F. Scott Fitzgerald’s Unique Literary and Writing Style

With reference to at least two passages, show how Fitzgerald’s variety of language techniques illustrate his views on the lifestyle of the era, here and in the novel as a whole.
Fitzgerald uses many different literary techniques to portray his opinion of the lifestyle during the 1920’s. The use of Nick Carraway as narrator continually exposes the readers to both the positives, and negatives of this era. Throughout “The Great Gatsby” Fitzgerald explores key issues of “The jazz age”. The role of women and the hierarchy of society are two of the main issues which Fitzgerald explores.
Throughout passage one there is a big divide of social status and it is clear that the differences within the class hierarchy are profound:

“He’s so dumb he doesn’t know he’s alive.”
Fitzgerald uses the brutal character of Tom Buchanan to portray the divide and disapproval of working class citizens like Wilson. The use of strong adjectives portrays the maltreatment of the working class. In passage two Fitzgerald presents the opposite end of the hierarchy to the readers. The readers are therefore exposed to a world of wealth:
“…superior couples holding each other tortuously, fashionably, and keeping to the corners…”
The continued use of adjectives by Fitzgerald this time creates a different image. He creates a disjointed atmosphere which is contrasted by wealth. The negative imagery that is created challenges the idea of The American Dream and the fallible belief of characters like Wilson that success and therefore wealth is essential. This contrasts the first passage where Fitzgerald portrays the negatives of poverty. Fitzgerald suggests that there was no equilibrium of success and wealth in that society. However, Fitzgerald was in fact part of the higher social class who contributed to these parties.
Infidelity is a key issue that Fitzgerald exposes in this novel and this is especially true for passage one:
“She smiled slowly and, walking through her husband as if he were a ghost, shook hands with Tom, looking him flush in the eye.”
Fitzgerald uses his narrator Nick to observe the desperate actions of a typical working class woman of the 1920’s. Fitzgerald’s provocative language, “looking him flush in the eye,” portrays Myrtle’s obsessive pursuit of wealth and supposed happiness. The idea of The American Dream is once again divulged, as Myrtle’s quest for wealth sacrifices her marriage. The comparison of Wilson to a ghost is important because it shows that Fitzgerald disapproves of Myrtle’s actions and is trying to portray her callous behaviour. The technique of formal, introductory action, “shook hands with Tom” is used by Fitzgerald in contrast to the deeper more intimate relationship beneath the superficial appearance. This represents Fitzgerald and his sympathy in this instance for the poor, hardworking citizens; even though he was himself part of this wealthy lifestyle. In passage two no direct infidelity is explored by Fitzgerald; however the idea of frivolity amongst couples is:
“There was dancing now on the canvas in the garden; old men pushing young girls backward in eternal graceless circles…”
Fitzgerald’s use of “pushing” and “graceless” suggests that there is no connection or intensity in relationships. Similarly to the worthless marriage of Wilson and Myrtle, these couples are awkward and without attachment.
The role of women is a major flaw of society within this time period. Fitzgerald suggests mistreatment in his description of, “…old men pushing young girls…” He emphasises the lack of connection amongst couples and presence of control over women. He disapproves of the treatment of women; however he does not defend the women or even approve of their actions, “single girls dancing individualistically…” His language is sarcastic and mocking towards the drunken women at Gatsby’s party. Both sides of Fitzgerald’s arguments are made more significant by the location, representing the treatment in public situations. Fitzgerald is portraying the lack of reaction amongst citizens of the 1920’s. Similarly to when Tom broke Daisy’s nose. Although the action was recognised by Nick it was not dwelled upon. This domination is re-emphasised later in the novel at another public party location:
“Whenever he sees I’m having a good time he wants to go home.”
Fitzgerald repeatedly features dominating, bullying husbands who control their wives and restrict their lives. However, some would argue that the control is to stop inappropriate behaviour of the typically drunk women of the era. This control over women is paralleled in passage one by the dominating male character of Tom:
“I want to see you…Get on the next train.”
Fitzgerald uses Tom’s brutal nature and blunt direct speech to portray the worthlessness of women. Fitzgerald’s language is domineering and controlling, which suggests that he has unfaithful motives for his arrangements with “his girl”. Fitzgerald portrays an entirely different character to the readers after Myrtle’s death:
“Tom drove slowly…In a little while I heard a low husky sob, and saw that the tears were overflowing down his face.”
Fitzgerald show’s the readers that this lifestyle can be fragile and vulnerable at times. The readers see a new side of Tom and it proves that although he was a domineering character he did have true feelings for Myrtle. Fitzgerald still represents the era by using bold and masculine adjectives, “…low husky sob…” This description of Tom portrays the idea that people could not show fragility without trying to be superficially strong.
The male domination of characters like Tom is similar to the behaviour of Mink in “Postcards” by Annie Proulx. Mink is a very possessive and restricting character, he controls his wife Jewell:
“…Mink wouldn’t hear of it. Had a fit every time I wanted to go somewhere…”
This possession is very similar to Tom and his control that he needs over Daisy. However there is a difference, Mink and Jewell are very poor farmers which are directly contrasted by the wealth of Tom and Daisy. The American Dream that so many people went in search of, hoping that money meant happiness, is proved false. Two completely different male characters from different wealth background are still dominating and controlling. Therefore, American Dream seekers like Wilson, Myrtle, The Joad family from “The Grapes of Wrath”, Lenny and George from “Of mice and Men” are blinded by a dream.
Excess is an issue of the 1920’s among successful wealthy people similar to those of Gatsby, Daisy and Tom. Fitzgerald displays initial disapproval of this gluttony:
“…Champagne was served in glasses bigger than finger-bowls.”
The use of an upper class comparison makes this sentence more powerful. Fitzgerald compares excess with more flamboyant objects. This is effective in the portrayal of the lavishness of parties. However, his possible disapproval is soon altered by the effects of alcohol and the narrator is soon engulfed in a wealthy society:
“I had taken two finger-bowls of champagne, and the scene has changed before my eyes into something significant, elemental, and profound.”
Fitzgerald condemns the consumption of alcohol and displays its dangers perfectly through the transformation of his narrator and his observations. He suggests that society’s vision is clouded by alcohol and excessiveness rendering it impossible to possess educated and sensible opinions of the extravagant lifestyle. The excess of a public environment is directly contrasted with the poverty of a private location in passage one:
“…a grey, scrawny Italian child was setting torpedoes in a row along the railroad track.”
This observation made by Tom is purposefully displaying Fitzgerald’s disapproval of the excess of the Buchanon’s lifestyle. He shows readers that poverty was ignored by the upper class. Instead of helping the area characters similar to Tom want to ignore them and return to their luxurious lifestyles. The private location is essential in the portrayal of the ignorance to poverty and the lack of connection with menial workers like Wilson.
The entire novel displays one of the biggest flaws of 1920’s society, superficiality. Passage two contains the superficiality of parties and public events:
“…Vacuous bursts of laughter rose toward the summer sky.”
Fitzgerald uses a powerful adjective to describe the laughter as being fake. Imagery is created of clouds floating into the sky; this is created by Fitzgerald to display the superficial atmosphere. Everyone at the party is contributing to the hollow laughter and taking advantage of Gatsby and his hospitality. Fitzgerald is showing the readers a lack of genuine care or enjoyment, it is a superficial persona. Fitzgerald continues to show the readers that superficiality is present in private scenes like passage one:
“Get some chairs…his wife moved close to Tom.”
Fitzgerald portrays how a relationship can be superficial. Myrtle’s order is brazen in order to spend time with Tom. He shows the readers that people of this era were superficial, for public show and private gain. This is similar behaviour to that of Daisy later on in the novel:
“Make us a cold drink…As he left the room again she got up and went over to Gatsby and pulled his face down, kissing him in the mouth.”
This behaviour is paralleled to Myrtle’s; they are both very cold and daring in these cases. Fitzgerald believes this is wrong and he displays this by the quick pace of the sentence, it shows a rush to end the action. The behaviour is similar to that of Tom and his affair with Myrtle, which shows a strength emerging for women. Daisy is now entering into an affair just as Tom is. Fitzgerald represents a clear disapproval of the unfaithful nature of society.
I think Fitzgerald uses lots of literary techniques to cover all the key issues of the 1920’s. He successfully describes situations vividly and encourages the reader using Nick as narrator. The readers are encouraged to believe that the “Jazz age” was excessive, superficial, wealth obsessed and unfaithful. However, as Fitzgerald shows using Nick, it was a very attractive era which captured people and engulfed them in money.

Literature Essay: One Flew Over The Cuckoos Nest by K Kesey

It is suggested that Ken Kesey”s One Flew over the Cuckoo”s Nest contains examples of behaviour and attitudes displayed by characters within the clinical environment of the psychiatric ward which can be compared to behaviour found within contemporary American society. These include examples of leadership and hierarchy within a class or caste system, sexism and crime and punishment.
In the text, the theme of leadership is very prominent and important to the story. Arguably it is more important theme of the book, than the issue of mental illness, which forms the setting and the core of the novel.
The leader figure in the ward is Big Nurse, who has complete control over the ward. Any decisions that are made over a patient or with regards the running of the ward must go through Big Nurse first. She is seen by the Chief as being almost mechanical in her approach to her running of the ward:

She”s got that bag full of a thousand parts she aims to use in her duties today-wheels and gears, cogs polished to a hard glitter…(10)
The ward is run by her to a very strict daily routine, which is almost fanatically neurotic in it”s precision and dedication. Chief describes Big Nurse”s devotion to her daily routine:
‘The slightest thing messy or out of kilter in any way ties her into a little white knot of tight-smiled fury” (27)
When McMurphy enters the ward, the delicate equilibrium which the nurse has created is upset. This is because, like the nurse, McMurphy is a natural leader-figure. He takes over the control of the ward by manipulating the patients; seemingly for their own good, but it may be argued that he gets a feeling a control from being a leader over a large group of people.
This may be a feeling of control and power which has previously been absent in his life for some reason.
We are told, early in the book, of McMurphy”s admission to the ward doctor about his conviction for raping a fifteen year old girl, and his unwillingness to acknowledge that he had committed a crime:
‘Said she was seventeen, Doc, and she was plenty willin”… so willin”, in fact, I took to sowing my pants up” (40)
This could also be argued for Big Nurse; What is her motive for her total dedication to the job? It is possible that she also relishes the feeling of control over the patients in her care which her job allows.
She knows that she has absolute power over every patient in her ‘care”; The power to change any of her patient”s lives immediately wherever she might see fit.
Such behaviour can also be seen in contemporary society in an environment such as a school;
The school is a good example because it has a central leader in the position of the head teacher. The head teacher has full responsibility over every person within the school, and also sets the rules and regulations which everyone in that particular school must obey.
If a member of the school breaks any of the rules, the head teacher will decide an appropriate punishment. While the head teacher is answerable to the Governing Board of the school, they still have the most ‘power” and authority over the school.
It can also be shown within a large corporation with the position of a Managing Director. All other staff in the company are directly answerable to him. The Managing Director has the power to hire new staff, and also to make staff redundant. But, again, he is answerable to the owner of the company and perhaps the shareholders; so he can never have total power in his position
This can be contrasted with Big Nurse; She is, in theory, answerable to the Management Board of the hospital, and even to the doctors who work on the ward. But she appears to have the most control over the daily running of the ward, as if she were senior to the doctors, even though, in fact, she is only a nurse. She seems to have total and complete authority over every person in the ward.
The theme of leadership does not mirror the outside world very accurately, as in contemporary society a leader of a society or an organisation is almost always accountable to a person senior to him. This is not seen in the novel, as Big Nurse seems to be answerable to no one, in fact, it is arguable that everyone answers to her.
A hierarchy or class system operates inside the ward which can be clearly seen throughout the course of the novel. Patients living within the ward are ‘classed” according to the state of their mental health or to the condition of which they suffer from. Chief describes the method of discriminating patients from one another:
‘Across the room from the Acutes are the Chronics… Not in the hospital, these, to get fixed, but to keep them walking the streets…” (17)
Patients are divided into two categories of Acutes & Chronics:
Chronics are those patients who have a condition which is untreatable, “machines with flaws which cannot be repaired” (17) and can only be controlled with medical methods. They will spend the rest of their lives inside the ward of the hospital. Patients who are seen as being likely to recover from their illness, and will return to society.
Acutes are those patients e.g. Harding, who are seen as being likely to recover from their illness, and will return to society.
Chronics can either have full use of their bodies or can be again sub-categorised into Wheelers and Vegetables; Those whose movement is impaired to such an extent, they can only move by being pushed around in wheelchairs. Vegetables are patients who, through excessive ECT ‘Shock Shop” (18) or through the overperscription of tranquillising medications:
‘Ellis is a chronic came in an Acute and got fouled up bad when they overloaded him in the Shock Shop…” (18)
When McMurphy enters the ward, he assumes the role of a leader over all of his fellow patients in the ward. McMurphy has a strong, intelligent character and so he is able to manipulate others who are more vulnerable than he is. An example of his manipulation is when he shows some playing cards with pornographic photographs on them to Cheswick:
‘I brought along my own deck…Fifty-two positions”. Cheswick is pop-eyed already…those cards don”t help his condition. (16)
Personality types which can be seen in contemporary society can also be seen very clearly with regard to the characters in the ward setting:
McMurphy”s character is a rebel character who hates authority and authoritative figures. This is, perhaps, why he clashes so fiercely with Big Nurse.
Chief is the veteran of the ward. He has been there the longest, since the start of World War II, with the exception of Big Nurse. He has the mutual respect of everyone in the ward.
Billy Bibbit is insecure and has a stutter. His name is ironic in that it resembles a stutter when said. His problems have probably been caused by his overbearing mother, who was very protective and spoke for him whenever possible.
In a large group of individuals, these personalities are often seen; A rebel character who goes against the system is almost always present in a class inside a school; A veteran who has gained the respect of everyone in that particular grouping; A person who is lacking in confidence, often reluctant to speak out.
Today, in contemporary society, a class system is still very much a part of everyday life. People are classed on wealth, status and employment. Discrimination can also exist between classes; lower classes finding higher classes snobbish and elitist; higher classes perhaps seeing lower classes as ‘common” and uneducated.
The book mirrors hierarchy in contemporary society very well, as it shows different personality types and differentiates between the different classes of people within it very clearly and accurately. However, it does not show discrimination between the different classes which exists today in contemporary society and is quite important to the structure of modern societies.
The issues of Sexism and Sexuality are also raised within the book. Although they do not feature so prominently as the themes of Leadership and Hierarchy, they are nevertheless very important to the behaviour of the characters.
Taking the theme of sexism in the text, women are placed into two distinct stereotypical types. They are portrayed as either whores, sluts or nymphomaniac wives; or the book goes to the other extreme where women are held as asexual ‘machines”. This view is very important when referring to Big Nurse.
The prostitutes that appear during McMurphy”s fishing trip are a good example of the first way the book describes women. They are shown as amoral, trivialising sex so that it is seen only as a meaningless business transaction. It is also made clear of the loss of McMurphy”s at the age of nine:
‘The first girl ever drug me to bed wore that same dress. I was about ten…Taught me how to love, bless her sweet ass (201)”
Ruckly”s wife is another example of this such view of women as adulteresses. Ruckly has had an unsuccessful lobotomy, making him rather mentally unstable. The text portrays him very sympathetically, so the reader empathises with his character from the outset:
‘They brought him back to the ward two weeks later…you can see by his eyes how they burned him up in there” (18)
Ruckly had found out that his wife had been seeing other men; Every time she is mentioned he remembers what she did to him:
‘Memory whispers someplace in that jumbled machinery…He turns red and veins clog up…Fffffffuck da wife! Ffffffuck da wife!” (19)
This is not the only unfavourable way women are portrayed in the novel. Big Nurse is shown as a hardened and rather sterile asexual character. ‘
‘A mistake was made in manufacturing, putting those big, womanly breasts on her…and you can she how bitter she is for it” (11)
Whenever she is described by Chief, her attributes are likened to a piece of machinery which is cold and unfeeling. It appears that she is so dedicated to the ward that she is ‘married” to the job and sexual relationships have no place in her ‘plan”. It is arguable that this is why she becomes so enraged when she discovers McMurphy”s relations with the prostitutes towards the end of the book.
Today, in contemporary society, the view sometimes is still held that women inferior to men. They can be seen as incapable of carrying out work, and should stay at home to look after the children. Although the advent of feminism has almost vanquished these ‘male chauvinist” attitudes, women can still be stereotyped as above; as whores or nymphomaniacs or, like Big Nurse; ‘frigid”, asexual and cold. It can be seen, thus, the text of One Flew over the Cuckoo”s Nest shows sexism in contemporary society accurately.
Finally, the issues of crime and punishment are raised throughout the book and are very important from the outset and ultimately to the ending of the story. The ward, like the society outside, is run on a system of sanctions and rewards which are allocated according to a patient”s behaviour.
Punishments may be issued, by Big Nurse, for unwillingness to co-operate with the daily routine or with the staff. Punishments included ECT , the removal of privileges such as cigarettes or more serious, repeat offenders as a last resort, a lobotomy. A patient could also be sent to Disturbed, in effect a ‘hospital within a hospital” where a patient could be sent to recover from an outburst and they will return to the ward when Big Nurse sees fit.
A lobotomy is a surgical procedure in which the pre-frontal lobes of the brain are either removed or destroyed. This was thought to pacify aggressive patients, but in practise, it transformed them into inactive individuals:
“The installations they do these days are usually successful…a success they say…like Ruckly fumbling and drooling all over his picture” (18-19)
Rewards were also issued to by the establishment of the ward; Patients were give a ‘ration” of cigarettes every week, but this was stopped when McMurphy arrived in the ward as he used to win the others” cigarettes from them in gambling card games.
It is arguable that the security of the hospital could be seen as a reward. Patients, who through the result of their ‘mental illness ” could not cope in the outside world and require the constant daily routine to feel secure and safe.
Contemporary society has a system of rules, laws and legislations which must be followed to be a member of that society. Society also has the power, like the ward to issue sanctions for those who break the rules.
Although many countries have abolished the use of corporal or capital punishment for serious crimes, North America is one such a country where, depending on the state, a person may face capital punishment by lethal injection, electric chair or gas chamber. The ward applies corporal punishment in the form of the ECT and it may be argued that a lobotomy is a form of capital punishment because the patient has little or no quality of life left after the procedure, so they might as well have been killed.
Ken Kesey”s One Flew Over The Cuckoo”s Nest mirrors, in the behaviour of it”s characters, contemporary society very accurately and can still be relied on, as a contemporary text, an accurate display of the treatment of patients within a mental hospital today.

Microhabitat Variation

Temperature results for this observational study show that temperature mean and standard deviation values vary as you go from one location to another. These results are basically affected by several factors. One factor for example is the amount of sunlight received by a particular area. Shaded locations, such as under a holly tree and another tree near the shore pond registered lower mean temperatures (20.55 C and 21.03 C respectively) compared to those areas that are more exposed to direct sunlight such as the sunny patch of grass (31.60 C) and at the bleachers (28.52 C). exposure to direct sunlight obviously increases the temperature of a certain area while the absence of it decreases the temperature.
Also, the canopy of the trees hinders the sunlight to penetrate the area under it thus, contributing to the lowering of the temperature of the said locations. The amount of sunlight that enters the Earth has great effect on air temperature. But as sunlight passes through the air, it does not heat it but rather, warms the air above the liquids (streams, ponds) and solids (soil) on the Earth. Usually, the warmest time of the day is the middle because it is when the sunlight is directly hitting these liquids and solids. “Temperature is usually low at midnight, decreasing in the early hours of the morning, and then increasing rapidly until just after midday. It then decreases during the night” (http://www.niwascience.co.nz/edu/resources/climate/plots/).
Also, it is warmer during summer because there are more time for the Earth’s surface to heat up as compared during winter time. This event is also observable inside a thermometer, an instrument used to measure temperature. The liquid inside this instrument expands and goes up when the air surrounding it is warm. During colder days on the other hand, the liquid contracts and goes down. On the other hand, the temperature values observed under a tree showed a larger standard deviation (32.74) as compared to other areas observed.

This can be explained by the fact that trees have the ability to reduce wind and air circulation especially in humid climates. Large trees with dense foliage can limit air circulation on hot days and increase the landscape’s humidity by decreasing the amount of available sunlight. The lower a tree’s branches are to the ground, the more it contributes to an airless space (http:www.<epublic/pages/publicationD.jsp?publicationId=201>). Variations on the activities of the tree in order to adapt to the existing sunlight amount caused the wide range of temperature values observed in this specific location.
The scatterplot shows that the average temperatures of the study locations and the number of animals observed on those locations have no significant relationship with one another as proven by a high P value (0.135). Also, the two variables have a weak positive relationship as shown by a positive R value (0.377). These observations mean that although the two variables have no significant relationship, it should still be noted that they have a positive and direct relationship, which means that as the average temperatures of the study locations increases, so does the number of animals observed on those locations and vice versa.
The abovementioned observations can be explained by the fact that animals’ survival is greatly affected by any change in their surrounding environment’s temperature. According to Liebig’s Law of the Minimum, “population growth will be limited by the required factor that is in shortest supply” (http://www.utm.edu/departments/cens/biology/rirwin/441_442/441PhysEc.htm).
The factor in shortest supply can be called as the limiting factor which determines the abundance or lack of a certain number of animals and other organisms and it can either be an abiotic of biotic factor. In this experiment, we regarded the temperature as the main abiotic factor under observation. Different animals have different tolerance levels for different factors affecting their survival.
For temperature, “eurythermals” have wide range of tolerance for temperatures while “stenothermal” refers to those who have narrow tolerance for temperature. These mean that if a certain organism or group of organism cannot adapt to an environment with limiting factors that are necessary for their survival, or they cannot tolerate any drastic increase or decrease in temperature, they may be unable to reproduce or worse, die.
Another explanation for this event is the ability of animal for thermoregulation. “Thermoregulation is the ability of an organism to keep its body temperature within certain boundaries, even when temperature surrounding is very different” (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Thermoregulation). It one process of homeostasis which is a vigorous condition of constancy between an animal’s internal and external environments.
In relation to this, there are two conditions that can happen to an organism when it cannot regulate its internal and external environments and maintain its normal temperature. One is hyperthermia, this can happen when an organism’s body temperature significantly increases above normal. On the other hand, it’s opposite is known as hypothermia wherein the body temperature decreases below the normal level. When an organism suffers any of these two conditions, it can be very fatal.
These concepts only prove that the average temperatures of the study area and the number of animals found in each observed area have a direct relationship with one another. And these can happen either during the hot day or cold day but may have different manifestations depending on the kind of organism and how it adapts to the changes in its environment.
Animals tend to prefer microclimates that show very little variation in temperature because it will be of great cost to them if they always have to regulate their body temperatures in order to adapt to their environment. And in vice versa, it will be of great help to them if they do not need to do this anymore because they will save up their energy for other metabolic processes such as reproduction or food storage and consumption.
Lecture: Physiological Ecology. Retrieved November 8, 2006, from  http://www.utm.edu/departments/cens/biology/rirwin/441_442/441PhysEc.htm
Mackintoch, L. Answers to Questions. Retrieved November 8, 2006, from  http://www.niwascience.co.nz/edu/resources/climate/plots/
Streich A., Janssen D., Gaussoin R.,
and Rodie S. (2003, July). Landscapes for Shade. Retrieved November 8, 2006
Sunlight’s Effect on Air Temperature. Retrieved November 8, 2006 from http://science.howstuffworks.com/question651.htm
Thermoregulation.  Retrieved November 8, 2006 from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Thermoregulation

Lyle Alzado View of Steroid Use

Also I was undersized compared to the other players. After graduation no colleges gave me scholarships for playing football. Being undersized and playing averagely I wasn’t the best athlete. I tried out for the Kilgore Junior College’s football team in nineteen sixty four, but they told me that I wasn’t good enough to play for them. I was finally accepted to Yankton College in South Dakota; I started taking steroids to play football better after being accepted, in order to play better and to insure my place on their football team.
In nineteen seventy one I was the Denver Broncos fourth draft pick. I was a defensive lineman the same as in high school. I became a formidable player by the end of my rookie year. I outran, outwit, authenticated everybody. All along I was taking steroids and I saw that they made me play better and better. In nineteen seventy seven, I was named the Oaf’s defensive player of the year and the defensive lineman of the year. I went from being and average player in high school, to being a feared professional football player in Just a few years.
I was so wild about winning, it’s all I cared about, I never talked about anything else, and steroids helped me keep on winning. In nineteen eighty four, I retired from football due to an injury to my Achilles tendon, which I believe was cause by my steroid use. I tried to make a comeback in nineteen ninety with the Raiders but I immediately had a knee injury that prevented me from playing. By the end of my football career I was name all-pro twice and had a total of ninety seven sacks In one hundred ninety six games. I had done well for someone who had no hope In high school of playing professional oddball.

All during my college and professional football career I was taking steroids. I spent around thirty thousand dollars a year on steroids. All the time on the field I was fierce, mean, and determined to win, but off the field I had a hard time turning these emotions off. One of my teammates described me as have a split personality, “on the field he projected a tough image,” He said. But off the field I was like a gentle giant. When the game was over, I would be plagued with mood swings from the steroids; I could keep a good relationship with people.
I was married four times over the course of my football career. Once a man sideswiped my car in Denver and I followed him home and beat him up In his front yard. I couldn’t control my anger. I abused my second wife so much that she called the police five times on me during the course of our marriage. In March of nineteen ninety one, during my wedding to my fourth wife Kathy, I had a hard time keeping my balance while walking. A month later I was diagnosed with a chemotherapy treatment, in an attempt to cure the brain tumor.
I died over a year after being diagnosed in my home in Portland, Oregon. I told Sports Illustrated before my death that I had started taking steroids in nineteen sixty nine and never stooped. I wanted to tell others to stop taking steroids. It wasn’t worth it to me, steroids caused me to become detached from my friends and family, I couldn’t keep a good relationship due to the mood swings caused by my steroid use. Ultimately my death was caused by steroids, they had made my appear strong on the outside while they wrecked my mind and body.

Herman Miller

HERMAN MILLER 1. Describe Herman Miller’s strategy. Is there evidence it has produced a competitive advantage and good financial performance? Explain. They focus on a growth strategy, through innovative products and production processes. Reinvention and renewal. They survived the Great Depression and multiple recessions, recovered from the dot-com bust and were able to continue expanding overseas. They adapted to save the company, by introducing new designs.
In 1996, Herman Miller began an aggressive drive to reinvent its operations and established a fruitful relationship with the Toyota Supplier Support Center. Unique to the office furniture industry, the relationship enabled the company to adopt and implement world-class, lean manufacturing processes based on the Toyota Production System principles. Through the Herman Miller Production System (HMPS), the company dramatically reduced manufacturing square footage and inventories, cut lead times for standard product from 8 weeks to as little as 10 days, and significantly grew sales and profitability.
Another component of the HMPS lean initiative focuses on the company’s people and their development, complementing Herman Miller’s long history of employee participation. Herman Miller believes its success in achieving operational excellence depends on the motivation and thinking of its people to solve problems and drive improvement. -They focus more on high quality products that is why they were not dramatically hit by competition from overseas, also because they were already in some of these markets.

They’re manufacturing strategy limited fixed production costs by outsourcing component parts from strategic suppliers, which increased variable nature of its cost structure, which is their competitive advantage, which is reflected in their financial performance, from 2006-2010 their gross profit margin remained relatively constant. Top to bottom it works/ demonstrate their business in their own office. All employees are cross trained. Flexible manufacturing where a production line can do multiple jobs Both differentiation and low cost provider increase their margins . How have the company’s values shaped its strategy and approach to strategy execution? Provide illustrations of how these values are reflected in company policies. They treat all workers as individuals with special talent and potential. They respect all employees, which fuelled the quest to tap the diversity of gifts and skills held by all, in an environment where people felt comfortable taking risks. In 1950, developed a Scanlon Plan (productivity incentive plan), which reflects values, equity and justice for everyone in the company.
Employees felt empowered a new manager took his safety glasses off and an employee yelled at him to put his safety glasses back on. The company’s beliefs were also reinforced through the employee gift committee and environment quality action team, which distributed funds and other resources based on employee involvement. They became a responsible corporate citizen through minimizing their waste which was both environmentally friendly and cost-effective. Shared gains and pains. Top executives took 10% pay cuts consecutively to avoid letting staff go, received less than competing firms top executives, which shows their commitment to the “team”.
They have committees for sharing ideas on improvements and how to increase profitability. Even through project purple, one out 1000 companies would do that, increasing spending for the sake of tomorrow while cutting back to survive today, they worked as a team for a common goal, leadership and decision making was shared within the team and across the organization. Their values carried over to all functional areas of business. 3. What is your evaluation of HMI’s financial performance? How does its performance compare to prior years? the competition?
Their financial performance is not bad, considering they were able to recover from many recessions. From 2006-2010 their gross profit margin remained relatively constant, however during hard times when sales dropped by 19% in 08 and 09 current liabilities were a little higher than usual and net profit margins began falling from 7. 6% to 4. 17% and 2. 15% in 2010. Which the whole industry took a hit with external trends on the rise: telecommuting which decreased the need for office equipment for all employees, increase toward ergonomically correct office furniture, competition from overseas cost of raw materials.
Revenues are falling 4. Until 2003, HMI offered lifelong employment. How did this practice affect the company’s ability to staff the organization with managers and employees capable of executing the strategy? How did this practice build the organizational capabilities required for successful strategy execution? It enabled them to hire people that had talents and skills that match the needs and wants of the commercial enterprise, they redesigned benefit plans to be more portable, to decrease the cost of changing jobs for employees whose gifts and talents no longer matched customer needs.
Its bundled capabilities are yielding a sustainable competitive advantage, by retaining employees. 5. Do non-monetary incentives facilitate strategy execution at HMI? Explain. Yes, it becomes engrained in the employees, part of their values and beliefs. The concierge services’ goal is to provide employees with assistance and help to be successful balancing responsibilities—at work and home. 6. Describe the culture at HMI. Would you characterize HMI’s culture as healthy and largely supportive of good strategy execution? Explain. Yes as, Herman Miller instituted a formal program of participative management.
An organization of employee-owners, the company is committed to problem-solving design, uncompromising quality, and customer satisfaction. Herman Miller instituted an employee stock ownership program in 1983. To aid the decision-making process, Herman Miller uses a performance indicator, measurement, and compensation system called “Economic Value Added”. EVA is an internal measurement of operating and financial performance that is linked to incentive compensation for all employee-owners, allowing the company to shift its focus from budget performance to long-term continuous improvements and the creation of economic value.
The result is a highly motivated and business literate workforce that challenges convention and strives to create increasingly greater value for both customers and owners. Every month the company and all employees review performance in terms of EVA, which has proven to be a strong corollary to shareholder value. The responsibility of employee ownership requires capable people to meet high expectations. Herman Miller believes that inclusiveness is critical to the company’s success—today and for the future. 7. What recommendations would you make to Herman Miller’s CEO Brian Walker to improve the company’s current financial performance?
Does the company need to radically alter its strategy because of poor economic conditions? Should it improve its approach to implementing the strategy to reduce costs and improve efficiency? Explain. I would recommend maintaining the current strategy of being the most innovative company, however reduce costs and improve efficiency as they did to weather the storm in the previous recession. Open new market by providing products at a lower cost same quality though and target schools hospital and nursing homes.


Assignment Overview
An awareness of the covered and noncovered services of Medicare is a critical area of understanding for health care managers. The program has grown and changed over time, refining who and what is included vs. excluded. The Case presents the opportunity to investigate these coverages, as well as the financing of Medicare. Specific reimbursement rules are in place that must be followed if funds are to be received for providing services. The level of Medicare reimbursement differs from what would be received from private insurance – but by how much – and how can this affect your bottom line?
Case Assignment
Using the information in the required readings, as well as some additional research in peer-reviewed sources, complete your Case assignment by answering the following:

Investigate the eligibility of the Medicare program; who can be covered?
How is the Medicare program financed? What specific operating rules must be followed to receive reimbursement funds?
How does the average Medicare reimbursement level specifically compare to the average reimbursement for private insurance? How can this difference affect the bottom line at your facility?

Assignment Expectations

Conduct additional research to gather sufficient information to support your analysis.
Provide a response of 3-5 pages, not including title page and references.
There are multiple required items to be addressed herein; please use subheadings to show where you are responding to each required item and to ensure that none are omitted.
Support your paper with peer-reviewed articles, with at least 3 references. Use the following link for additional information on how to recognize peer-reviewed journals:
Angelo State University Library. (n.d.). Library Guides: How to recognize peer-reviewed (refereed) journals. Retrieved from https://www.angelo.edu/services/library/handouts/peerrev.php
You may use the following source to assist in formatting your assignment:
Purdue Online Writing Lab. (n.d.). General APA guidelines. Retrieved from https://owl.english.purdue.edu/owl/resource/560/01/.
For additional information on reliability of sources, review the following source:
Georgetown University Library. (n.d.). Evaluating internet resources. Retrieved from https://www.library.georgetown.edu/tutorials/research-guides/evaluating-internet-content


Response 3

dentify the role you selected for yourself and the child age you selected. Explain at least two specific ways you would advise the child/adolescent who felt bullied on social media. Include talking points or specific actions that the child could take. Frame your approach within the research of peer relationships and social and emotional development. Explain how you would account for culture and gender in the approach you take.
For the purpose of this discussion, I have chosen to take on the role of a teacher and the youth will be a 12-year-old female.
Adolescent youth have an increased focus on peer relationships and worry about the acceptance from peers. One study found that many youths feel that bullying is a normal part of adolescence (Guerra, Williams, & Sadek, 2011). The same study found that females were more likely to engage in emotional bullying while males were more likely to engage in physical bullying and victimization (Guerra, Williams, & Sadek, 2011). 
To mitigate bullying, first and foremost, when the youth explains to me that she is being bullied, I’ll assess to make sure there are no immediate safety concerns. I would recommend that the youth talk with his or her parents and other potential adults that could assist the youth on being safe at home. I would encourage the youth to disengage from any contact with the offenders. I would have the child and family engage in any programs that are offered at the school or in the community that will help educate the youth and family more on identifying and reducing bullying. 
Guerra, N. G., Williams, K. R., & Sadek, S. (2011). Understanding bullying and victimization 
during childhood and adolescence: A mixed method study. Child Development, 82(1), 295–310.
US Dept of Health and Human Services. (2018). Prevention at School. Stopbullying.gov. 
Retrieved from 

case 3

“Strategic Risk Management at the LEGO Group: Integrating Strategy and Risk Management”  

SUMMARY: Summarize the case. Identify the main point (as in “What’s your point?”), thesis, or conclusion of this case. (5 points)
SUPPORT: Do significant research outside of the book and demonstrate that you have in a very obvious way. This refers to research beyond article itself. This involves something about the company/organization/individual or other interesting related area. Show something you have discovered from your own research. Be sure this is obvious and adds value beyond what is contained in the case itself. (10 points)
EVALUATION: Apply the concepts from the appropriate chapter. Hint: The appropriate chapter is the same number as your case. Be sure to use specific terms and models directly from the textbook in analyzing this case and include the page in the citation. (15 points)
QUESTIONS: Address all the case questions. Be sure to answer each question fully. (15 points)
SOURCES: Include citations on the slides and a reference slide with your sources. Use APA style citations and references. (5 points) 

Course paper thesis outline on mandatory sentencing and three strike rules

Course Paper Thesis, Outline, & Annotated Bibliography Instructions
Instructions: By the end of Module/Week 3, develop a thesis statement, outline, and annotated bibliography for your Course Paper based on the guidelines in the Module/Week 3 presentation. Submit the thesis statement, outline, and annotated bibliography in ONE Word document using the template below (including the cover page).
Assignment Goals: Plan your Course Paper by clearly stating your main point, structuring your supporting reasons and evidence, and evaluating your scholarly sources. Doing so will prepare you to draft your Course Paper, which must be submitted by the end of Module/Week 5 of GRST 501 to your GRST instructor and the Online Writing Center. Next, you must submit a final, improved revision of your Course Paper based on the feedback from these two sources. You will pass the Course Paper Revision assignment if your revised draft earns a 3 or higher in each category of the Course Paper Rubric. Planning out your paper will make the drafting step easier.
Specific Requirements: Your thesis statement may not refer to yourself, your paper, or your readers. Simply state the point that your paper will argue or demonstrate. Your outline must have an introduction that includes your thesis statement, two or more supporting main points with at least two pieces of evidence (statistics, data, or source quotes) for each of those points, and a conclusion that sums up the main supporting points and restates your thesis. Your annotated bibliography must include a citation, a summary, an analysis, and the relevance of at least four scholarly sources. Please scroll down and see the template below for more details and use it as the basis for this assignment submission.

*Note: You must submit your completed draft to your GRST instructor and to the Online Writing Center (due Module/Week 5). You must show your GRST instructor that you have received a full OWC review of your paper (due Module/Week 6). Then, you must make a final, improved revision of your paper to pass the course (due Module/Week 7). Your revised draft must earn a 3 or higher in each rubric category to pass the class. You might be pressed for time, so remember that though feedback from the OWC normally takes 48–72 hours, during Week 6, feedback often takes one week. This means that once you successfully submit your paper for a full review, you will receive it back within one week. Feedback from your GRST instructor also takes about a week. Therefore, your completed draft is due at least by Module/Week 5. To pass, plan to submit your draft before or during Module/Week 5 of this course.
Submit your thesis/outline/annotated bibliography in ONE Word document by 11:59 p.m. (ET) on Sunday of Module/Week 3. SCROLL DOWN for assignment cover page & template.
Title of the issue investigated:
Thesis Statement, Outline, & Annotated Bibliography
Your name here
Thesis Statement: Write your working thesis statement here. Follow the guidelines in the Module/Week 3 Presentation for how to write a good thesis statement and what to avoid in doing so.

Outline: Use or rearrange this structure for your outline and add to it or delete as necessary. Just be sure all its components are included, but you might choose to address opposing views under some or each of your supporting reasons instead—whatever would best persuade your readers. Every main point should have at least two supporting points or evidence (A & B) below it. Consult the presentation in Module/Week 3 for more outlining guidelines.

I. Introduction
A. Attention-grabbing opening sentences that motivate your readers to continue
B. Brief background of issue or controversy
C. Thesis statement

II. First Supporting Reason or Argument (backing up your thesis)
A. Statistic, data, quote or paraphrase from source
B. Statistic, data, quote or paraphrase from source

III. Second Supporting Reason or Argument (backing up your thesis) 
A. Statistic, data, quote or paraphrase from source
B. Statistic, data, quote or paraphrase from source

IV. Third Supporting Reason or Argument (backing up your thesis) 
A. Statistic, data, quote or paraphrase from source
B. Statistic, data, quote or paraphrase from source

V. Opposing Viewpoints
A. Statistics, data, quotes or paraphrases from sources
B. Acknowledgement of strengths of opposing views
C. Analysis of weaknesses of opposing views

VI. Conclusion
A. Summarize main supporting points
B. Restate thesis in strong and unique way
Annotated Bibliography: As mentioned in the Module/Week 3 presentation, a good annotated bibliography should include the citations for each source (at least four) you plan to cite in your paper (all should be credible, scholarly sources), a 1-2 sentence summary of the source, a 1-2 sentence evaluation of the source (accuracy, recency, bias, reliability, etc.), and how the source is relevant to your paper (what point would it help support or opposing views does it reveal?). See pp. 3-4 of the Online Writing Center’s annotated bibliography resource as an example of how to structure your bibliography, though be sure to use your discipline’s own citation style. No abstract needed prior to your annotations.

Soil Mechanics by Jerry Vandevelde

SOIL MECHANICS (version Fall 2008) Presented by: Jerry Vandevelde, P. E. Chief Engineer GEM Engineering, Inc. 1762 Watterson Trail Louisville, Kentucky (502) 493-7100 1 National Council of Examiners for Engineering and Surveying http://www. ncees. org/ 2 STUDY REFERENCES • Foundation Engineering; Peck Hanson & Thornburn •Introductory Soil Mechanics and Foundations; Sowers •NAVFAC Design Manuals DM-7. 1 & 7. 2 •Foundation Analysis and Design; Bowles •Practical Foundation Engineering Handbook; Brown 3 Soil Classification Systems * Unified Soil Classification System * AASHTO Need: Particle Sizes and Atterberg Limits 4
Particle Sizes (Sieve Analysis) (Well Graded) (Poorly Graded) 0. 1 5 Atterberg Limits Liquid, Plastic & Shrinkage Limits Plasticity Index (PI) PI = Liquid Limit – Plastic Limit (range of moisture content over which soil is plastic or malleable) 6 UNIFIED SOIL CLASSIFICATION SYSTEM ASTM D-2487 7 8 Ref: Peck Hanson & Thornburn 2nd Ed. Effective Size = D10 10 percent of the sample is finer than this size D60 = 1. 6mm D30 = 0. 2mm D10 = 0. 03mm 0. 1 0. 1 9 Uniformity Coefficient (Cu) = D60/D10 Coefficient of Curvature (Cz) = (D30)2/(D10xD60) D60 = 1. 6mm D30 = 0. 2mm D10 = 0. 03mm 0. 1 10 Well Graded – Requirements 50% coarser than No. 00 sieve Uniformity Coefficient (Cu) D60/D10 >4 for Gravel > 6 for Sand Coefficient of Curvature (Cz) = (D30)2/(D10xD60) = 1 to 3 11 Is the better graded material a gravel? 81% Passing No. 4 18% Finer No. 200 0. 1 0. 1 12 Gravel if > 50 Percent Coarse Fraction retained on No. 4 sieve % Retained on No. 200 = 82% 1/2 = 41% 19% (100-81) retained on No. 4 sieve (gravel) 19< 41 half of coarse fraction 81% Passing No. 4 18% Finer No. 200 ? sand 0. 1 (“S”) 13 Well Graded Sand? Uniformity Coefficient (Cu) > 6 = D60/D10 Coefficient of Curvature (Cz) = 1 to 3 = (D30)2/(D10xD60) 14 D60 = 1. 6mm D30 = 0. 2mm D10 = 0. 3mm 0. 1 Well Graded Sand? Uniformity Coefficient (Cu) D60/D10 = 1. 6/. 03 = 53 > 6 D60 = 1. 6mm D30 = 0. 2mm D10 = 0. 03mm Coefficient of Curvature (Cz) = (D30)2/(D10xD60) = 0. 22/(. 03×1. 6) = 0. 83 12% Passing No. 200 sieve: GM, GC, SM, SC 0. 1 >12% passing No. 200 sieve Since = “S” ? SC or SM 16 What Unified Classification if LL= 45 & PI = 25? From sieve data SC or SM 0. 1 A) “SC” B) “SM” C) “CL” or D) “SC & SM” 17 Unified Classification Answer is “A” ? SC 18 AASHTO (American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials) 19 What is the AASHTO Classification? 65% Passing No. 10 40% Passing No. 0 18% Finer No. 200 1) 18 % passing No. 200 sieve 2) 65% passing No. 10 sieve 3) 40% passing No. 40 sieve 4) assume LL = 45 & PI = 25 20 18 percent passing No. 200 sieve; 65 percent passing No. 10 sieve 40 percent passing No. 40 sieve; assume LL = 45 & PI = 25 21 AASHTO Classification 1 2 3 4 4 1) 18 % passing No. 200 sieve 2) 65% passing No. 10 sieve 3) 40% passing No. 40 sieve 4) assume LL = 45 & PI = 25 22 AASHTO Group Index 23 Mass-Volume (Phase Diagram) • Unit volume of soil contains: Total Volume Va Air Total Vt Vv Vw Vs Water Ww Ws Weight Wt Soil – Air (gases) – Water (fluid) – Solid Particles 24 Moisture Content = ? eight of water/ weight of dry soil ? = Ww/Wd water loss/(moist soil weight – water loss) ? = Ww/(Wm-Ww) and ? =(Wm-Wd)/Wd 25 Mass – Volume Relationships Density or Unit Weight = Moist Unit Weight = ? m ? ?m = Wm/Vt = ? d + ? ?d ? = (? m – ? d )/ ? d ? ?d + ? d = ? m ? m= (1+ ? ) ? d ? d = ?m/(1+ ? ) b 26 Total Volume = ? Volume (solid + water + air) = Vs+Vw+Va ? Va = Vt – Vs- Vw Total Volume Va Air Total Vt Vv Vw Vs Water Ww Ws Weight Wt Soil 27 Relationship Between Mass & Volume Volume = Mass/(Specific Gravity x Unit Weight of Water) = Ws/(SGxWw) Va Total Volume Air Total Vt Vv Vw Vs Water Ww Ws Weight Wt Soil 28
Specific Gravity = weight of material/ weight of same volume of water Soil Specific Gravity Typical Range 2. 65 to 2. 70 Specific Gravity of Water = 1 29 Saturation = S expressed as percent S = volume of water/ volume of voids x 100 Total Volume Va Air Total S = Vw/Vv x 100 Ww Ws Weight Vt Vv Vw Vs Water Wt Soil Always ? 100 30 Porosity n = volume of voids/ total volume n = Vv/Vt Void Ratio e = volume of voids/ volume of solids e = Vv/Vs Total Volume Va Air Total Vt Vv Vw Vs Water Ww Ws Weight Wt Soil 31 What is the degree of saturation for a soil with: SG = 2. 68, ? m = 127. 2 pcf & ? = 18. 6 percent A) 88. 4 Total Volume Va

Air Total Vt Vv Vw Vs Water Ww Ws Weight B) 100. 0 Wt Soil C) 89. 1 32 What are the porosity and degree of saturation for a soil with: SG = 2. 68, ? m = 127. 2 pcf & ? = 18. 6 percent = 107. 3pcf ?d = ? m/(1+ ? ) = 127. 2/(1. 186) Total Volume Va Air Total Vt Vv Vw Vs Water Soil Ww Weight Wt Ws Ww = ? m- ? d = 19. 9 pcf Vw = Ww/62. 4 = 0. 319 cf Vs = ? d /(SGx62. 4) = 0. 642 cf Va = Vt – Vw – Vs = 1- 0. 319 – 0. 642 = 0. 039 cf Vv = Vw + Va = 0. 358 cf 33 What are the porosity and degree of saturation for a soil with: SG = 2. 68, ? m = 127. 2 pcf & ? = 18. 6 percent Vw = 0. 319 cf, Vs = 0. 642 cf, Vv = 0. 358 cf Total Volume
Va Air Total Degree of Saturation = Vw/Vv x 100 Ww Weight Wt Ws Vt Vv Vw Vs Water = 0. 319/0. 358 x 100 = 89. 1% Soil Answer is “C” 34 Ref: NAVFAC DM-7 35 Borrow Fill Adjustments Borrow Material Properties: ?m = 110 pcf & ? = 10% Placed Fill Properties: ? d = 105 pcf & ? = 20% How much borrow is needed to produce 30,000 cy of fill? How much water must be added or removed from each cf of fill? Total Volume Va Air Total Vt Vv Vw Vs Water Ww Ws Weight Wt Soil 36 Borrow Fill Adjustments Borrow Material Properties: ?m = 110 pcf & ? = 10% ?d = ? m /(1+? ) = 110/(1. 10) =100 pcf; Ww = 110-100=10 lbs Placed Fill Properties: ? = 105 pcf & ? = 20% Ww = ? x ? d = 0. 2x 105 = 21 lbs Total Volume Va Air Total Vt Vv Vw Vs Water Ww Ws Weight Wt Soil 37 Borrow Fill Adjustments Borrow Properties: ? m = 110 pcf, ? d =100 & ? = 10% Placed Fill Properties: ? d = 105 pcf & ? = 20% Since borrow ? d =100pcf & fill ? d =105pcf, 105/100 =1. 05 It takes 1. 05 cf of borrow to make 1. 0 cf of fill For 30,000 cy, 30,000 x 1. 05 = 31,500 cy of borrow Total Volume Va Air Total Vt Vv Vw Vs Water Ww Ws Weight Wt Soil 38 Borrow Fill Adjustments Borrow Material Properties: Ww = 10 lbs Placed Fill Properties: Ww = 21 lbs Water supplied from borrow in each cf of fill = 10 x 1. 5 = 10. 5 lbs; 21 lbs – 10. 5 = 10. 5 lbs short/1. 05 cf 10. 5lbs/1. 05 cy = 10 lbs of water to be added per cf borrow Total Volume Va Air Total Vt Vv Vw Vs Water Ww Ws Weight Wt Soil 39 Proctor: Moisture Density Relationships Establishes the unique relationship of moisture to dry density for each specific soil at a specified compaction energy MOISTURE-DENSITY RELATIONSHIP 108. 0 106. 0 104. 0 D ry D ensity (pcf) 102. 0 100. 0 98. 0 96. 0 94. 0 92. 0 90. 0 88. 0 8. 0 10. 0 12. 0 14. 0 16. 0 18. 0 20. 0 22. 0 24. 0 26. 0 28. 0 Moisture Content (%) 40 Proctor: Moisture Density Relationships • 4” mold 25 blows • 6” mold 56 blows Standard – 5. 5 lb hammer – dropped 12 in – 3 layers Standard: ASTM D-698 AASHTO T-99 Modified: ASTM D-1557 AASHTO T-150 • Modified – 10 lb hammer – dropped 18 in – 5 layers 41 PROCTOR COMPACTION TEST Maximum Dry Density – Highest density for that degree of compactive effort Optimum Moisture Content – Moisture content at which maximum dry density is achieved for 42 that compactive effort Proctor: Moisture Density Relationships MOISTURE-DENSITY RELATIONSHIP 108. 0 106. 0 104. 0 Dry Density (pcf) 102. 0 100. 0 98. 0 96. 0 94. 0 92. 0 90. 0 88. 0 8. 0 10. 0 12. 0 14. 0 16. 0 18. 0 20. 0 22. 0 24. 0 26. 0 28. 0 Moisture Content (%)
What density is required for 95% Compaction? What range of moisture would facilitate achieving 95% compaction? 43 Proctor: Moisture Density Relationships MOISTURE-DENSITY RELATIONSHIP 108. 0 106. 0 104. 0 Dry Density (pcf) 102. 0 100. 0 98. 0 96. 0 94. 0 92. 0 90. 0 88. 0 8. 0 10. 0 12. 0 14. 0 16. 0 18. 0 20. 0 22. 0 24. 0 26. 0 28. 0 Moisture Content (%) 104 x . 95 = 98. 8 pcf A 95% B Range of moisture is within the curve A to B (14 to 24 %) 44 Proctor: Zero Air Voids Line Relationship of density to moisture at saturation for constant specific gravity (SG) Can’t achieve fill in zone right of zero air voids line Z
MOISTURE-DENSITY RELATIONSHIP 108. 0 106. 0 104. 0 Dry Density (pcf) 102. 0 100. 0 98. 0 96. 0 94. 0 92. 0 90. 0 88. 0 8. 0 10. 0 12. 0 14. 0 16. 0 18. 0 20. 0 22. 0 24. 0 26. 0 28. 0 Moisture Content (%) 45 Proctor: Moisture Density Relationships MOISTURE-DENSITY RELATIONSHIP 108. 0 106. 0 104. 0 Dry Density (pcf) 102. 0 100. 0 98. 0 96. 0 94. 0 92. 0 90. 0 88. 0 8. 0 10. 0 12. 0 14. 0 16. 0 18. 0 20. 0 22. 0 24. 0 26. 0 28. 0 Moisture Content (%) If SG = 2. 65 & moisture content is 24% What dry density achieves 100% saturation? A) 100. 0 pcf B) 101. 1 pcf 46 Proctor: Moisture Density Relationships
MOISTURE-DENSITY RELATIONSHIP 108. 0 106. 0 104. 0 Dry Density (pcf) 102. 0 100. 0 98. 0 96. 0 94. 0 92. 0 90. 0 88. 0 8. 0 10. 0 12. 0 14. 0 16. 0 18. 0 20. 0 22. 0 24. 0 26. 0 28. 0 Moisture Content (%) X ?d=SG62. 4/(1+? SG/100) ? d=2. 65×62. 4/(1+24×2. 65/100) ? d=101. 1 pcf Answer is “B” 47 Ref: Peck Hanson & Thornburn Static Head 48 Calculate effective stress at point x Ref: Peck Hanson & Thornburn Saturated Unit Weight ? sat 5’ ? sat = 125 pcf Moist Unit Weight ? M Dry Unit Weight ? Dry 7’ Submerged (buoyant) Unit Weight = ? sat – 62. 4 x 49 Calculate effective stress at point x Ref: Peck Hanson & Thornburn
Total Stress at X 5’ ? sat = 125 pcf = 5 x 62. 4+ 7x 125= 1187psf Pore Pressure at X 7’ = 12 x 62. 4 = 749 psf Effective Stress at X = 1187-749= 438 psf x or (125-62. 4) x 7=438 psf 50 Ref: Peck Hanson & Thornburn Downward Flow Gradient 51 Downward Flow Gradient 3’ Total Stress at X = 5 x 62. 4+ 7x 125= 1187psf Pore Pressure at X ? sat = 125 pcf 7’ = (12-3) x 62. 4 = 562 psf Effective Stress at X = 1187-562 = 625 psf 5’ x or 438 + 3 x 62. 4 = 625psf see previous problem 52 Upward Flow Gradient Ref: Peck Hanson & Thornburn 53 One Dimensional Consolidation ?e/pn 54 Primary Phase Settlement (e log p) ? H = (H x ? )/(1+eo) eo ? H H 55 Consolidation Test Pre-consolidation Pressure Cc = slope of e log p virgin curve est. Cc = 0. 009(LL-10%) Skempton Rebound or recompression curves 56 56 e- l o g p Calculate Compression Index; Cc 1. 50 1. 40 1. 30 Void Ratio (e) 1. 20 1. 10 ksf 0. 1 1 4 8 16 32 (e) 1. 404 1. 404 1. 375 1. 227 1. 08 0. 932 1. 00 0. 90 A) 0. 21 B) 0. 49 57 0. 80 0. 1 1 10 100 Pr essur e ( ksf ) Cc is the slope of the virgin e-log p e- l o g p Cc = -(e1-e2)/log (p1/p2) 1. 50 Cc=-(1. 375-1. 227)/log(4/8) Cc = 0. 49 Answer is “B” ksf 0. 1 1 4 8 16 32 (e) 1. 404 1. 404 1. 375 1. 227 1. 08 0. 932 1. 40 Cc Void Ratio (e) . 30 1. 20 1. 10 1. 00 0. 90 0. 80 0. 1 1 10 100 Pr essur e ( ksf ) 58 Permeability Constant Head Conditions • Q=kiAt • Q= k (h/L)At • k=QL/(Ath) 59 If Q =15cc & t = 30 sec what is the permeability k=QL/(Ath) 10cm 5cm A) 0. 01 cm/sec B) 0. 01×10-2 cm/sec 25cm2 C) 0. 1 cm/sec 60 Constant Head Permeability Calculate k Q =15cc & t = 30 sec • k=QL/(Ath) • k= 15(5)/(25(30)10) • k= 0. 01 cm/sec Answer is “A” 10cm 5cm 25cm2 61 Falling Head Permeability • k=QL/(Ath) (but h varies) • k=2. 3aL/(At) log (h1/h2) • where a = pipette area • h1 = initial head • h2 = final head 62 If t = 30 sec; h1= 30 cm; h2 = 15 cm L= 5 cm; a= 0. cm2; A= 30 cm2; calculate k A) 2. 3×10-3 cm/sec B) 8. 1×10-6 cm/sec C) 7. 7×10-4 cm/sec 63 Falling Head Permeability k=2. 3aL/(At) log (h1/h2) k= 2. 3 (0. 2) 5 /(30×30) log (30/15) k= 7. 7×10-4 cm/sec Answer is “C” 64 •Flow lines & head drop lines must intersect at right angles •All areas must be square •Draw minimum number of lines •Results depend on ratio of Nf/Nd Flow Nets 6ft 2ft 65 Q=kia=kHNf /Nd wt (units = volume/time) w= unit width of section t=time Flow Nets 6ft 66 What flow/day? assume k= 1×10-5 cm/sec =0. 0283 ft/day Q= kH (Nf /Nd) wt Q= 0. 0283x8x(4. 4/8)x1x1 Q= 0. 12 cf/day 2ft Flow Nets ft 67 Check for “quick conditions” pc =2(120)= 240 psf (total stress) Flow Nets Below water level use saturated unit weight for total stress ?= 2(62. 4) = 124. 8 (static pressure) ?? = 1/8(8)(62. 4)= 62. 4 (flow gradient) = 240-(124. 8+62. 4) 2ft 2ft 6ft p’c = pc -(? + ?? ) p’c = 52. 8 psf >0, soil is not quick ?sat=120 pcf 68 Stress Change Influence (1H:2V) For square footing ?? z=Q/(B+z)2 69 If Q= 20 kips, Calculate the vertical stress increase at 7 feet below the footing bottom 5’ 8’ 7’ 70 If Q= 20 kips, Calculate the vertical stress increase at 7 feet below the footing bottom 5’ 8’ ?? z = 0000 (8+7)(5+7) 7’ ?? z = 111 psf 71 Westergaard (layered elastic & inelastic material) If B= 6. 3’ in a square footing with 20 kips load, what is the vertical stress increase at 7’ below the footing bottom? 72 Westergaard Q = 20 kips B = 6. 3’ Z = 7’ ?? z = ? 73 Westergaard 7’/6. 3’ = 1. 1B ?? z = 0. 18 x 20000/6. 32 = 90. 7 psf 74 Boussinesq (homogeneous elastic) Q = 20 kips B = 6. 3’ Z = 7’ ?? z = ? 75 Boussinesq Z/B = 1. 1 ?? z = 0. 3 x 20000/6. 32 = 151 psf 76 Thanks for participating in the PE review course on Soil Mechanics! More questions or comments? You can email me at: [email protected] com 77