts suitable applicants to apply for available jobs. The Process of recruitment: ? Identifies the different sources of labor supply ? Assesses their viability ? Choose the most suitable source or sources Invites applications from the perspective candidates for the vacant jobs. The aims of recruitment are: ? To obtain a pool of suitable candidates for vacant posts ? To use and be seen to use a fair process ? To ensure that all recruitment activities contribute to company goals and a desirable company image ? To conduct recruitment activities in an efficient and cost-effective manner FACTORS AFFECTING RECRUITMENT There are many factors that limit or affect the recruitment policy of an organization. The important factors are: ? Size of the organization and the kinds of human resources required. Effect of past recruitment efforts. ? Nature of Workforce market in the region. ? Working conditions, wages and other benefits offered by other concerns. ? Social and political environment. ? Legal obligations created by various statutes RECRUITMENT POLICY STATEMENT In its recruitment activities, the company will: ? Advertise all vacancies internally, ? Reply to every job applicant without any delay, ? Inform job applicants the basic details and job conditions of every job advertised, ? Process all applications with efficiency and courtesy, ? Seek candidates on the basis of their qualifications, ?
Aim to ensure that every person invited for interview will be given a fair and thorough hearing ? The company will not: Discriminate unfairly against potential applicants on the basis of sex, race, religion, caste, etc. ; ? Knowingly make any false or exaggerated claims in its recruitment literature or job advertisements. SOURCES OF RECRUITMENT [pic] The various sources of recruitment are basically grouped into two categories: ? Internal Recruitment (recruitment from within the enterprise) Transfer Promotion Employee referral ? External Recruitment (recruitment from outside) Advertisement
Management consultant Educational institute Employment agencies Casual caller E-recruitment Although recruiting may bring to mind employment agencies and classified ads, current employees are often your largest source of recruits. Some surveys even indicated that up to 90% of all management positions are filled internally. Filling open positions with inside candidates has several advantages. Employees see that competence is rewarded and morale and performance may thus be enhanced. Having already been with your firm for some time, inside candidates may be more committed to company goals and less likely to leave.
Promotion from within can boost employee commitment and provide managers a longer-term perspective when making business decisions. It may also be safer to promote employees from within, since you’re likely to have a more accurate assessment of the person’s skills than you would otherwise. Inside candidates may also require less orientation and training than outsiders. Yet promotion from within can also backfire. Employees who apply for jobs and don’t get them may become discontented; informing unsuccessful applicants as to why they were rejected and what remedial actions they might take to be more successful in the future is thus essential.
Similarly, many employers require managers to post job openings and interview all inside candidates. Yet the manager often knows ahead of time exactly whom he or she wants to hire, and requiring the person to interview a stream of unsuspecting inside candidates is therefore a waste of time for all concerned. Groups may also not be as satisfied when their new boss is appointed from within their own ranks as when he or she is a newcomer; sometimes, for instance, it is difficult for the newly chosen leader to shake off the reputation of being “one of the gang”. A. INTERNAL RECRUITMENT ? Promotions and Transfers
This is a method of filling vacancies from within through transfers and promotions. A transfer is a lateral movement within the same grade, from one job to another. It may lead to changes in duties and responsibilities, working conditions, etc. , but not necessarily salary. Promotion, on the other hand, involves movement of employee from a lower level position to a higher-level position accompanied by (usually) changes in duties, responsibilities, status and value. Organizations generally prepare badli lists or a central pool of persons from which vacancies can be filled for manual jobs.
Such persons are usually passed on to various departments, depending on internal requirements. If a person remains on such rolls for 240 days or more, he gets the status of a permanent employee as per the Industrial Disputes Act and is therefore entitled to all relevant benefits, including provident fund, gratuity, retrenchment compensation. Filling vacancies in higher jobs from within the organization has a benefit of motivating the existing employees. It has a great psychological impact over the employees because a promotion at the higher level may lead to a chain of promotions at lower levels in the organizations. Job Posting Job posting is another way of hiring people from within. In this method, the organization publicizes job openings on bulletin boards, electronic media and similar outlets. One of the important advantages of this method is that it offers a chance to highly qualified applicants working within the company to look for growth opportunities within the company without looking for greener pastures outside. ? Employee Referrals Employee referral means using personal contacts to locate job opportunities. It is a recommendation from a current employee regarding a job applicant.
The logic behind employee referral is that “it takes one to know one”. Employees working in the organization, in this case, are encouraged to recommend the names of their friends working in other organizations for a possible vacancy in the near future. In fact, this has become a popular way of recruiting people in the highly competitive Information Technology industry nowadays. Companies offer rich rewards also to employees whose recommendations are accepted – after the routine screening and examining process is over – and job offers extended to the suggested candidates.
As a goodwill gesture, companies also consider the names recommended by unions from time to time. POSSIBLE BENEFITS AND COSTS OF EMPLOYEE REFERRALS ? Recommender gives a realistic picture about the job. The applicant can weigh the pros and cons carefully before handing over the CV The applicant is more likely to accept an offer if one is made and once employed, to have a higher job survival. ? It’s an excellent means of locating potential employees in those hard-to-fill positions. The recommender earns a reward and the company can avoid expensive recruiting search – in case the candidate gets selected. Recommenders may confuse friendship with job competence. Factors such as bias, nepotism, and eagerness to see their friends in the company may come in the way of hiring a suitable candidate. ADVANTAGES OF USING INTERNAL SOURCES Filling vacancies in higher jobs within the organization or through internal transfers has various advantages such as: ? Employees are motivated to improve their performance. ? Moral of the employees is increased. ? Industrial peace prevails in the enterprise because of promotional avenues. ? Filling of jobs internally is cheaper as compared to getting candidates from external sources. A promotion at higher levels my led to a chain of promotion at lower levels in the organization. This motivates employees to improve their performance through learning and practice. ? Transfer or job rotation is a tool of training the employees to prepare them for higher jobs. ? Transfer has the benefit of shifting workforce from the surplus departments to those where there is shortage of staff. DRAWBACKS OF INTERNAL SOURCES Internal sources of recruitment have certain drawbacks such as: ? When vacancies are filled through internal promotions, the scope for fresh talent is reduced. The employees may become lethargic if they are sure of time bound promotions. ? The spirit of competition among the employees may be hampered. ? Frequent transfers of employees may reduce the overall productivity of the organization. EXTERNAL SOURCES Every enterprise has to tap external sources for various positions. Running enterprises have to recruit employees from outside for filling the positions whose specifications cannot be met by the present employees and for meeting the additional requirements of manpower. Companies commonly use the following external sources of recruitment: Media Advertisements: Advertisements in newspapers or trade and professional journals are generally used. The advantage of advertising is that more information about the organization, job description and job specifications can be given in advertisements to allow self screening by the prospective candidates. ? Management Consultants: Management consultancy firm helps the organizations to recruit technical, professional and managerial personnel. They used to specialize in middle level and top-level executive, but today they even help firms in recruiting fresh graduates & postgraduates in the industry. Educational Institutes: Educational institutes at all levels offer opportunities for recruiting recent graduates. Most educational institutes operate placement services where prospective employers can review credentials and interview graduates. ? Recommendations: One of the best sources for individuals who perform effectively on the job is recommendation for the current employee. An employee will rarely recommend someone unless he or she believes that the individual can perform adequately. The recommended often gives applicants more realistic information about the job than any other source. Casual Callers : The organizations that are regarded as good employers draw a steady stream of unsolicited applicants in their offices. This serves as a valuable source of manpower. The merit of this source of recruitment is that it avoids the costs of recruiting workforce from other sources. ADVANTAGES OF USING EXTERNAL SOURCES The merits of external sources of recruitment are: ? Qualified Personnel: By using external sources of recruitment, the management can make qualified and trained people to apply for vacant jobs in the organization. ? Wider Choice:
When vacancies are advertised widely, a large number of applicants from outside the organization apply. The management has a wider choice while selecting the people for employment. ? Fresh Talent: The insiders may have limited talents. External Sources facilitate infusion of fresh blood with new ideas into the enterprise. This will improve the overall working of the enterprise. ? Competitive Spirit: If a company can tap external sources, the existing staff will have to compete with the outsiders. They will work harder to show better performance.
DRAWBACKS OF EXTERNAL SOURCES The demerits of filling vacancies from external sources of recruitment are: Dissatisfaction among Existing Staff: External recruitment may lead to dissatisfaction and frustration among existing employees. They may feel that their chances of promotion are reduced. ? Lengthy Process: Recruitment from outside takes long time. The business has to notify the vacancies and wait for applications to initiate the selection process. ? Uncertain Response: Here candidates from outside may not be suitable for the enterprise.
There is no guarantee that the enterprise will be able to attract right kind of people from external sources. OTHER SOURSES In the search for particular types of applicants, nontraditional sources should be considered. For example, Employ the Handicapped associations can be a source of highly motivated workers; a forty-plus club can be an excellent source of mature and experienced workers etc. Recruiting Sources Used by Skill and Level SKILL/LEVEL RECRUITING SOURCE
Unskilled, Semiskilled & Skilled Informal Contacts Walk-ins Public Employment Agencies Professional Employees Informal Contacts Internal Search Managerial Level Walk-ins Private Employment Agencies Public Employment Agencies RECENT TRENDS IN RECRUITMENT ? Outsourcing Under this arrangement company may draw the required personnel from the outsourcing firms or agencies or commission basis rather than offering them employment. This is also called leasing of human resources. The outsourcing irms develop their human resource pools by employing people for them and make available the personnel to various companies (called clients) as per their needs. The outsourcing firms get payment for their services to their clients and give salary directly to the personnel. The personnel deputed by the outsourcing agencies with the clients are not the employees of the clients. They continue to be on the payroll of their employees, that is, the outsourcing agencies. Several outsourcing companies or agencies have come up which supply human resources of various categories to their clients.
A company in need of employees of certain categories can approach an outsourcing company and avail the services of it human resources. The advantages of getting human resources through the outsourcing agencies are: 1. The companies need not plan for human resources much in advance. They can get human resources on lease basis from an outsourcing agency. 2. The companies are free from industrial relations problems as human resources take on lease are not their employees. 3. The companies can dispense with this category of employees immediately after the work is over. ? Poaching or Raiding
Poaching means employing a competent and experienced person already working in another reputed company, which might be a rival in the industry. A company can attract talent from another firm by offering attractive pay packages and other terms and conditions. Whatever may be the means used to raid rival firms for potential candidates, it is often seen as an unethical practice and not openly talked about. In fact, raiding has become a challenge for human resource managers of modern organization. ? Website or e-Recruitment Many big organizations use Internet as a source of recruitment.
They advertise the job vacancies through the worldwide web (www). The job seekers send their applications or Curriculum Vitae, CV; through e-mail using Internet, which can be drawn by the prospective employer depending upon their requirements. RECRUITMENT POLICY OF SHREE CEMENT LTD. OBJECTIVE: ? To accomplish the company to plan its manpower requirements in order to meet the organizational objectives and needs. ? To obtain and retain the right human resource material of appropriate skills, knowledge, aptitude and merit which will enable the company to grow and develop into a premier consultancy organization.
MODES OF SOURCING: Internal sourcing is more widely used in practice as compared to external sourcing. Except in the lowermost grades, where direct recruitment is unavoidable, there is no specific quota for recruitment from outside. The company provides opportunity for its employees to grow from within the organization by acquiring the necessary qualification, skills, knowledge and training. Even so the company recruits from the open market to positions for which suitable candidates are not available either internally or on deputation from the other organizations like the Indian Railways etc according to job requirements.
Deputation: The very nature of the business of the company requires that it should staff the organization with the experienced personnel from the Indian Railways or public undertakings in respect of a number of positions. The terms and conditions of deputation of employees to Naukri. com are decided in accordance with the rules of the central government and in consultation with the parent organization in case of the others. Re-Employment & Appointment Of The Consultants: In respect of certain special jobs requiring services of retired officers and staff of government or Naukri. om, the company may re-employ suitable persons belonging to this category for specified periods, subject to such re-employment being in accordance with the government’s and/or the company’s policy and orders. In order to meet the specific job requirements of limited duration which cannot be handled by the company’s regular staff for want of expertise or shortage of manpower and with the specific approval of the director/ managing director/ board of directors, the company may appoint consultants/ advisors on the basis of the guidelines laid down by the board of directors / Railway board.
Employment Exchanges: The recruitment to the posts up to the pay level of Rs 8000/ or other equivalent level are made through the employment exchanges ( compulsory notification of vacancies) Act, 1956 while considering the candidates recommended by the employment exchange personnel engaged on casual / temporary / ad-hoc/ contractual basis are also considered. Advertisement: The advertisement for a vacancy is drafted in consultation with the concerned departmental head, as and when it is to be released.
The advertisement should indicate the job title, qualification experience, age limit and other salient aspects of the job and also the pay scale, allowances and the benefits afforded by the company. The planned advertisements are generally released in the national dailies, but depending upon the location, they are also released in regional / local dailies. Example of advertisement |Example of Job Advertisement | |Junior marketing manager | |Our company is a modern fast growing young business.
We are expanding sales to India a bid to | |catch new opportunities for cement sales there. We have many branches to our business nation wide | |and have built up a good reputation within our field of trade. | |We are looking for a dynamic, confident person who is willing to travel and work on his/her own | |behalf. You will need excellent communication skills and diplomatic views and be able to project | |yourself clearly and politely in a positive manor. | |You must have been in an executive sales position previously and have had at least 0-3 years | |selling experience.
Preferably in cement sales, candidate must MBA/PGDM marketing qualified. | |The job involves extensive travel around north India with sales meeting to be held every 2 months. | | | |Salary is 200000-300000 per annum. T. A. AND HOLIDAY ALLOWANCES. Training will be given. | |Apply in writing To; shree cement Ltd. Bangur nagar beawar Ajmer (Raj. ) | | Closing date…………………………….. | Campus Recruitment:
Campus recruitment is carried out from time to time to induct fresh talent in the organization from selected institutes. Recruitment for the posts of engineers is also made through campus interviews to meet the urgent requirements of the company. Institutes: Well established technical institutes and engineering colleges are selected by the competent authority are chosen and an association is maintained on a long-term basis. Process: ? Campus visits: visits are scheduled to the technical institutions and engineering colleges during the placement season. Teams of senior officers are deputed to these institutes and colleges for campus recruitment. ? Such of the applicants so screened as per the laid down criteria and found qualified are being called for appearing in the written test or interview to be conducted by the nominated selection board. ? All such recruits are required to serve the companies for a minimum period of three years. They are also required to execute a bond of Rs one lac in this regard and submit one surety. SELECTION PROCESS THE CHALLENGES: ? Selection is a critical process ? Locating The Right Person Requires a huge investment of money to get right types of people. ? Structure of Selection Process that helps companies to test for fit ? Employment Tests to rightly judge the capabilities of candidates ? Selecting people who possess the ability and qualifications to perform the jobs. Selection involves a series of steps by which the candidates are screened for choosing the most suitable persons for vacant posts. The process of selection leads to employment of persons who possess the ability and qualifications to perform the jobs, which have fallen vacant in an organization.
The process of selection divides the candidates for employment into two categories, namely, those who will be offered employment and those who will not be. The basic purpose of the selection process is to choose right type of candidates to man various positions in the organization. In order to achieve this purpose, a well-organized selection procedure involves many steps and at each step, unsuitable candidates are rejected. Both recruitment and selection are the two phases of the employment process.
Recruitment being the first phase envisages taking decisions on the choice of tapping the sources of workforce supply. Selection is the second phase, which involves giving various types of test to the candidates and interviewing them in order to select the suitable candidates only. SIGNIFICANCE OF SELECTION PROCESS Selection is a critical process these days because it requires a huge investment of money to get right types of people. If the right types of persons are not chosen, it will lead to huge loss of the employer in term of time, effort and money.
Therefore it is essential to devise a suitable selection procedure. Each step in the selection procedure should help in getting more and more information about the applicants to facilitate decision-making in the area of selection. The benefits of selecting right kind of people for various jobs are as follows: ? Proper selection and placement of personnel go a long way towards building up a stable workforce. It will keep the rates of employee turnover low. ? Competent employees show higher efficiency and enable the organization to achieve its objectives effectively.
When people get jobs of their taste and choice, they get higher job satisfaction & in turn result into a part of a contended workforce for the organization People involved in the selection process are: • HR Department • Respective department head. • Respective divisional head. What Selection Is All About? All selection activities, from the initial screening interview to the physical examination if required, exist for the purpose of making effective selection decisions. Each activity is a step in the process that forms predictive exercise-managerial decision makers seeking to predict which job applicants will be successful if hired.
In actuality, the selection process represents an effort to balance the objectives of evaluating and attracting. SIGNIFICANCE OF SELECTION PROCESS Selection is a critical process these days because it requires a huge investment of money to get right types of people. If the right types of persons are not chosen, it will lead to huge loss of the employer in term of time, effort and money. Therefore it is essential to devise a suitable selection procedure. Each step in the selection procedure should help in getting more and more information about the applicants to facilitate decision-making in the area of selection.
The benefits of selecting right kind of people for various jobs are as follows: ? Proper selection and placement of personnel go a long way towards building up a stable workforce. It will keep the rates of employee turnover low. ? Competent employees show higher efficiency and enable the organization to achieve its objectives effectively. When people get jobs of their taste and choice, they get higher job satisfaction & in turn result into a part of a contended workforce for the organization. SELECTION PROCESS COMPRISES OF THE FOLLOWING STEPS: 1. Receipt of Applications: It is the first step in the process of selection process.
The application form gives preliminary information about the candidate and assists the interviewer in formulating the questions to obtain more information about the candidate. 2. Scrutiny of Application: All those who have applied for the job may not be suitable for it so the HR department carries out a proper scrutiny of applications to select the candidates to be called for preliminary interview. 3. Preliminary Interview by HR Department: The HR department takes this interview. The candidates are asked about their qualifications, experience, interest, residence, age etc. Those whose qualification and does not match are rejected. . Interview taken by the person from the particular department: here they ask about the work experience; why he/she left the earlier job, ask about his/her background etc. The interviewer matches the job specification, qualification, ability to work under stress etc. At this level rejection are made if the interviewer does not find the candidate suitable for the job. 5. Interview by HR and Department Head: At this level, the HR & department head, both take interview of the selected candidates to know more about them. It is a very friendly conversation with them including specialized questions.
The HR head tell the interviewee about the company, its mission, objectives and responsibilities of the job, which have applied for, salary, compensation, etc. 6. Placement and Orientation: Orientation and placement of Naukri. com covers the activities involved in introducing the new employees to the organization and to his or her work unit. It familiarize new employee with the ’s objectives, history, procedures, and rules, communicate relevant personnel policies such as hours of work, pay procedures, overtime requirements, provide a tour of the company’s physical facilities and introduce him to his superior and co-workers.
SELECTION PROCESS AT SCL ? Receiving Applications Whenever there is a vacancy, it is advertised or enquiries are made from the suitable sources, and applications are received from the candidates. ? Screening of Application: All the applicants received in response to recruitment notification are scrutinized for the purpose of screening and short-listing the candidates who should be called for the selection. The company restricts selection to the more meritorious of the applicants through an appropriate process of initial screening. ? Selection Committee:
Selection committee is constituted under the orders of the managing director or any other officer to whom the power to constitute such committees for the purpose of conducting the written tests and/ or interviews. The selection committee decides the actual scheme of the tests/ interview depending upon the requirements of the job for which recruitment is made. ? Selection Employment Interview: A minimum of 60% marks in the aggregate and also in the performance at the written test and interview is required to enable the candidates to be finally selected.
The selection committee recommends the panel of successful candidates in order to the Board of directors as the case may be for employment. The main purposes of an employment interview are: – To find out the suitability of the candidate, – To seek more information about the candidate, and – To give candidate accurate picture of a job with details of term & conditions and some idea of organization’s policies. Employment Interview may consist of number of rounds of interview with various interviewers ? Checking References
A referee is potentially an important source of information about a candidate’s ability and personality if he/she holds a responsible position in some organization or has been an employer of the candidate ? Medical Checkup: An important part of the selection process is also to ensure the employee is free from all kind of diseases that can hamper his work. For this purpose, every short listed candidate goes through a medical check-up to ensure his physical fitness. The pre-employment physical examination or medical test of a candidate is an important step in the selection procedure.
Medical examination as part of selection procedure depends entirely upon the kind of jobs to be offered to the candidates. For instance some industries do not take up medical examinations of the candidates at all. ? Letter Of Appointment: After the candidate has cleared all the hurdles in the selection procedure, he/se is formally appointed by issuing an appointment letter by concluding with him/her a service agreement. Generally in all organizations, the candidates are not appointed on permanent basis because it is better to try them for few months on the job itself.
Thus all candidates have a probation period & candidates are expected to show their worth during the probation period to get permanent employment in the particular organization. CLASSIFICATION OF EMPLOYMENT TESTS & INTERVIEWS Employment Tests ? Intelligence Tests: These tests are used to judge the mental capacity of the applicants. They measure the individual learning abilities, i. e. , the ability to catch or understand instructions and also ability to make decision and judgment. These tests are used in the selection of personnel for almost every kind of job from the unskilled to the skilled one. Aptitude Tests: Aptitude means the potential that an individual has for learning and skills required to a job efficiently. They measure an applicant’s capacity and his potential for development. ? Proficiency Tests: Proficiency Tests are those, which are designed to measure the skills already acquired by the individuals. A proficiency test takes a sample of individual’s behavior, which is designed as replica of the actual work situation. ? Interest Tests: Interest tests identify patterns of interest that is areas in which the individual shows special concern, fascination & involvement.
These tests will suggest what types of jobs may be satisfying to the employees. ? Personality Tests: Personality test probes the qualities of the personality as a whole, the combination of aptitude, interest and usual mood & temperament. Employment Interviews The nature of employment interviews varies from firm to firm. It may be conducted in the following forms: ? Patterned or Structured Interview: In this interview, a series of questions, which can illuminate the significant aspects of the applicant’s background, are standardized in advance.
During the interview, the standardized questions are asked as they are written; the order may vary but not the phrasing of the questions. ? Unstructured or Non-directed Interview: The interviewer does not ask direct & specific questions. He/she creates an atmosphere in which the candidate feels free to talk on the subject selected by the interviewer. ? Preliminary or Background information Interview: This type of interview is conducted when the history of the applicant has to be known in terms of his experience, education, health, interest & so on.
It is more or less a preliminary interview. ? Stress Interview: The applicant is intentionally put under a stress by interrupting him, criticizing his/her viewpoint and keeping silent after he has finished speaking. ? Group Interview: It is an interview of a number of applicants in a group. The interviewers can see reactions of the applicants in dealing with each other. It is used where it is essential to know how the candidates behave in a group. PROBATION AND CONFIRMATION PROBATION PERIOD:
All initial appointments in the company as a result of direct recruitment in accordance with the rules (except those of a temporary, ad-hoc, casual or contractual nature and those on foreign service or deputation terms from govt. or other undertakings) are on probation for a period of one year. During the period of probation, an employee is liable to be discharged from the service of the company without assigning any reason at the sole direction of the management. The period of the probation may be extended or curtailed in the individual cases by the competent authority on the merits of each case.
During the period of probation, the employees are required to undergo such training as is called by the requirements of their jobs. Successful completion of the probation and the prescribed training course will make the employee eligible for regularization and confirmation in the company’s employment. CONFIRMATION: The personnel division screens the probationers in an appropriate manner and obtains and notifies the approval of the competent authority for the regularization/ confirmation of individual direct recruits. | | | | | |SERIAL NO. |ACTIVITY/ PROCEDURE | | | | |1. Technical scrutiny of applications | | | | |2. |Approval for calling eligible candidates for written tests and interviews | | | | |3. |Dispatch of call letters | | | | |4. Selection of candidates called for interview | | | | |5. |Medical check-up | | | | |6. Dispatch of appointment letters | | | | |7. |Joining at | TRAINING – A TOOL FOR SUCCESS We know that successful candidates placed on the jobs need training to perform their duties effectively. Workers must be trained to operate machines, reduce scrap and avoid accidents.
It is not only the workers who need training. Supervisors, managers and executives also need to be developed in order to enable them to grow and acquire maturity of thought and action. Training and development constitute an ongoing process in any organization. This chapter is devoted to a detailed discussion on the nature and process of training and development in a typical industrial establishment. Training could be compared to this metaphor – if I miss one meal in a day, then I will starve to death.
The survival of the organization requires development throughout the ranks in order to survive, while training makes the organization more effective and efficient in its day-to-day operations. As a brief review of terms, training involves an expert working with learners to transfer to them certain areas of knowledge or skills to improve in their current jobs. Development is a broad, ongoing multi-faceted set of activities (training activities among them) to bring someone or an organization up to another threshold of performance, often to perform some job or new role in the future. Training is the formal and systematic modification of behavior through learning which occurs as a result of education, instruction, development and planned experience. ” Development is any learning activity, which is directed towards future, needs rather than present needs, and which is concerned more with career growth than immediate performance. Training is the hallmark of good management. Today technical training is no longer enough, employees also need skills in the team building, decision making and communication. As competition demands better service, employees increasingly require customer service training.
Competent employees do not remain competent forever. Due to the ever-changing business environment and market conditions, their skills become obsolete. Thus organizations spend billions of rupees on their training programs so as to upgrade the skills and knowledge of their employees in order to have an edge over its competitors and to gain profits. Training programs are directed towards improving job performance of the employees. Intensified competition, technological changes and the need for improved productivity are motivating the management to increase their expenditure on training.
People at all levels in the organization need to undergo training to be able to deliver the best results. Training, Development, and Education HRD programs are divided into three main categories: Training, Development, and Education. Although some organizations lump all learning under “Training” or “Training and Development,” dividing it into three distinct categories makes the desired goals and objects more meaningful and precise. Training is the acquisition of technology, which permits employees to perform their present job to standards.
It improves human performance on the job the employee is presently doing or is being hired to do. Also, it is given when new technology in introduced into the workplace. Education is training people to do a different job. It is often given to people who have been identified as being promotable, being considered for a new job either lateral or upward, or to increase their potential. Unlike training, which can be fully evaluated immediately upon the learners returning to work, education can only be completely evaluated when the learners move on to their future jobs or tasks.
We can test them on what they learned while in training, but we cannot be fully satisfied with the evaluation until we see how well they perform their new jobs. Development is training people to acquire new horizons, technologies, or viewpoints. It enables leaders to guide their organizations onto new expectations by being proactive rather than reactive. It enables workers to create better products, faster services, and more competitive organizations. It is learning for growth of the individual, but not related to a specific present or future job.
Unlike training and education, which can be completely evaluated, development cannot always be fully evaluated. This does not mean that we should abandon development programs, as helping people to grow and develop is what keeps an organization in the cutting edge of competitive environments. Development can be considered the forefront of what many now call the Learning Organization. Development involves changes in an organism that are systematic, organized, and successive and are thought to serve an adaptive function. EMPLOYEE TRAINING For the new employees, on-the-job training is given.
The new employees are being exposed to the practical job under the guidance of the old co- worker and its immediate superior. Training and output go hand in hand. For the existing employees, a workshop is conducted to make them aware of the new technology or new system to be used. In that workshop they are taught how to use the new machine (if introduced), they are told about the benefits of using the new technology etc. Also they follow is cross training, when implemented horizontally, upward and downward. Department heads, assistants and employees can cross-train either within the department or in different departments.
With support, employees can have a day’s training in the role of department heads (“King for the Day”). A department head can take a General Manager’s role in his absence. It is a part of their yearly training and covers all positions and departments. Beginning with the supervisory level it must filter down to entry-level positions. This technique achieves the following objectives:   ? Prevents stagnation ? Offers learning and opportunities for professional development ? Rejuvenates all departments ? Improves understanding of different departments and the company as a whole ?
Leads to better coordination and teamwork ? Erases differences, antagonism and unhealthy competition ? Increases knowledge, know-how, skills and work performance ? Improves overall motivation ? Enables sharing of organisational goals and objectives CONCEPT OF TRAINING MEANING: Training & development refers to the imparting of specific skills, abilities and knowledge to an employee. Development refers to those learning opportunities designed to help the employees. Development is not primary skill oriented. Instead, it provides general knowledge and attitudes that will be helpful to employees in higher positions.
TRAINING & DEVELOPMENT NEED: Training Need = Standard Performance – Actual Performance INPUTS IN TRAINING & DEVELOPMENT: 1. Skills 2. Education 3. Development 4. Ethics 5. Attitudinal changes ? Skills: A worker needs skills to operate machines and other equipments with the least damage and scrap. Employees, particularly supervisors and executives, need interpersonal skills popularly known as the people skills. ? Education: The purpose of the education is to teach the theoretical concepts and develop a sense off reasoning and development. Education is training people to do a different job.
It is often given to people who have been identified as being promotable, being considered for a new job either lateral or upward, or to increase their potential. Unlike training, which can be fully evaluated immediately upon the learners returning to work, education can only be completely evaluated when the learners move on to their future jobs or tasks. We can test them on what they learned while in training, but we cannot be fully satisfied with the evaluation until we see how well they perform their new jobs. ? Development: Development is training people to acquire new horizons, technologies, or viewpoints.
It enables leaders to guide their organizations onto new expectations by being proactive rather than reactive. It enables workers to create better products, faster services, and more competitive organizations. It is learning for growth of the individual, but not related to a specific present or future job. Unlike training and education, which can be completely evaluated, development cannot always be fully evaluated. This does not mean that we should abandon development programs, as helping people to grow and develop is what keeps an organization in the cutting edge of competitive environments.
Development can be considered the forefront of what many now call the Learning Organization. Development involves changes in an organism that are systematic, organized, and successive and are thought to serve an adaptive function. ? Ethics: There is a need for imparting greater ethical organization to a training development program. There is no denial of the fact that the ethics are largely ignored in businesses. ? Attitudinal changes: Attitudes represent feeling and beliefs of individuals towards others. The negative attitudes of the employees must be changed through training and development programs.
IMPORTANCE OF TRAINING AND DEVELOPMENT Training and development is of vital importance in the success of any organization 1. Training provides greater stability, flexibility and capacity for growth in an organization 2. Scrap and damages to machinery and equipment can be avoided or minimized through training. 3. Training serves as an efficient source of recruitment. 4. Training is an investment in HR with a promise of better returns in future. Training and development programs, as was pointed out earlier, help remove performance deficiencies in employees. This is particularly true when – The deficiency is caused by a lack of ability rather than a lack of motivation to perform, • The individuals involved have the aptitude and motivation need to learn to do the job better, and • Supervisors and peers are supportive of the desired behaviors. There is greater stability, flexibility and capacity for growth in an organization. Training contributes to employs contribute to the stay with the organization. Growth renders stability to the workforce. Further, trained employees tend to stay with the organization. They seldom leave the company. Training makes the employees versatile in operations.
All rounder can be transferred to any job. Flexibility is therefore ensured. Growth indicates prosperity, which is reflected in increased profits form year to year. Who else but well-trained employees can contribute to the prosperity of an enterprise? Accidents, scrap and damage to machinery and equipment can be avoided or minimized through training. Even dissatisfaction, complaints, absenteeism, and turnover can be reduced if employees are trained well. Future needs of employees will be met through training and development programs. Organizations take fresh diploma holders or graduates as apprentices or management trainees.
They are absorbed after course completion. Training serves as an effective source of recruitment. Training is an investment in HR with a promise of better returns in future. THE PURPOSE OF T

Why Do Teenagers Need to Have Fun

A very good morning I bid to our respected principal, Tuan Jamaludin bin Yusof, teachers and my fellow friends. I am standing here to deliver a speech on ‘Why do teenagers need to have fun? ’ Ladies and gentleman, fun means enjoyment, entertainment and the pleasure of life. I believe all if you must have the experience of being fun. But what you do not know, teenagers like us need to have fun and there are many advantages of having fun.
Could you imagine the world with no fun at all?Surely it will be a dull as ditch washer for sure. First, teenagers need to have fun because having fun can enhance their social skills. They can enhance on how to speak and how to perform. By this, teenagers can make more friends and grow their relationship network. The teenagers also need to enjoy their youth while they still have it. Having fun also can release their stress as teenagers experience so many stresses in their daily life such as school, family and especially homework.Teenagers can develop creative thinking while having fun as their left brain is working.
The teenagers can gain knowledge indirectly and practically while having fun. Somehow, fun teenagers can influence others around them to be happy as they give out happy moods. Finally, I have made my compact contents on ‘Why do teenagers need to have fun. ’ There, you can see all those positive advantages. Before I take my sit, I would like to have a balance life between work and fun. Thank you for lending your ears for a while and goodbye.

Poetry Essay. PLEASE READ INSTRUCTIONS CAREFULLY! ONLY 750 Word ESSAY

  
Poetry Essay Instructions
You must complete the required textbook readings in preparation for the Poetry Essay. This will equip you to objectively respond to the readings by compiling information from a variety of sources in order to compose a persuasive analysis of a literary work. You will also learn to follow standard usage in English grammar and sentence structure; identify the theme and structure of each literary selection and the significant characteristics or elements of each genre studied; and evaluate the literary merit of a work (Syllabus MLOs: A, B, C, D, F, G and Module/Week 5 LOs: 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7).
In Module/Week 5, you will write a 750-word (approximately 3 pages) essay that analyzes 1 poem from the Poetry Unit. Before you begin writing the essay, carefully read the below guidelines for developing your paper topic and review the Poetry Essay Grading Rubric to see how your submission will be graded. Gather all of your information, plan the direction of your essay, and organize your ideas by developing a 1-page thesis statement and outline for your essay as you did for your Fiction Essay. Format the thesis statement and the outline in a single Microsoft Word document using current MLA, APA, or Turabian style, whichever corresponds to your degree program; check your Perrine’s Literature textbook, the Harbrace Essentials Handbook, and/or the link contained in the Assignment Instructions Folder, to ensure the correct citation format is used. 
The final essay must include, a title page (see the General Writing Requirements), a thesis/outline page, and the essay itself followed by a works cited/references/bibliography page of any primary and/or secondary texts cited in the essay.
You must submit the thesis and outline by 11:59 p.m. (ET) on Monday of Module/Week 4 for instructor feedback.
You must submit the Poetry Essay by 11:59 p.m. (ET) on Monday of Module/Week 5.
Guidelines for Developing Your Paper Topic
The “Writing about Literature” section of your Perrine’s Literature textbook (pp. 1–54) and the “Writing” section of Harbrace Essentials (pp. 1–12, 18–21, 22–28) provide pointers which will be helpful for academic writing in general, and more specifically for your literary essay. Be sure that you read this section before doing any further work for this assignment. Take particular notice of the examples of poetry essays on pp. 43–48 of Perrine’s Literature.
Choose 1 of the poems from the list below to address in your essay:
• “The Lamb,” “The Tiger,” and “The Chimney Sweeper” by William Blake
• “Batter my heart, three-personed God” and “Death Be Not Proud” by John Donne
• “Journey of the Magi” by T. S. Eliot
• “God’s Grandeur” and “Spring” by Gerard Manley Hopkins
• “Ode to a Nightingale” by John Keats
• “Ozymandias” by Percy Bysshe Shelley
• “My Last Duchess” by Robert Browning
• “Sailing to Byzantium” by William Butler Yeats
• “The Road Not Taken” and “Stopping by Woods on a Snowy Evening” by Robert Frost
• “It Sifts from Leaden Sieves” and “There’s No Frigate Like a Book” by Emily Dickinson
• “Ulysses” by Alfred Lord Tennyson
• Psalm 1 or 23
• “Virtue” by George Herbert
• “That Time of Year” (Sonnet 73) by William Shakespeare
Consider answering the following questions about the poem that you have chosen:

What is/are      the theme(s) of the poem?
Is there a      literal setting or situation in the poem? What lines from the poem tell      the reader this information? What details does the author include?
Is the      setting symbolic?
How would you      describe the mood of the poem? What elements contribute to this mood?
Is the title      significant to the poem’s content or meaning? How?
What major      literary devices and figures of speech does the poet use to communicate      the theme(s)?
How are rhyme      and other metrical devices used in the poem? Do they support the poem’s      overall meaning? Why or why not?
Is the      identity of the poem’s narrator clear? How would you describe this person?      What information, if any, does the author provide about him or her?
Does the      narrator seem to have a certain opinion of or attitude about the poem’s      subject matter? How can you tell?

NOTE: These questions are a means of ordering your thoughts while you collect information for your essay. You do not need to include the answers to all of these questions in your essay; only include those answers that directly support your thesis statement.

week 6

1-Use the upload video and Explain what specific portions of the video are/have been, or were helpful to you and how. 
link http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ZZHvpgU7pc8 ( Action Research in the classroom Part 2, missmelissa73)
2- Define the concept “validity” as it applies to action research
3-Describe how the preservice teacher in the chapter 6, case study (pp. 147) addressed issues of validity in her action research study to improve student understanding and motivation of multiplication facts.
4-How did Alyson Marland determine if her intervention was effective?
5-Define reliability in your own words as it relates to action research.
6-Describe how Alyson Marland’s action research study does or does not address issues of reliability.
Bullet each question independently. The assignment must be completed using chapter 6; and APA 7th edition format is required.
Refer to the statement of focus document to get info about my research project
use 4 pages and include citations (author, year)

Wharton on Dynamic Competitive Strategy

Wharton School of Business is part of the University of Pennsylvania. The school publishes books on various business topics. Specifically, a book was written in 1997 called Dynamic Competitive Strategy. The book was written by George S. Day, David J. Reibstein and Robert E. Gunther with the Wharton School of Business and published by John Wiley & Sons, Inc. The book addresses an approach to remaining dynamic in regards to competitive strategy. In the nine chapters assigned, the book can be broken down in four sections.
First it analyzes strategy, addresses external forces, provides two different theories and ultimately presents a solution for creating and maintaining a dynamic competitive strategy. The book provides a very logical and analytical approach creating an effective strategy for a company to work off of. Having the ability and knowledge to adapt to an ever-changing business environment is crucial to success. Through in-depth research in strategy the book presents theories developed around the formulation and implementation of such strategies and can be used as a tool for business managers. The book begins by assessing competitive arenas and maintaining the competitive edge.
These two subjects can be categorized as the analysis part of the book. This section contributes to the readers ability to analyze a situation. Specifically, the authors challenge the reader to identify the arena in which handle. There are two types of arena, customer and competitor defined arenas. Once you have identified the arena, the next step is to identify a way to maintain that competitive edge. The book then present the competitive advantage cycle. This describes how a company can have a competitive advantage in the market, but it ultimately goes through a cycle and will change over time. In some cases, such as Dell Computers, companies go through numerous shifts in the market and must change their approach regularly in order to keep their advantage.

The book then presents how a company’s strategy can be influenced by outside forces. Two of these outside forces in the book are public policy and technology. Public policy can also be used to help shape a company’s strategy and develop practices of integrating such forces to their advantage. Traditional theories on strategy development do not take into account public policy when building out the strategy. In figure 3.1 in the book, the authors show how while these strategists do not incorporate public policy, the strategies they create are affected by them. Figure 3.1 – Policy Trends and Dynamic Advantage
Personally, I found this chart to be very helpful. It helped me understand how public policy can be better integrated into the company’s strategy. For example, a college may want to seriously consider how they integrate public policy into their strategic plan since many of the financing is done through federal grants. By being aware and even getting involved in how public policy is shape would be a large part of the strategic plan. The second part of the outside forces is technology. Technology is constantly changing and evolving. The book has an example of a bank in Hong Kong in which they did not see a competitor enter the market because it didn’t think it needed to explore the more technical side of banking. As in the first chapter where you identify the arena in which you are working in, these arenas can change and new ones are developed easily by how the technology changes. This bank in Hong Kong started to see their best customers leave to Citibank because the new bank was able to offer features that the Hong Kong bank did not. By not being aware of this outside force, a company can see a decline in business from competitors pilfering customers. Read about HP competitive advantage
In the next section the book presents two types of theories: game theory and behavioral theory. Game theory was created over 2,500 years ago by the Chinese military (Ho & Weigelt, 1997). It has only entered the business environment recently but still uses the same concepts and is a tool for doing strategic analysis. Game theory is essentially a way to make decisions. How will it affect your company? How will it affect your competitor? It takes into account cause and effect, considering all possibilities and what resources will be needed. The second theory offered is behavioral theory. This theory investigates why it is that managers often make irrational decisions that may negatively affect the future of the organization. Often, managers make decisions based on their own biases and not necessarily rational like the game theory.
In the seventh chapter, the book makes its point through coevolution. Coevolution focuses on interdependent adaptation, the race to adapt to new conditions, and the importance of initial advantage and conditions (Johnson & Russo, 1997). By taking the game theory and the behavioral theory, coevolution bridges the gap and makes the connection between the two theories. Over the course of the first and second section, the book has been building to provide the tool to help managers make better decisions regarding their competitors, the markets in which they compete and outside forces that can affect the organization. I found the book to have a very approachable structure of presenting the research and findings. It is important that managers in their organization consider all the factors that go into creating a competitive strategy. When considering your competitors, it is imperative that one be able to truly identify and understand the situation.
By arming the manager or executive with the tools to make sound decisions, it only sets the organization up for success. This book provides a leader in an organization with those tools and in a way that is easy to understand. It was very clear to me where they went with their research and how they got there. It is also a book that can stand the test of time since they stayed away from very specific situations. We always know that public policy and technology will always be part of the market as outside forces. In addition, The outside forces that the authors selected to include in their book are two things that will remain constant. Government and technology have existed for centuries and will continue to be part of the development of companies.
In conclusion, the book addressed the idea of dynamic competitive strategy in a way that was easy to understand and useful to leaders of organizations. The authors provided ways to assess the market, outside forces that can change how the market acts, theories to address competitors and ultimately brought it all together with coevolution. With these tools in place, organizations can look forward to a strategy that not only propels the company, but also manages and controls the competition. References
Day, G., Reibstein, D. and Gunther, R. (1997). Wharton on dynamic competitive strategy. New York: John Wiley.
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Aristotle’s Definition Of Virtue

Nowadays, virtues are associated with refinement and nobility of one’s character. Aristotle believed that virtue is a function of the soul that guides every action of an individual. Thus, every action illuminates the discretion of an individual to act freely the chosen disposition. Since every human has a soul and virtue is its activity, can we classify every action as virtuous action? In Nicomachaen Ethics, Aristotle examined the inter-relations among the purpose of every human action, virtues, and vices in the achievement of happiness.
Aristotle believed that the supreme good is the ultimate goal of every human endeavor. What then is the “good” for a man that can be possibly attained through his endeavors? It is happiness but relatively defined; vulgar men associated it with pleasure while people with refined character ascribed it to honor. While these things are pursued to achieve happiness in one’s self, but “good” should be pursued not only for happiness but for the “good” itself—as an end. The “good” brings happiness and is associated with function or activity.
For instance, if you are a behest pianist then, you are good in playing piano for you are functioning well. The well-performance of your function creates happiness not only for yourself but also for the others, thus, giving you a unique identity. In the same line of reasoning, soul is an aspect of humans that differentiated them from the rest of the animals. Thus, man’s function concerns the soul. The rational component of the soul controls man’s impulses, thus, makes him virtuous.

Therefore, “human good turns out to be an activity of the soul in accordance with virtue, and if there are more than one virtue, in accordance with the best and most complete. ” As such, the nature of virtue then should be explored. Moral Virtues The product of teaching is the intellectual virtue while moral virtue resulted from the habit. Thus, it is never the case that moral virtue arises spontaneously on man’s being. Moral virtues are inculcated in man’s soul and perfected by habits. “For the things we have to learn before we can do them, we learn by doing them. For if all men are naturally born good or bad, adept or inept in certain skills, teachers have no sense at all. On the same ground, moral virtues can be learned or destroyed in one’s soul: by interacting with others we may become just or unjust; by experiencing perils we may become brave or coward; and other circumstances may impart hedonism, ill-temperance, or self-indulgence. Moreover, by absorbing moral virtues at very young age, great difference will be made in one’s soul. Since it is through training, virtues are acquired; training then at very young age can mold virtuous personality.
Conditions for the Conduct of Virtues Just and temperate actions are done by a man who has the sense of justice and temperance. “But if the acts that are in accordance with the virtues have themselves a certain character it does not follow that they are done justly or temperately. ” Several conditions are necessary for the conduct of every virtuous action: knowledge of virtues; disposition for virtuous actions; and power to do virtuous actions. Hence, knowledge on virtues is not enough to become virtuous; rather, the disposition to put virtues into actions is a must.
It is common sense to us, for example, that insufficient food and water taken into the body results to poor nutrition while a balanced diet ensures good health. “So too is it, then, in the case of temperance and courage and other virtues. ” Avoidance of fears leads to timidity while extreme braveness endangers one’s life; absolute abstinence creates insensibility while hedonism shapes one’s indulgence. Since wrong doings are committed due to pleasure and noble character is avoided due to pain, pleasures and pain then are subjects of every virtue.
The Doctrine of the Mean “Now neither virtues nor the vices are passions, because we are not called good or bad on the ground of our passions, but are so called on the ground of our virtues and our vices. ” Passions, faculties, and states of character exist in the soul: passions are desires; faculties are abilities to perceive passions; and states of character are the choices to either put the passion in action or not. Feelings of pains and pleasures or passions, and the knowledge on good or bad are not virtues for virtues involve modes of choice.
In addition, we naturally have faculties and desires. The man’s virtue then, involves the state of character that makes the realization of every desire that either good or bad. “For instance, both fear and confidence and appetite and anger and pity and in general pleasure and pain may be felt too much or too little, and in both cases not well; but to feel them at the right times, with reference to the right objects, towards the right people, with the right motive, and in the right way, is what is both intermediate and best, and this is the characteristic of virtue. The deficient and excess among the activities that give pleasure or pain is a vice while moral virtues lie in between of these deficiency and excessiveness, hence, the mean. However, the “mean” can not be found among actions which are entirely wrong such as crimes and envy. For the “mean” among entirely wrong actions is either its excess or deficiency, “but however, they are done they are entirely wrong; for in general there is neither a mean of excess and deficiency, nor excess and deficiency of a mean. Also, an extreme of a particular activity can be closer to its mean such as in the case of courage; courage is more of rashness than cowardice. This is so because of the things that are farther from its “mean” are its opposites. Moreover, Aristotle’s concept of the “mean” is not a strict doctrine; since the things and degree of happiness for each individual varies, so as the extent to which the “mean” for every case lies. It is only through the aid of our practical reason that we may determine the mean in a particular situation.
Thus, virtue is a set of innate dispositions for the governance one’s action towards the attainment of happiness. Happiness then is not achieved unless one acted in accordance with his virtuous dispositions. Since actions are the concern of moral virtues, the attributes then of which should be examined. The Nature of Actions The nature of actions was classified by Aristotle as voluntary, nonvoluntary and involuntary. Involuntary actions are done against one’s disposition; voluntary actions are in accordance with the disposition; and nonvoluntary actions are accidentally done due to ignorance.
Since virtue governs one’s disposition to act in accordance with the “mean,” the primary basis then of a virtuous action is the goodness of choice. For an action is always a product of premeditated choice of an individual for the attainment of one’s purpose, it is therefore voluntary. This also satisfies the conditions that Aristotle believed are necessary for virtue: knowledge, volition, and doing. On the other hand, if an individual was forced for a certain action, although seem involuntary, he is still responsible for that action for he has a choice for not doing.
Meanwhile doing things because of ignorance is involuntary if at the end, one recognizes ignorance while failure to do so, makes it nonvoluntary. For instance, if a drunkard is addicted to liquor due to inability to discern virtuous things, the person then is guilty of ignorance and the action is nonvoluntary. If at some point of time, the person realized his ignorance, the action then becomes involuntary. With these, only ignorance can excuse an action to be called a vice but has limitation.
If after realizing virtuous things, the person has continued to be a drunkard, then the action is voluntary and he is therefore vicious. Conclusion For Aristotle therefore, virtues are dispositions that acted in accordance with the doctrine of the mean towards the attainment of happiness. Happiness can not be achieved by merely just having or knowing virtues, rather by putting virtuous dispositions into actions. Thus, virtue is an active condition that makes one apt at choosing.

Mobile Phones For Agricultural And Rural Developments

Introduction
Over the past few years, there has been a substantial improvement in the development of ICT in Africa. Mobile communications technology, in particular, has become the most powerful way to servicing millions of people and extending economic opportunities in Africa. In Nigeria, the diffusion of mobile phones has brought about huge changes in the country’s development. These changes have been felt across various sectors including the Agricultural sector.Agriculture is widely known to have manifold benefits on a country’s economy. For most African countries, it accounts for an overwhelming majority of rural employment (Donovan 2011). Mobile services and applications represent one of the most profound changes in rural Nigeria. With information technology on the rise, its impact in agricultural and rural development can no longer be ignored. In line with this, our analysis examines the impact of mobile phones in agricultural and rural development in Nigeria.
Diffusion of mobile phones in Nigeria

The rural sector in Nigeria has over the past few years seen a rapid diffusion of mobile phones. According to the World Bank report (2011), mobile phones have today become the single most powerful way to servicing and extending economic opportunities to millions of people in Africa.
In Nigeria alone, the use of mobile phone subscription has rapidly increased from as low as 0.33% of the population in 2001 to a record high of 48.9% in 2009 (World Bank report 2011). According to this report, the majority of new mobile subscribers will in the next few years come from rural areas of the developing economies.
How mobile phones help enhance or improve agricultural and rural development programmes in Nigeria
One important aspect to which mobile phone has contributed to rural development is through enhancing rural connectivity. Mobile phones have provided the much need connectivity especially in the rural parts of Nigeria. Over a decade ago, Nigeria only had about 100,000 phone lines with most of the landlines run by NITEL, the state-owned telecoms behemoth (Ogunlesi 2012). Today, however, NITEL is no longer there and the number of mobile phone lines has increased to over 100 million (Ogunlesi 2012). A pyramid survey also projected that the mobile subscriptions in Nigeria will more likely surpass 129 million by the year 2014, making Nigeria Africa’s largest telecom market (Pyramid research 2010)
More recently, the Nigerian government has undertaken a major project which involves the distribution of over 10 million mobile phones to farmers in rural Nigeria (Ebriku 2012). This project is intended at providing farmers access to market information. This will help enhance rural development and make the country’s agricultural sector more tech-friendly; thereby eliminating various challenges facing farmers on a daily basis such as the delay in information dispersion (Ebriku 2012). This massive project which is meant to enhance agricultural and rural development is scheduled for completion by 2013.
The Nigerian government has also launched the ‘Growth Enhancement Support Scheme’ which is expected to provide fertilizer and seed support to farmers through their mobile devices (NADS report 2011). This new scheme is expected to liberalize policies on fertilizers and seed distribution and to shift direction to value chain development (NADS report 2011). That is, the ‘Growth Enhancement Support Scheme’ will help develop a value chain system that supports distribution of farm inputs, particularly seeds and fertilizers to farmers (NADS report 2011).
Among several other initiatives which have been developed by Nigeria’s Ministry of Agriculture to streamline the complex distribution of farm inputs is the Integrated Cassava Project (UNDP report 2012). This initiative enables cassava growers to access market information via their mobile phones. It uses Agri-Business Information Points and trade agents to disseminate market information (UNDP report 2012). Services provided by this initiative include: prices, offers, trainings, trade assistance, technical messages and SMS alerts among many others (UNDP report 2012).
Undeniably, the diffusion of mobile phones in rural Nigeria has enhanced communication between farmers, extension agents, agricultural research institutes, input dealers and transporters. Farmers of today are better placed to receive accurate market information than before. They no longer have to accept the first price but rather can negotiate for a better deal. Mobile phones have also enabled them ease of communication with other farmers, making it feasible to put in place cooperatives that can help them explore new markets. Additionally, mobile phones have enhanced rural connectivity in Nigeria as farmers can easily communicate with friends, families, and other rural inhabitants without the need to travel.
Challenges facing the use of mobile phones in agricultural and rural developments in Nigeria.
There are, however, a number of challenges inhibiting effective mobile phone usage in the rural areas. One major challenge is the lack of infrastructural facilities. It is a widely accepted fact that insufficient infrastructure impedes all aspects of the economy. In Nigeria, infrastructural inadequacies across the telecom industries have been suggested to result in poor connectivity and limited network coverage in the rural sector (Abel-Ratovo, et.al, 2012).
Despite the increase in mobile phones usage in the rural areas of Nigeria, there remains a huge connectivity and infrastructure divide between the rural and urban areas. The rural sectors in Nigeria lag in terms of roads, portable water, electricity and fixed-line communications (Pyramid research 2009). A large proportion of the Nigerian population, however, continues to live in the rural areas hence making it a sizable addressable market for mobile services (Pyramid research 2009).
Another challenge that impedes mobile application in the rural parts of Nigeria is language barrier and illiteracy. Nigeria is Africa’s most populous country with a linguistically diverse population comprising of more than 140 million people (Ofulue 2011). This populous country has about 510 spoken languages and 66% literacy rate (Ofulue 2011).
Given this multilingual society and the relatively low level of literacy rate, it becomes particularly challenging for mobile phone users especially in rural Nigeria to communicate and access market information through these electronic gadgets. Other factors which have been suggested inhibit the use of mobile phones for rural and agricultural developments include: the constant interruption of power supply, unaffordable tariff rates and lack of wider network coverage (Pyramid research 2009).
In addressing these challenges, the Nigerian government is collaborating with mobile operators and international institutions to bridge the connectivity gaps. Infrastructure sharing and a multitude of initiatives have been developed to help these efforts (Pyramid research 2009). The Federal government is also looking to invest in improving literacy levels in order to spur greater use of mobile phones for rural and agricultural developments (Abel-Ratovo, et.al, 2012).
Conclusion
There is no doubt that mobile phones have become the clear choice of communication with most of the Nigerian population using this technology to send and receive information. Not only does this mode of communication facilitate effective interaction and exchange of vital information among the rural and urban dwellers, but it also holds a significant potential for advancing agricultural and rural development in Nigeria.
Yet, despite the increase in mobile phones usage in the rural areas of Nigeria, there exists a huge connectivity and infrastructure divide between the rural and urban areas. Moreover, Nigeria is home to a linguistically diverse population with a relatively low level of literacy. In addition, factors such as unaffordable tariff rates and poor network coverage have made it challenging to communicate and access market information through these electronic gadgets.
In addressing these challenges, the Nigerian government is collaborating with mobile operators and international institutions to bridge the connectivity gaps. Infrastructure sharing and a multitude of initiatives have been developed to help these efforts. The Federal government is also looking to invest in improving literacy levels in order to spur greater use of mobile phones for rural and agricultural developments.
Reference
Abel-Ratovo, et.al, 2012. ‘Ownership and use of mobile phones for agricultural transactions by traders’. Journal of Agricultural Extension and Rural Development. Vol.4 (10), pp. 305-317
Donovan, K., 2011. Overview of ICT in Agriculture: opportunities, access and cross-cutting themes. InfoDev
Ebriku, J.F., 2012. Nigerian government to distribute 10 million mobile phones to farmers. [viewed on 16th December 2012] available from
http://www.communicationsafrica.com/mobile/nigerian-government-to-distribute-10-million-mobile-phones-to-farmers
Nigeria Agro-Dealer Support (NADS) report, 2011. Growing Africa’s agriculture. IFDC
Ofulue, C.I., 2011. ‘Literacy at a distance in multilingual contexts: issues and challenges’. The International Review of Research in Open and Distance Learning, vol.12 (6)
Ogunlesi, T., 2012. Seven ways mobile phones have changed lives in Africa. CNNInside Africa. [Viewed on 16th December 2012] available from
http://edition.cnn.com/2012/09/13/world/africa/mobile-phones-change-africa/index.html
Pyramid research, 2010. The impact of mobile services in Nigeria: how mobile technologies are transforming economic and social activities.
UNDP report 2012. The importance of ICTs in the provision of information for improving agricultural productivity and rural incomes in Africa. International Food Policy Research Institute, Addis Ababa.
World Bank report, 2011. Mobile applications for agriculture and rural development. Washington, D.C.

Is Rationalisation a Desirable Strategy?

Foundations of Managing and Organising – Essay 1 Is rationalisation a desirable strategy for managing and organising Junction Hotel in the current economic climate? Junction Hotel is an ‘upmarket, city centre hotel with proud tradition of strong customer service with a traditional approach’. (2012, pp. 2-3) FoM Seminar workbook 1 – 2012-13). Simon Chance is the newly appointed C. E. O of the hotel in hope to restore the glorious hotel there once was. Simon Chance is a venture capitalist and president of Second-Chance consortium and is willing to step up to the challenge of updating the hotel through the way it operates, looks and how its run.
Problems with the hotel range from poor management and organisation to dated equipment and deteriorating interior. This does not impress the high-class clientele the Hotel claims to cater for. The poor condition of the hotel matched with the very expensive room charges is not something customers will oblige to pay for especially in the current economy where people’s expenses are rising alongside taxation and a poor economic climate leaving people with less disposable income.
Furthermore, with the worldwide hotel sector looking as if it will be much more profitable there will be increased competition for Junction Hotel and a wider choice of hotels for customers to choose from. (MarketingCharts Staff, February 21, 2012. Hotel Industry Poised for 2012. http://www. marketingcharts. com/direct/hotel-industry-poised-for-2012-growth-21201/). Chance has decided a new business strategy is what Junction Hotel needs in order to regain the success it once had and looks at rationalisation as a potential strategy.

Rationalisation is organising a business through principles of management in order to gain efficiency often accomplished through downsizing e. g. reducing workforce or selling/closing plants. By increasing efficiency it can cut hotel running costs of which the money can be spent on renovating the run down hotel. A problem with the current state of Junction Hotel is the lack of clear roles and job titles, which can be seen as almost essential today for all businesses.
A more bureaucratic approach would be a great way to overcome this. This would include a clear hierarchy of authority usually presented in an organisational chart appointing each staff member their place in the organisation and who they answer to i. e. who their supervisor/s are. At the moment there is confusion with a number of staff as to what their roles are such as Linda Wilkinson whose responsibility is continually growing ranging from cleaning staff to reception staff to maintenance etc.
This poses a problem as there is no division of labour which instantly reduces efficiency in the organisation as employees may not be clear on what to do and therefore there may be more people than necessary doing a specific job or important tasks left altogether. Furthermore, there is confusion over the roles in the restaurant with the Head Chef and Wilkinson both wanting control over the waiting staff. A well thought out organisation chart will indicate the position of each employee very clearly and means everyone should be able to cope with the workload thus minimising mistakes.
It may be that Chance needs to hire more supervisors as Wilkinson seems to be accountable for many of the staff – a much higher ratio than what would be ideal. Morgan, G, (2006) “Mechanization Takes Command: Organizations as Machines” from Morgan, G, Images of Organization p 19 states that there should be Unity of Command meaning an employee should receive orders from only one supervisor as well as a low Span of Control meaning the number of employees reporting to one supervisor should not be so large that it creates communication problems.
It is evident that this is not the case in Junction Hotel and the problems of this are beginning to show. (REFERENCE ABOUT SPECIALISATION e. g. relating to mcdonalds/travelodge). Taking this more bureaucratic approach will enable Chance to make the workforce more rational and organised allowing efficiency of work to increase. Chance may decide the workers are unmotivated if rationalisation is put into action. By allocating specific jobs especially monotonous labour that is carried out day in day out workers may feel dehumanised and can get easily bored.
This is a downside of the strategy Chance wishes to use however, there have been studies such as the Hawthorne studies which suggest it is possible to overcome these problems. Furthermore, on the plus side work at Junction Hotel is not as repetitive and dehumanising as factory workers who worked for Taylor or Ford and is even better than much of today’s work which has been a victim of ‘McDonaldization’. Ritzer, G. (2008) The Mcdonaldization of society p. 7 claims due to efficiency ‘Managers… gain because more work gets done, more customers are served and more profits are earned’ and therefore aim to achieve greatest efficiency which is defined as ‘choosing the optimum means to a given end’. This type of rational organisation is very mechanical, employees work solely for monetary rewards and work is very individual. This type of working environment would not suit Junction Hotel as a hotel is a very social place where workers need to communicate with each other and customers.
This type of work environment in modern society would be found in a fast food restaurant such as McDonalds – here monotonous tasks are continuously carried out by the workers and even what they say is scripted. This would not work well in the Junction Hotel setting as each customer in the hotel will have different queries besides “would you want the receptionist to have the same conversation with you as somebody serving you in McDonalds? ” (FoM Seminar (2012) Nottingham Trent University). Furthermore, the Hawthorne Studies found that there are many factors that changed the output workers produced.
I feel these are not entirely relevant to the workers at Junction Hotel because a lot of the jobs to do at Junction Hotel are more concerned with the quality than the quantity. For example there are only 100 rooms to clean though these should although be done quickly there should be certainty that each room is spotless to maintain this luxurious hotel image. Changes in the light level won’t have much impact on the rate of work in the Hotel or have much impact on customers as they are not really buying products. Such changes may be necessary in the restaurant as here it is important for food to be made and served quickly.
Overall, I think rationalisation is a much needed strategy but not in the way it is made clear to us in the modern day e. g. by dehumanising workers and giving them simple, boring tasks to do. It is important for Junction Hotel to gain a structure/hierarchy as well as division of labour to occur though there is a risk of workers being stripped of their individuality and therefore a line must be drawn at how bureaucratic the organisation should become as it must remain a high class venue and not equivalent to a Travelodge where there are hundreds of venues which look and operate the same and include no perks for the customer.
REFEERNCE LIST: Anon. (2012, pp. 2-3) FoM Seminar workbook 1 – 2012-13 MarketingCharts Staff, February 21, 2012. Hotel Industry Poised for 2012. http://www. marketingcharts. com/direct/hotel-industry-poised-for-2012-growth-21201/ Morgan, G, (2006, p 19) “Mechanization Takes Command: Organizations as Machines” from Morgan, G, Images of Organization Ritzer, G. (2008, p. 57) The Mcdonaldization of society Anon. (2012) FoM Seminar Nottingham Trent University

Instant Gratification in Aldous Huxley’s Brave New World

In Aldous Huxley’s Brave New World, instant gratification is a prevalent theme. Happiness is sustained through habits and events that bring instant gratification to the population. The universal happiness in the world state is achieved through three stages: soma, promiscuous sex, and psychological conditioning. The drug soma is a symbol of the use of instant gratification to control the world state’s populace.
People are conditioned genetically and through hypnopaedia to enjoy their predetermined work. The population is becoming more and more sexually promiscuous. By keeping their citizens satisfied with the means of soma, sex, and preconditioning, Brave New World warns about a society in which people are controlled by their desire for pleasure and are conditioned to believe they are free when really they are enslaved by their passions.
Soma is a powerful opiate in the world state in which people use to eliminate anything negative in their lives. It is described as a drug that has “all the advantages of Christianity and alcohol; none of their defects” (54). It is arguably the best tool the government has to control its citizens. It calms, sedates, and most importantly distracts the citizens from realizing that they are being enslaved by the world state. According to Mustapha Mond, people are better off sacrificing the truth for happiness.

Mustapha Mond describes soma as follows: “And if ever, by some unlucky chance, anything unpleasant should somehow happen, why, there’s always soma to give you a holiday from the facts. And there’s always soma to calm your anger, to reconcile you to your enemies, to make you patient and long-suffering. In the past, you could only accomplish these things by making a great effort and after years of hard moral training.
Now, you swallow two or three half-gramme tablets, and there you are. Anybody can be virtuous now. You can carry at least half your mortality about in a bottle. Christianity without tears – that’s what soma is” (236). By comparing it to Christianity without tears, Mustapha Mond seems to argue that religion has the same effect as the drug when it comes to controlling its citizens. The drug offers comfort to the user but it comes at an expense of the user’s individuality.
Sexual relations in the world state is another way the world state uses to control its citizens. Sexual promiscuity is encouraged and celebrated. Children even play erotic games in the hatchery and conditioning centers. Sex has been dissociated with love and childbearing and it is engaged purely for pleasure and fun. People have sex purely for pleasure because emotional bonding with others is seen as destabilizing by the world controllers and they are strongly conditioned against the messy intimacy of falling in love.
Through the encouragement of promiscuous sex and the elimination of families or any long-term relationships, the government ensures that no one will face the consequences of intense and unreciprocated emotional or sexual desire. People were told what sex was like in “the old world”, “For a very long time before the time of our Ford, and even for some generations afterward, erotic play between children had been regarded as abnormal (there was a roar of laughter); and not only abnormal, actually immoral (no!): and had therefore been rigorously suppressed. A look of astonished incredulity appeared on the faces of his listeners. Poor little kids not allowed to amuse themselves? They could not believe it “ (32). This shows the transformation from a traditional society to a society that no longer values close relationships.
Extreme conditioning is administered in order to keep stability in communities. In the world state, people are born into a certain caste and are conditioned to do their predetermined job. There are five castes in the world state: Alpha, Beta, Gamma, Delta, and Epsilons. Through hypnopaedia which is sleep teaching, the government would teach children about morality and the caste system. “One hundred repetitions three nights a week for four years, thought Bernard Marx, who was a specialist on hypnopaedia. Sixty-two thousand four hundred repetitions make one truth”(47).
By continued repetition, children in the world state are made to believe whatever they are told by the government. Another way the world state conditions its citizens is through physical conditioning. When they are at their embryonic stage, they are injected with alcohol, given less oxygen, and incubated at higher temperatures to prepare them for their gamma, delta, and epsilon jobs.
Another form of conditioning that is essential to the stability of the world state is the Neo-Pavlovian conditioning given to the lower caste Gammas, Deltas, and Epsilons. “Books and loud noises, flowers and electric shocks – already in the infant mind these couples were compromisingly linked; and after two hundred repetitions of the same or a similar lesson would be wedded indissolubly.
What man has joined, nature is powerless to put asunder. ‘They’ll grow up with what the psychologists used to call an “instinctive” hatred of books and flowers. Reflexes unalterably conditioned. They’ll be safe from books and botany all their lives’(22). If the lower castes weren’t conditioned to hate certain things, they would want everything the Alphas and Betas have which would disrupt the world state.
Aldous Huxley’s Brave New World describes a society in which happiness and instant gratification is dangerous to the population’s health. On the surface, the world seems great. There is no war. Everyone is able to fulfill their desires instantly whatever that may be. They are conditioned to love their jobs and sex is widely available. Soma can bring instant relief to any concern. The satisfaction of every desire creates a superficial and infantile happiness.
With a lack of suffering the world is without love purpose or compassion. Aldous Huxley also critiques modern government institutions whose power slowly crept into the lives of ordinary people. The process is in the name of security or peace but ultimately destroys everything good in society. Huxley urges us to consider the cost of happiness and what it ultimately leads to.

Marketing questions

 

(3 points) Identify the independent variable, dependent variable, and causal statement in this example: “A dry cleaning company institutes a “frequent cleaner” plan where $1 is taken off the price of a dry cleaning order for every ten times a customer uses the dry cleaning company. Sales at the end of three months increase by $10,000.”
(7 points) The Maximum Company has invented an extra-strength, instant coffee brand to be called “Max-Caff” and positioned to be stronger tasting than any com­peting brands. Design a taste test experiment that compares Max-Caff to the two leading instant coffee brands to determine which brand consumers con­sider to taste the strongest. Identify the independent and dependent variable(s) in your experiment. Indicate how the experiment is to be conducted, and assess the internal and external validity of your experiment.
(7 points) Coca-Cola markets PowerAde as a sports drink that competes with Gatorade. Competition for sports drinks is fierce where they are sold in the coolers of convenience stores. Coca-Cola is thinking about using a special holder that fits in a standard convenience-store cooler but moves PowerAde to eye level and makes it more con­spicuous than Gatorade. Design an experiment that determines whether the special holder increases the sales of PowerAde in convenience stores. Identify the independent and dependent variable(s) in your experiment. Indicate how the experiment is to be conducted and assess the internal and external validity of your experiment.
(3 points) A tire store chain is concerned that women have concerns about bringing their car to tire stores which are typically dominated by men—employees and customers. What type of research would you conduct to determine if this concern is prevalent among female drivers and what techniques the chain may adopt that would alleviate some of these concerns?